Reduplication is used in inflections to convey a grammatical function, such as plurality, intensification, etc., and in lexical derivation to create new words. It is often used when a speaker adopts a tone more "expressive" or figurative than ordinary speech and is also often, but not exclusively, iconic in meaning. Reduplication is found in a wide range of languages and language groups, though its level of linguistic productivity varies.
Reduplication is the standard term for this phenomenon in the linguistics literature. Other terms that are occasionally used include cloning, doubling, duplication, repetition, and tautonym when it is used in biological taxonomies, such as "Bison bison".
The origin of this usage of tautonym is uncertain, but it has been suggested that it is of relatively recent derivation.
Reduplication is often described phonologically in one of two different ways: either (1) as reduplicated segments (sequences of consonants/vowels) or (2) as reduplicated prosodic units (syllables or moras). In addition to phonological description, reduplication often needs to be described morphologically as a reduplication of linguistic constituents (i.e. words, stems, roots). As a result, reduplication is interesting theoretically as it involves the interface between phonology and morphology.
The base is the word (or part of the word) that is to be copied. The reduplicated element is called the reduplicant, often abbreviated as RED or sometimes just R.
In reduplication, the reduplicant is most often repeated only once. However, in some languages, reduplication can occur more than once, resulting in a tripled form, and not a duple as in most reduplication. Triplication is the term for this phenomenon of copying two times.Pingelapese has both reduplication and triplication:
|k?ul 'to sing'||k?uk?ul 'singing'||k?uk?uk?ul 'still singing'|
|mejr 'to sleep'||mejmejr 'sleeping'||mejmejmejr 'still sleeping'|
Sometimes gemination (i.e. the doubling of consonants or vowels) is considered to be a form of reduplication. The term dupleme has been used (after morpheme) to refer to different types of reduplication that have the same meaning.
|[?in]||'ourselves'||->||[?in?in]||'we (to) us'||(?in-?in)|
|[ja:]||'themselves'||->||[ja:ja:]||'they (to) them'||(ja:-ja:)||(Watters 2002)|
|[k'?]||'to capsize'||->||[k'?k']||'likely to capsize'||(k'?-k')|
|[q?él]||'to speak'||->||[q?élq?el]||'talkative'||(q?él-q?el)||(Shaw 2004)|
Partial reduplication involves a reduplication of only part of the word. For example, Marshallese forms words meaning 'to wear X' by reduplicating the last consonant-vowel-consonant (CVC) sequence of a base, i.e. base+CVC:
|kagir||'belt'||->||kagirgir||'to wear a belt'||(kagir-gir)|
|takin||'sock'||->||takinkin||'to wear socks'||(takin-kin)||(Moravsik 1978)|
Many languages often use both full and partial reduplication, as in the Motu example below:
|Base verb||Full reduplication||Partial reduplication|
|mahuta 'to sleep'||mahutamahuta 'to sleep constantly'||mamahuta 'to sleep (plural)'|
Initial reduplication in Agta (CV- prefix):
|[?a?aj]||'a long time'||->||[?a?a?aj]||'a long time (in years)'||(?a-?a?aj)||(Healey 1960)|
Final reduplication in Dakota (-CCV suffix):
|[hãska]||'tall (singular)'||->||[hãskaska]||'tall (plural)'||(hãska-ska)|
|[wa?te]||'good (singular)'||->||[wa?te?te]||'good (plural)'||(wa?te-?te)||(Shaw 1980, Marantz 1982, Albright 2002)|
Internal reduplication in Samoan (-CV- infix):
|savali||'he/she walks' (singular)||->||savavali||'they walk' (plural)||(sa-va-vali)|
|alofa||'he/she loves' (singular)||->||alolofa||'they love' (plural)||(a-lo-lofa)||(Moravcsik 1978, Broselow and McCarthy 1984)|
|le tamaloa||'the man' (singular)||->||tamaloloa||'men' (plural)||(tama-lo-loa)|
Internal reduplication is much less common than the initial and final types.
