Religion In New Brunswick
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Religion in New Brunswick

New Brunswick is one of Canada's four Maritime provinces, and the only officially bilingual province (French and English) in the country. The provincial Department of Finance estimates that the province's population in 2006 was 729,997 of which the majority is English-speaking but with a substantial (32%) French-speaking minority of mostly Acadian origin.

First Nations in New Brunswick include the Mi'kmaq and Wolastoqiyik (Maliseet). The first European settlers, the Acadians, are descendants of survivors of the Expulsion (1755) which drove several thousand French residents into exile in North America, the UK and France for refusing to take an oath of allegiance to King George II during the French and Indian War. American Acadians, who wound up in Louisiana and other parts of the American South, are often referred to as Cajuns.

Many of the English-Canadian population of New Brunswick are descended from Loyalists who fled the American Revolution. This is commemorated in the province's motto, Spem reduxit ("hope was restored"). There is also a significant population with Irish ancestry, especially in Saint John and the Miramichi Valley. People of Scottish descent are scattered throughout the Province with higher concentrations in the Miramichi and in Campbellton. A small population of Danish origin may be found in New Denmark in the northwest of the province.

Population

City Metropolitan Areas

City 2011 2006 Land Area km² Density /km²
Greater Moncton 138,644 126,424 2,406.31 57.6
Greater Saint John 127,761 122,389 3,362.95 38.0
Greater Fredericton 94,268 85,688 4,886.40 19.3
Greater Bathurst 33,484 34,106 2,292.80 14.6
Greater Miramichi 28,115 28,773 7,578.30 3.7
Greater Edmundston 21,903 22,471 916.85 23.9
Greater Campbellton 17,842 17,878 1,629.94 10.9

Cities and towns

Town Population (2011) Population Ranking Land Area km² Area Ranking Density /km² Density Ranking
Bathurst 12,275 9 91.86 6 133.6 24
Beresford 4,351 20 19.20 17 226.6 18
Bouctouche 2,423 26 18.34 19 132.1 25
Campbellton 7,385 12 18.66 18 395.7 9
Caraquet 4,169 23 68.26 8 61.1 35
Dalhousie 3,512 24 14.51 23 242.1 17
Dieppe 23,310 4 54.11 11 430.8 6
Edmundston 16,032 8 107.00 5 149.8 23
Florenceville-Bristol 1,639 29 15.61 22 105.0 29
Fredericton 56,224 3 131.67 4 427.0 7
Grand Bay-Westfield 5,117 17 59.86 9 85.5 33
Grand Falls 5,706 14 18.05 20 315.9 13
Hampton 4,292 22 21.00 16 204.3 21
Hartland 947 35 9.63 30 98.4 31
Lamèque 1,432 31 12.45 28 115.1 27
Miramichi 17,811 7 179.93 2 99.0 30
McAdam 1,404 32 14.47 24 97.02 32
Moncton 69,074 2 141.17 3 489.3 2
Nackawic 1,049 34 8.40 32 124.9 26
Oromocto 8,932 11 22.37 15 399.2 8
Quispamsis 17,886 6 57.06 10 313.5 14
Richibucto 1,286 33 11.83 27 108.7 28
Riverview 19,128 5 33.88 13 564.6 1
Rothesay 11,947 10 34.77 12 343.6 12
Sackville 5,558 15 74.32 7 74.8 34
Saint Andrews 1,889 28 8.35 33 226.2 19
Saint John 70,063 1 315.82 1 221.8 20
Saint-Léonard 1,343 32 5.20 34 258.3 16
Saint-Quentin 2,095 27 4.30 35 486.7 3
Shediac 6,053 13 12.50 26 484.4 4
Shippagan 2,603 25 9.94 29 261.9 15
St. George 1,543 30 16.13 21 95.6 32
St. Stephen 4,817 19 13.45 24 358.0 11
Sussex 4,312 21 9.03 31 477.4 5
Tracadie-Sheila 4,933 18 24.65 14 200.1 22
Woodstock 5,254 16 13.41 25 391.7 10