A reduplicant can copy from either the left edge of a word (left-to-right copying) or from the right edge (right-to-left copying). There is a tendency for prefixing reduplicants to copy left-to-right and for suffixing reduplicants to copy right-to-left:
Final R -> L copying in Sirionó:
|ñimbuchao||->||ñimbuchaochao||'to come apart'||(ñimbuchao-chao)||(McCarthy and Prince 1996)|
Copying from the other direction is possible although less common:
Initial R -> L copying in Tillamook:
|[t?q]||'break'||->||[qt?q]||'they break'||(q-t?q)||(Reichard 1959)|
Final L -> R copying in Chukchi:
|nute-||'ground'||->||nutenut||'ground (abs. sg.)'||(nute-nut)|
|jil?e-||'gopher'||->||jil?ejil||'gopher (abs. sg.)'||(jil?e-jil)||(Marantz 1982)|
Internal reduplication can also involve copying the beginning or end of the base. In Quileute, the first consonant of the base is copied and inserted after the first vowel of the base.
Internal L -> R copying in Quileute:
|[tsiko]||'he put it on'||->||[tsitsko]||'he put it on (frequentative)'||(tsi-ts-ko)|
|[tuko:jo?]||'snow'||->||[tutko:jo?]||'snow here and there'||(tu-t-ko:jo')||(Broselow and McCarthy 1984)|
In Temiar, the last consonant of the root is copied and inserted before the medial consonant of the root.
|[sluh]||'to shoot (perfective)'||->||[shluh]||'to shoot (continuative)'||(s-h-luh)|
|[sl]||'to marry (perfective)'||->||[s?l]||'to marry (continuative)'||(s-?-l??)||(Broselow and McCarthy 1984, Walther 2000)|
A rare type of reduplication is found in Semai (an Austroasiatic language of Malaysia). "Expressive minor reduplication" is formed with an initial reduplicant that copies the first and last segment of the base:
|[dh]||->||[dhdh]||'appearance of nodding constantly'||(dh-dh)|
|[cruha:w]||->||[cwcruha:w]||'monsoon rain'||(cw-cruha:w)||(Diffloth 1973|
All of the examples above consist of only reduplication. However, reduplication often occurs with other phonological and morphological process, such as deletion, affixation of non-reduplicating material, etc.
For instance, in Tz'utujil a new '-ish' adjective form is derived from other words by suffixing the reduplicated first consonant of the base followed by the segment [o?]. This can be written succinctly as -Co?. Below are some examples:
Somali has a similar suffix that is used in forming the plural of some nouns: -aC (where C is the last consonant of the base):
This combination of reduplication and affixation is commonly referred to as fixed-segment reduplication.
Sometimes gemination can be analyzed as a type of reduplication.
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In the Malayo-Polynesian family, reduplication is used to form plurals (among many other functions):
In pre-1972 Indonesian and Malay orthography, 2 was shorthand for the reduplication that forms plurals: orang "person", orang-orang or orang2 "people". This orthography has resurfaced widely in text messaging and other forms of electronic communication.
Chinese also uses reduplication: ? rén for "person", rénrén for "everybody". Japanese does it too: ? toki "time", tokidoki "sometimes, from time to time". Both languages can use a special written iteration mark ? to indicate reduplication, although in Chinese the iteration mark is no longer used in standard writing and is often found only in calligraphy.
Those forms do not survive in Modern English but existed in its parent Germanic languages. Many verbs in the Indo-European languages exhibit reduplication in the present stem, rather than the perfect stem, often with a different vowel from that used for the perfect: Latin gigno, genui ("I beget, I begat") and Greek , , (I place, I placed, I have placed). Other Indo-European verbs used reduplication as a derivational process: compare Latin sto ("I stand") and sisto ("I remain"). All of those Indo-European inherited reduplicating forms are subject to reduction by other phonological laws.
Reduplication can be used to refer to the most prototypical instance of a word's meaning. In such a case, it is called contrastive focus reduplication. Finnish colloquial speech uses the process; nouns can be reduplicated to indicate genuinity, completeness, originality and being uncomplicated, as opposed to being fake, incomplete, complicated or fussy. It can be thought as compound word formation. For example, Söin jäätelöä ja karkkia, sekä tietysti ruokaruokaa. "I ate ice cream and candy, and of course food-food". Here, "food-food" is contrasted to "junk-food". One may say, "En ollut eilen koulussa, koska olin kipeä. Siis kipeäkipeä" ("I wasn't at school yesterday because I was sick. Sick-sick, that is"); that means that one was actually suffering from an illness instead of making up excuses, as usual.
Words can be reduplicated with their case morphemes, as in lomalla lomalla, where the adessive morpheme (--lla) appears twice. While reduplication is intelligible to most Finns, its usage is confined mostly to subgroups of young women and children (and possibly fathers of young children when they talk to their children). However, most young women and children do not use reduplication. Reduplication has a somewhat childish connotation and may be perceived as annoying.
In Swiss German, the verbs gah or goh "go", cho "come", la or lo "let" and aafa or aafo "begin" reduplicate when they are combined with other verbs.
|literal translation:||she||comes||our||Christmas tree||come||adorn|
|translation||She comes to adorn our Christmas tree.|
|translation:||She doesn't let him sleep.|
In some Salishan languages, reduplication can mark both diminution and plurality, with one process being applied to each end of the word, as in the following example from Shuswap. Note that the transcriprion is not comparable to the IPA, but the reduplication of both initial and final portions of the root is clear: k!Em?''n 'knife' reduplicated as ?uk!?uk!Emen''me'n 'plural small knives' (Haeberlin 1918:159). Reduplication has been found to be a major part of Salish languages.
During the period 25-50 weeks after birth, all typically developing infants go through a stage of reduplicated or canonical babbling (Stark 198, Oller, 1980). Canonical babbling is characterized by repetition of identical or nearly identical consonant-vowel combinations, such as 'nanana' or 'didididi'. It appears as a progression of language development as infants experiment with their vocal apparatus and home in on the sounds used in their native language. Canonical/reduplicated babbling also appears at a time when general rhythmic behavior, such as rhythmic hand movements and rhythmic kicking, appear. Canonical babbling is distinguished from earlier syllabic and vocal play, which has less structure.
The Proto-Indo-European language used partial reduplication of a consonant and e in many stative aspect verb forms. The perfect or preterite (past) tense of some Ancient Greek,Gothic, and Latin verbs preserves this reduplication:
Proto-Indo-European also used reduplication for imperfective aspect. Ancient Greek preserves this reduplication in the present tense of some verbs. Usually, but not always, this is reduplication of a consonant and i, and contrasts with e-reduplication in the perfect:
Reduplication in nouns was rare, the best example being Proto-Indo-European *k?é-k?l-os 'wheel' (cf. Lithuanian kãklas 'neck', Sanskrit cakrá 'wheel'), which doubled *k?el-o- (cf. Old Prussian kelan 'wheel', Welsh pel 'ball'), itself likely a deverbative of *k?elh?- 'to turn'.
English has several types of reduplication, ranging from informal expressive vocabulary (the first four forms below) to grammatically meaningful forms (the last two below).
Only the last of the above types is productive, meaning that examples of the first three are fixed forms and new forms are not easily accepted.
The double copula is in some cases a type of reduplication, which may be regarded as non-standard or incorrect.
In addition to having some reduplicated presents and perfects, Latin uses reduplication for some indefinite relative pronouns, such as quisque "whoever" and ubiubi "wherever".
Latin jingles. There are also several complete two-word sentences such as: C?mam c?mam. "I shall tidy my hair."
While not common in Dutch, reduplication does exist. Most, but not all (e.g., pipi, blauwblauw (laten), taaitaai (gingerbread)) reduplications in Dutch are loanwords (e.g., koeskoes, bonbon, (ik hoorde het) via via) or imitative (e.g., tamtam, tomtom). Another example is a former safe sex campaign slogan in Flanders: Eerst bla-bla, dan boem-boem (First talk, then have sex; lit. First blah-blah, then boom-boom). In Dutch the verb "gaan" (to go) can be used as an auxiliary verb, which can lead to a triplication: we gaan (eens) gaan gaan (we are going to get going). The use of gaan as an auxiliary verb with itself is considered incorrect, but is commonly used in Flanders. Numerous examples of reduplication in Dutch (and other languages) are discussed by Daniëls (2000).
Afrikaans makes use of reduplication to emphasize the meaning of the word repeated and to denote a plural or event happening in more than one place. For example, krap means "to scratch one's self," while krap-krap-krap means "to scratch one's self vigorously", whereas "dit het plek-plek gereën", means "it rained here and there". Reduplication in Afrikaans has been described extensively in the literature - see for example Botha (1988), Van Huyssteen (2004) and Van Huyssteen & Wissing (2007). Further examples of this include: "koes" (to dodge) being reduplicated in the sentence "Piet hardloop koes-koes weg" (Piet is running away while constantly dodging / cringing); "sukkel" (to struggle) becoming "sukkel-sukkel" (making slow progress; struggling on); and "kierang" (to cheat) becoming "kierang-kierang" to indicate being cheated on repeatedly.