Population of New Brunswick since 1851

Year Population Five Year
 % change
Ten Year
 % change
Rank Among
Provinces
1851 193,800 n/a n/a 4
1861 252,047 n/a 30.0 4
1871 285,594 n/a 13.3 4
1881 321,233 n/a 12.5 4
1891 321,263 n/a 0.0 4
1901 331,120 n/a 3.1 4
1911 351,889 n/a 6.3 8
1921 387,876 n/a 10.2 8
1931 408,219 n/a 5.2 8
1941 457,401 n/a 12.0 8
1951 515,697 n/a 12.7 8
1956 554,616 7.5 n/a 8
1961 597,936 7.8 15.9 8
1966 616,788 3.2 11.2 8
1971 634,560 2.9 6.9 8
1976 677,250 6.7 9.8 8
1981 696,403 2.8 9.7 8
1986 709,445 1.9 4.8 8
1991 723,900 2.0 3.9 8
1996 738,133 2.0 4.0 8
2001 729,498 -1.2 0.8 8
2006 729,997 0.1 -1.1 8
2011 751,171 2.9 3.0 8
2016 747,101 -0.5 2.3 8

Source: Statistics Canada [1][2]

Ethnic origin

Ethnic Origin Population Percent
English Canadian / Canadien 415,810 57.78%
French 193,470 26.8%
English 165,235 22.96%
Irish 135,835 18.87%
Scottish 127,635 17.73%
German 27,490 3.82%
Acadian 26,220 3.64%
First Nations 23,815 3.31%
Dutch (Netherlands) 13,355 1.86%
Welsh 7,620 1.06%
Italian 5,610 0.78%
Métis 4,955 0.69%
American (USA) 3,925 0.55%
Danish 3,390 0.47%


The information at the left is from Statistics Canada [3] Percentages add to more than 100% because of dual responses e.g. "Danish-Canadian" generates an entry in both the category "Danish" and the category "Canadian". Groups with more than 3,000 responses are included.

Visible minorities and Aboriginals

Visible minority and Aboriginal population (Canada 2006 Census)
Population group Population  % of total population
European Canadian 688,655 95.7%
Visible minority group
Source:[4]
South Asian 1,960 0.3%
Chinese Canadian 2,450 0.3%
Black Canadians 4,455 0.6%
Filipino 530 0.1%
Latin American 720 0.1%
Arab 840 0.1%
Southeast Asian 445 0.1%
West Asian 550 0.1%
Korean 625 0.1%
Japanese 170 0%
Visible minority, n.i.e. 150 0%
Multiple visible minority 455 0.1%
Total visible minority population 13,345 1.9%
Aboriginal group
Source:[5]
First Nations 12,385 1.7%
Métis 4,270 0.6%
Inuit 185 0%
Aboriginal, n.i.e. 710 0.1%
Multiple Aboriginal identity 100 0%
Total Aboriginal population 17,650 2.5%
Total population 719,650 100%

Languages

Mother tongue in New Brunswick, Statistics Canada, 2006. Red: majority English, less than 33% French. Blue: majority French, less than 33% English. Green: majority French, more than 33% English. Grey: no data available

Compared to other pronvinces, New Brunswick has a relatively even split of French and English population. As a comparison, the minority language communities of Ontario and Quebec (Franco-Ontarians and English-speaking Quebecers respectively) make up less than 10% of those provinces' populations.[6] With both official language communities so strongly represented, New Brunswick is home to both French and English language hospitals and healthcare networks, school systems, universities, and media. The province also has a relatively high proportion of people who state that they can speak both official languages, with about 246,000 people, or 33.2% of the population reporting the ability to speak both English and French (though Francophones make up two-thirds of those who are bilingual).[7]

Language policy remains a perennial issue in New Brunswick society and politics. Recurring debates have arisen in regards to interpretation of the provincial bilingualism policy, duality (the system of parallel French and English speaking public services), and specifics of implementation. The extent of the provincial policy on bilingualism means that a new row is never far off in the New Brunswick news cycle.[8][9] The French-speaking community continues to advocate for full funding of French-language public services and fair representation in public sector employment, while some Anglophones (and Francophones) fear that the system of duality is financially inefficient and its extent is not worthwhile, or that the provincial governments targets for bilingualism in public employment are hurting their chances to work for the government, as Anglophones are less likely than Francophones to be proficient enough in both official languages to use them in employment.

The province's bilingual status is enshrined in both provincial and federal law. The Canadian Constitution makes specific mention of New Brunswick's bilingual status and defines the spirit of implementation as one based on both community and individual rights (in contrast with the constitutional protections for the other provinces that is limited to individuals, though this extends to "community" issues in terms of provision of schooling etc.). The Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms has a number of New Brunswick specific articles and makes specific mention of New Brunswick in each section relating to language (ex. Section 18 has two paragraphs, the first regarding bilingual publication of the Canadian Parliaments work and laws, the second specifying that New Brunswick's legislature will publish its work in both French and English). Of particular interest is Article 16.1, which declares that the French and English speaking communities of New Brunswick have equal rights and privileges, including community specific educational and cultural institutions. This specific distinction of linguistic community is important in that it recognizes not only the rights of individuals to use their language, but also demands that the two official language communities have their specific institutions upheld.