In Italian reduplication was used both to create new words or word associations (tran-tran, via via, leccalecca) and to intensify the meaning (piano piano "very slowly").
Common in Lingua Franca, particularly but not exclusively for onomatopoeic action descriptions: "Spagnoli venir...boum boum...andar; Inglis venir...boum boum bezef...andar; Francés venir...tru tru tru...chapar." ("The Spaniards came, cannonaded, and left. The English came, cannonaded heavily, and left. The French came, trumpeted on bugles, and captured it.")
Common uses for reduplication in French are the creation of hypocoristics for names, whereby Louise becomes Loulou, and Zinedine Zidane becomes Zizou; and in many nursery words, like dada 'horsie' (vs. cheval 'horse'), tati 'auntie' (vs. tante 'aunt'), or tonton 'unkie' (vs. oncle 'uncle').
In colloquial Mexican Spanish it is common to use reduplicated adverbs such as luego luego (after after) meaning "immediately", or casi casi (almost almost) which intensifies the meaning of 'almost'.
The reduplication in the Russian language serves for various kinds of intensifying of the meaning and exists in several forms: a hyphenated or repeated word (either exact or inflected reduplication), and forms similar to shm-reduplication.
Reduplication is a very common practice in Persian, to the extent that there are jokes about it. Mainly due to the mixed nature of the Persian language, most of the reduplication comes in the form of a phrase consisting of a Persian word -va- (Persian: = and) and an Arabic word, like "Taghdir-Maghdir" (?). Reduplication is particularly common in the city of Shiraz in southwestern Iran. One can further categorize the reduplicative words into "True" and "Quasi" ones. In true reduplicative words, both words are actually real words and have meaning in the language in which it is used. In quasi-reduplicative words, at least one of the words does not have a meaning. Some examples of true reduplicative words in Persian are: "Xert-o-Pert" ( = Odds and ends); "?ert-o-Pert" ( = Nonsense); "?arand-[o-]Parand" (?[?]? = Nonsense); "?b-o-T?b" (? = much detail). Among the quasi-reduplicative words are "Zan-[o-]man" ([?] = wife); "Da'v?-Ma'v?" ( = Argument); "Tal?-mal?" ( = jewelry); and "Raxt-o-Paxt" ( = Items of clothing). Reduplication in Persian is sometimes a mockery of words with non-Persian origins.
Typically all Indo-Aryan languages, like Hindi, Punjabi, Gujarati and Bengali use partial or echoic reduplication in some form or the other. It is usually used to sound casual, or in a suggestive manner. It is often used to mean etcetera. For example, in Hindi, chai-shai (chai means tea, while this phrase means tea or any other supplementary drink or tea along with snacks). Quite common in casual conversations are a few more examples like shopping-wopping, khana-wana. Reduplication is also used in Dravidian languages like Telugu for the same purpose. South Asian languages are also rich in other forms of reduplication: morphological (expressives), lexical (distributives), and phrasal (aspectual).
Reduplication also occurs in the 3th[clarification needed] ga?a (verb class) of the Sanskrit language: bibheti "he fears", bibharti "he bears", juhoti "he offers", dad?ti, "he gives". Even though the general idea is to reduplicate the verb root as a prefix, several sandhi rules change the final outcome.
A number of Nepalese nouns are formed by reduplication. As in other languages, the meaning is not that of a true plural, but collectives that refer to a set of the same or related objects, often in a particular situation.
For example, "rangi changi" describes an object that is extremely or vividly colorful, like a crazy mix of colors and/or patterns, perhaps dizzying to the eye. The phrase "hina mina" means "scattered," like a large collection of objects spilled (or scampering, as in small animals) in all different directions. The basic Nepalese word for food, "khana" becomes "khana sana" to refer to the broad generality of anything served at a meal. Likewise, "chiya" or tea (conventionally made with milk and sugar) becomes "chiya siya": tea and snacks (such as biscuits or cookies). (Please note, these examples of Nepalese words are spelled with a simplified Latin transliteration only, not as exact spellings.)
In Turkish there are two kinds of reduplication:
As described earlier, contrastive lexical reduplication is used in colloquial Finnish speech. Another type of reduplication occurs in Standard Finnish; reduplication as an intensifier. Common examples of this include suurensuuri (big-GEN big-NOM) literally "big of big(ness)", pienenpieni (small-GEN small-NOM) literally "small of small(ness)", hienonhieno (fine-GEN fine-NOM). The last example, literally "fine of fine(ness)," roughly means "very fine". Other adjectives may sometimes be duplicated as well, where a superlative is too strong an expression, somewhat similarly to Slavic languages. This construction can be ambiguous because of its use of a genitive noun followed by a nominative noun, which is not unique to reduplication. For instance the reduplicated form suurensuuri jalka (big foot of bigness) sounds the same as suuren suuri jalka (big foot of someone big).
Reduplication is usually rhyming. It can add emphasis: 'pici' (tiny) -> ici-pici (very tiny) and it can modify meaning: 'néha-néha' ('seldom-seldom': seldom but repeatedly), 'erre-arra' ('this way-that way', meaning movement without a definite direction), 'ezt-azt' ('this-that', meaning 'all sort of things'), Reduplication often evokes a sense of playfulness and it's quite common when talking to small children.
Popular names that have reduplication include
Semitic languages frequently reduplicate consonants, though often not the vowels that appear next to the consonants in some verb form. This can take the shape of reduplicating the antepenultimate consonant (usually the second of three),[clarification needed] the last of two consonants, or the last two consonants.
In the Hebrew, reduplication is used in nouns and adjectives. For stress, as in (le-aht le-aht) where the adverb 'slowly' - is duplicated to mean very slowly. In a new slang expression, (Gever Gever), the noun 'man' - is duplicated to mean a manly man, a man among man.
Meaning each and every, one by one, as in (yom yom) where the noun 'day' is duplicated to every day, day in day out, day by day.
Some nouns and adjectives can also be made into diminutives by reduplication of the last two consonants (biconsonantal reduplication), e.g.
Reduplication in Hebrew is also productive for the creation of verbs, by reduplicating the root or part of it e.g.:
dal () 'poor, spare' > dilel () 'to dilute' but also dildel (?) 'to impoverish, to weaken'; nad () 'to move, to nod' > nadad () 'to wander' but also nidned (?) 'to swing, to nag'.
In Amharic, verb roots can be reduplicated three different ways. These can result in verbs, nouns, or adjectives (which are often derived from verbs).
From the root sbr 'break', antepenultimate reduplication produces täsäbabbärä 'it was shattered' and biconsonantal reduplication produces täsbäräbbärä 'it was shattered repeatedly' and s?b?rbari 'a shard, a shattered piece'.
From the root kHb 'pile stones into a wall', since the second radical is not fully specified, what some call "hollow", the antepenultimate reduplication process reduplicates the k inserting the vowel a along with the consonant as a place holder for the hollow consonant, which is by some criteria antepenultimate, and produces akakabä 'pile stones repeatedly'.
In Burmese, reduplication is used in verbs and adjectives to form adverbs. Many Burmese words, especially adjectives such as ('beautiful' [l?a?pa?]), which consist of two syllables (when reduplicated, each syllable is reduplicated separately), when reduplicated ( -> 'beautifully' [l?a?l?a? pa?pa?]) become adverbs. This is also true of many Burmese verbs, which become adverbs when reduplicated.
Some nouns are also reduplicated to indicate plurality. For instance, ?, means "country," but when reduplicated to , it means "many countries" (as in ?, "international"). Another example is , which means "kinds," but the reduplicated form means "multiple kinds."
A few measure words can also be reduplicated to indicate "one or the other":
Adjective reduplication is common in Standard Chinese, typically denoting emphasis, less acute degree of the quality described, or an attempt at more indirect speech: xi?oxi?o de (small, tiny), chòuchòu de (smelly). Reduplication can also reflect a "cute", juvenile or informal register; in this respect, it can be compared to the English diminutive ending "-y" or "-ie" (tiny, smelly, "doggie", etc.)
In the case of adjectives composed of two characters (morphemes), generally each of the two characters is reduplicated separately: piàoliang (beautiful) reduplicates as piàopiàoliangliang ?.
Verb reduplication is also common in Standard Chinese, conveying the meaning of informal and temporary character of the action. It is often used in imperative expressions, in which it lessens the degree of imperativity: zuòzuò (sit (for a while)), d?ngd?ng (wait (for a while)). Compound verbs are reduplicated as a whole word: xi?xixi?xi ? (rest (for a while)). This can be analyzed as an instance of omission of "?" (originally, e.g., "" or "" ) or "" (originally, e.g., "").