The 2011 Canadian census showed a population of 751,171. Of the 731,855 single responses to the census question concerning mother tongue, the most commonly reported languages were:[10]

New Brunswick's official languages are shown in bold. Figures shown are for the number of single-language responses and the percentage of total single-language responses. During the 19th century Scottish Gaelic was also spoken in the Campbellton and Dalhousie area. The language died out as a natively-spoken language in the province in the early 20th century.

In 2012, New Brunswick francophones scored lower on the Programme for the International Assessment of Adult Competencies than their anglophone counterparts in New Brunswick.[11]

The 2011 Canadian census showed a population of 751,171. Of the 731,855 singular responses to the question concerning mother tongue the most commonly reported languages were:

Ranking Language Population Percentage
1. English 479,930 65.58%
2. French 233,530 31.90%
3. Algonquian languages 2,125 0.29%
Mi'kmaq 2,115 0.29%
Cree language 10 0.001%
4. Chinese 1,825 0.25%
Mandarin 405 0.06%
Cantonese 225 0.03%
Taiwanese 5 0.001%
5. Korean 1,810 0.25%
6. German 1,805 0.25%
7. Arabic 1,325 0.18%
8. Spanish 1,135 0.16%
9. Dutch (Nederlands) 925 0.13%
10. Tagalog 585 0.08%
11. Hindustani 455 0.06%
Hindi 250 0.03%
Urdu 205 0.03%
12. Persian 450 0.06%
13. Italian 440 0.06%
14. Romanian 420 0.06%
15. Russian 355 0.05%
16. Vietnamese 285 0.04%
17. Serbo-Croatian languages 280 0.04%
Serbian 120 0.02%
Croatian 75 0.01%
Bosnian 40 0.01%
18. Polish 255 0.03%
19. Scandinavian languages 235 0.03%
Danish 145 0.01%
Norwegian 45 0.01%
Swedish 45 0.01%
20. Portuguese 220 0.03%
21. Bantu languages 200 0.03%
Swahili 140 0.02%
22. Bengali 180 0.02%
23. Hungarian (Magyar) 155 0.02%
24. Greek 140 0.02%

Note: "n.i.e.": not included elsewhere

There were also 45 single-language responses for Gujarati; 135 for Niger-Congo languages n.i.e.; 70 for Creole; 95 for Non-verbal languages (Sign languages); 115 for Japanese; 30 for Indo-Iranian languages n.i.e.; 5 for Somali; 20 for Sinhala (Sinhalese); and 40 for Malayalam. New Brunswick's official languages are shown in bold. (Figures shown are for the number of single language responses and the percentage of total single-language responses.)[12]

Migration

Immigration

The 2006 Canadian census counted a total of 28,395 immigrants living in New Brunswick.
The most commonly reported origins for these immigrants were: [13]

1. United States 8,660
2. United Kingdom 5,205
3. Germany 1,770
4. Netherlands 995
5. China 925
6. India 600
7. Italy 405
8. South Korea 370
9. former Yugoslavia 355
10. Philippines 350
11. France 320
12. Iran 265
13. Lebanon 220
14. Pakistan 205

There were also 195 immigrants from the Democratic Republic of Congo; 180 from Vietnam; 170 from Colombia; 165 each from Hungary and Romania; 155 each from Belgium and El Salvador; 140 each from Greece and Ireland (Éire); 125 from Poland; 120 each from Afghanistan and South Africa; 115 from Ukraine; 110 from Guyana; 105 each from Denmark and from Trinidad and Tobago; and 100 from Austria.

Internal migration

A total of 64,205 people moved to New Brunswick from other parts of Canada between 1996 and 2006 while 83,240 people moved in the opposite direction. These movements resulted in a net outmigration of 8,410 people to Alberta, 4,330 to Ontario, 2,930 to Nova Scotia, and 1,995 to Quebec. During this period there was a net outmigration of 2,125 francophones to Quebec, 1,460 francophones going to Ontario, 1,355 to Alberta and 145 to Nova Scotia; and also a net influx of 240 anglophones from Quebec. (All net inter-provincial movements of more than 500 persons and official minority movements of more than 100 persons are given.)[14][15]