Noun reduplication, though nearly absent in Standard Chinese, is found in the southwestern dialect of Mandarin. For instance, in Sichuan Mandarin, b?ob?o (handbag) is used whereas Beijing use b?or . One notable exception is the colloquial use of b?ob?o by non-Sichuanese speakers to denote a perceived fancy, attractive, or "cute" purse (somewhat equivalent to the English "baggie"). However, there are few nouns that can be reduplicated in Standard Chinese, and reduplication denotes generalisation and uniformity: rén ? (human being) and rénrén (everybody (in general, in common)), ji?ji?hùhù ? (every household (uniformly)) - in the latter ji? and hù additionally duplicate the meaning of household, which is a common way of creating compound words in Chinese.
A small number of native Japanese nouns have collective forms produced by reduplication (possibly with rendaku), such as hitobito "people" (h -> b is rendaku) - these are written with the iteration mark "?" to indicate duplication. This formation is not productive and is limited to a small set of nouns. Similarly to Standard Chinese, the meaning is not that of a true plural, but collectives that refer to a large, given set of the same object; for example, the formal English equivalent of would be "people" (collective), rather than "persons" (plural individuals).
Japanese also contains a large number of mimetic words formed by reduplication of a syllable. These words include not only onomatopoeia, but also words intended to invoke non-auditory senses or psychological states, such as ? kirakira (sparkling or shining). By one count, approximately 43% of Japanese mimetic words are formed by full reduplication, and many others are formed by partial reduplication, as in ? ga-sa-sa- (rustling) - compare English "a-ha-ha-ha".
Words called t? láy are found abundantly in Vietnamese. They are formed by repeating a part of a word to form new words, altering the meaning of the original word. Its effect is to sometimes either increase or decrease the intensity of the adjective, or to generalize a word's meaning. It is often used as a literary device (like alliteration) in poetry and other compositions but is also prevalent in everyday speech. In some cases, the word's tone may be reduplicated in addition to an initial or final sound (see tone sandhi).
Examples of reduplication increasing intensity:
Examples of reduplication decreasing intensity:
Examples of generalization:
Examples of blunt sounds or physical conditions:
Examples of emphasis without a change in meaning:
In colloquial speech, almost any arbitrary word can be reduplicated to express a dismissive attitude:
As seen above, disyllabic words undergo a complex transformation: <first syllable> <left edge of second syllable plus a vowel> <first syllable> <second syllable>.
Khmer uses reduplication for several purposes, including emphasis and pluralization. The Khmer script includes a reduplication sign, ?, indicating that the word or phrase preceding it is to be pronounced twice. Reduplication in Khmer, like many Mon-Khmer languages, can express complex thoughts. Khmer also uses a form of reduplication known as "synonym compounding", in which two phonologically distinct words with similar or identical meanings are combined, either to form the same term or to form a new term altogether.
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The wide use of reduplication is certainly one of the most prominent grammatical features of Malay (as well as of other South-East Asian and Austronesian languages).
In Malay language, reduplication is a very productive process. It is used for expression of various grammatical functions (such as verbal aspect) and it is part in a number of complex morphological models. Simple reduplication of nouns and pronouns can express at least three meanings:
Reduplication of an adjective can express different things:
Reduplication of a verb can express various things:
Notice that in the first case, the nasalisation of the initial consonant (whereby /p/ becomes /m/) is repeated, while in the second case, it only applies in the repeated word.
In Tagalog, an Austronesian language spoken in the Philippines, upon which the national language "Filipino" is based, reduplication is employed productively in multiple parts of speech. Reduplication of the root, prefix or infix is employed to convey different grammatical aspects in verbs. In "Mag- verbs" reduplication of the root after the prefix "mag-" or "nag-" changes the verb from the infinitive form, or perfective aspect, respectively, to the contemplated or imperfective aspect. Thus:
For Ergative verbs (frequently referred to as "object focus" verbs) reduplication of part the infix and the stem occur:
Adjectives and adverbs employ morphological reduplication for many different reasons such as plurality agreement when the adjective modifies a plural noun, intensification of the adjective or adverb, and sometimes because the prefix forces the adjective to have a reduplicated stem".
Agreement (optional, plurality, and agreement with a plural noun, is entirely optional in Tagalog (e.g. a plural noun does not have to have a plural article marking it":
The entire adjective is repeated for intensification of adjectives or adverbs:
The complete superlative prefix pagka- demands reduplication of the first syllable of the adjective's stem:
Reduplication of nouns happens in Tagalog, but is far less productive, and more sporadic. Examples of such nouns formed by reduplication are "halo-halo" "ice cream" (lit. "mix mix") and "tago-tago" "refugee or even illegal immigrant (lit. "latent-latent").
Pingelapese is a Micronesian language spoken on the Pingelap atoll and on two of the eastern Caroline Islands, called the high island of Pohnpei. Pingelapese utilizes both duplication and triplication of a verb or part of a verb to express that something is happening for certain duration of time. No reduplication means that something happens. A reduplicated verb means that something IS happening, and a triplication means that something is STILL happening. For example, saeng means 'to cry' in Pingelapese. When reduplicated and triplicated, the duration of this verb is changed:
Few languages employ triplication in their language. In Micronesia, Pingelapese is one of only two languages that uses triplication, the other being Mokilese. Reduplication and triplication are not to be confused with tense however. In order to make a phrase past, present, or future tense, a temporal phrase must be used.
Reduplication can convey a simple plural meaning, for instance wahine "woman", waahine "women", tangata "person", taangata "people". Biggs calls this "infixed reduplication". It occurs in a small subset of "people" words in most Polynesian languages.
Reduplication can convey emphasis or repetition, for example mate "die", matemate "die in numbers"; and de-emphasis, for example wera "hot" and werawera "warm".
Reduplication can also extend the meaning of a word; for instance paki "pat" becomes papaki "slap or clap once" and pakipaki "applaud"; kimo "blink" becomes kikimo "close eyes firmly"
Rapa is the French Polynesian language of the island of Rapa Iti. In terms of reduplication, the indigenous language known as Old Rapa uses reduplication consistent to other Polynesian languages. Reduplication of Old Rapa occurs in four ways: full, rightward, leftward, and medial. Full and rightward are generally more frequently used as opposed to the leftward and medial. Leftward and medial only occur as CV reduplication and partial leftward and medial usually denote emphasis.
Example of Reduplication Forms:
|Base Form||Reduplicated Form|
|Full Reduplication||kini 'pinch'
|kinikini 'pinch skin'
|Rightward Reduplication||m?ringi 'pour'
taka'uri 'go backward'
|m?ringiringi 'pour continuously'
taka'uri'uri 'roll back and forth'
p?t?t? 'splash (of raindrops)'
ngaruru 'sea sick'
|Leftward Reduplication||komo 'sleep'
|kokomo 'deep sleep'
kukume 'large, flat leaf seaweed'
|Medial Reduplication||maitaki 'good; well'||maitataki 'excellent; very well'|
For the Rapa Language the implementation of reduplication has specific implications. The most evident of these are known as iterative, intensification, specification, diminutive, metaphorical, nominalizing, and adjectival.
Metaphorical (typically comparing an animal action with a human action):
Verb roots can undergo whole or partial reduplication to mark aspect. Actions that are continuous are indicated by a reduplicated initial syllable. A whole reduplication can also be used to indicate imperfective aspect.
The onomatopoeia in Wuvulu language also uses reduplication to describe the sound. These onomatopoeic words can be used as alienable nouns.
The Mortlockese language is a Micronesian language spoken primarily on the Mortlock Islands. In the Mortlockese language, reduplication is used to show a habitual or imperfective aspect. For example, /jææjæ/ means "to use something" while the word /jæjjææjæ/ means "to use something habitually or repeatedly". Reduplication is also used in the Mortlockese Language to show extremity or extreme measures. One example of this can be seen in /?iimw alt?j/ which means "hate him, her, or it". To mean "really hate him, her, or it," the phrase changes to /?ii~mw al~mw alt?j/.
Reduplication is common in many Australian place names due to their Aboriginal origins. Some examples include Turramurra, Parramatta, Woolloomooloo. In the language of the Wiradjuri people of southeastern Australia, plurals are formed by doubling a word, hence 'Wagga' meaning crow becomes Wagga Wagga meaning 'place of many crows'. This occurs in other place names deriving from the Wiradjuri language including Gumly Gumly, Grong Grong and Book Book.