Religion

Main Religious Denominations in New Brunswick[16][17]
2001 20111
Number  % Number  %
Total Population 719,715 100 735,835 100
Christian 647,295 89.9 616,910 83.8
- Total Catholic2 386,035 53.6 366,155 49.8
- Total Protestant 260,695 36.2 249,820 34.0
- Baptist 80,490 11.2 70,990 9.6
- United Church of Canada 69,235 9.6 54,270 7.4
- Anglican Church of Canada 58,210 8.1 51,365 7.0
- Pentecostal 20,150 2.8 18,435 2.5
- Protestant, Other3 24,200 2.6 45,910 6.2
- Presbyterian 6,900 1.0 7,770 1.1
- Lutheran 1,510 0.2 1080 0.1
- Christian Orthodox4 565 0.1 980 0.1
No Religious Affiliation 56,440 7.8 111,435 15.1
Other 5,295 0.7 7,495 1.0
- Muslim 1,275 0.2 2,640 0.4
- Other Religions5 1,970 0.3 1,915 0.3
- Jewish 670 0.1 620 0.1
- Buddhist 545 0.1 975 0.1
- Hindu 475 0.1 820 0.1
- Aboriginal Spirituality 360 0.1 525 0.1

1 The 2011 data is from the National Household Survey[17] and so numbers are estimates.
2Includes Roman Catholic and Ukrainian Catholic
3 Includes persons who report only "Protestant" and those who report "Christian", and those who report "Apostolic", "Born-again Christian" and "Evangelical" and those who report from all Protestant denominations with less than 0.05% of the population including those who report "Christian Reformed Church and those who report "Methodist" and those who report "Mennonite" and those who report "Christian Missionary Alliance" and those who report "Brethren in Christ" and those who report "Evangelical Missionary Church"
4 Includes persons who report "Orthodox". Also includes Greek Orthodox, Ukrainian Orthodox, Serbian Orthodox, Armenian Apostolic, Bulgarian Orthodox, Ethiopian Orthodox and Macedonian Orthodox
5 Includes persons who report all Religions with less than 0.05% of the population including Pagan, Wiccan and Sikh as well as persons who report only "non-denominational".

See also

Demographics of Canada's provinces and territories

References

  1. ^ Population urban and rural, by province and territory (New Brunswick). Statistics Canada, 2005.
  2. ^ Canada's population Archived November 4, 2008, at the Wayback Machine.. Statistics Canada. Last accessed September 28, 2006.
  3. ^ Ethnic Origin (232), Sex (3) and Single and Multiple Responses (3) (2001 Census)
  4. ^ Brunswick&SearchType=Begins&SearchPR=01&B1=All&Custom=, Community Profiles from the 2006 Census, Statistics Canada - Province/Territory
  5. ^ Brunswick&SearchType=Begins&SearchPR=01&B1=All&Custom=, Aboriginal Population Profile from the 2006 Census, Statistics Canada - Province/Territory
  6. ^ Canada, Government of Canada, Statistics. "Population by mother tongue, by province and territory, excluding institutional residents (2011 Census) (New Brunswick, Quebec, Ontario)". www.statcan.gc.ca. Retrieved . 
  7. ^ "2014-2015 Annual Report, Office of the Commissioner of Official Languages of New Brunswick" (PDF). p. 39. 
  8. ^ "New Brunswick still debating language issues after 50 years of bilingualism | Toronto Star". thestar.com. Retrieved . 
  9. ^ "Liberals, PCs show fissures over bilingualism controversy". www.cbc.ca. Retrieved . 
  10. ^ Detailed Mother Tongue (186), Knowledge of Official Languages (5), Age Groups (17A) and Sex (3) (2011 Census)
  11. ^ "Study: The literacy skills of New Brunswick francophones". Statistics Canada. 2016-09-19. Retrieved . 
  12. ^ Detailed Mother Tongue (186), Knowledge of Official Languages (5), Age Groups (17A) and Sex (3) (2011 Census)
  13. ^ Immigrant Status and Period of Immigration (8) and Place of Birth (261) (2006 Census)
  14. ^ Province or Territory of Residence 5 Years Ago (14), Mother Tongue (8), Age Groups (16) and Sex (3) (2006 Census) Archived February 11, 2009, at the Wayback Machine.
  15. ^ Province or Territory of Residence 5 Years Ago (14), Mother Tongue (8), Age Groups (16) and Sex (3) (2001 census)
  16. ^ "96F0030XIE2001015 - Religions in Canada". 2.statcan.ca. Retrieved . 
  17. ^ a b "NHSNewBrunswick2011". 2.statcan.ca. Retrieved . 

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