The Spanish conquerors not only conquered Peru militarily, but also sought to convert the indigenous populations to Christianity. Indigenous Andean religious beliefs and practices persisted, which the Catholic Church sought to suppress. Many churches were built in the colonial period, the visible manifestation of Catholicism.  Some convents were also built on Inca sites. For example, in 1605, some Dominican nuns built the Convent of Santa Catalina in Cuzco atop the site of the "acllahuasi", once home to virginal young women dedicated to serving the ruling Inca. Another convent, the Convent of Santa Clara, was one of the first institutions the conquistadores of Cuzco built for "Indian nobles", the daughters of the indigenous elite whose collaboration made Spain's indirect rule over the Andes possible. At Santa Clara, Inca nobles were to be "raised Christian and to receive 'buenas costumbres' (literally, good customs or manners), shorthand for an education in Spanishness", which included knowledge, stitchery, and literacy. After graduating from this course in Spanish culture, charges were free to profess vows or leave the convent. Miscegenation was not an issue among Spaniards. Many prominent Spanish men lived with elite Inca women, only to marry Spanish women later in life and marry off their Andean partners to less prominent Spaniards.
The Peruvian government is closely allied with the Catholic Church. Article 50 of the Constitution recognizes the Catholic Church's role as "an important element in the historical, cultural, and moral development of the nation."  Catholic clergy and laypersons receive state remuneration in addition to the stipends paid to them by the Church. This applies to the country's 52 bishops, as well as to some priests whose ministries are located in towns and villages along the borders. In addition each diocese receives a monthly institutional subsidy from the Government. An agreement signed with the Vatican in 1980 grants the Catholic Church special status in Peru. The Catholic Church receives preferential treatment in education, tax benefits, immigration of religious workers, and other areas, in accordance with the agreement. So Roman Catholicism could be considered the main religion of Peru. See also the following: Roman Catholicism in Peru;123659122652[Catholic university] with Partial list of Catholic universities in Peru; and Lord of Miracles, Peruvian religious festival.
Although the Constitution states that there is freedom of religion, the law mandates that all schools, public and private, impart religious education as part of the curriculum throughout the education process (primary and secondary). Catholicism is the only religion taught in public schools. In addition, Catholic religious symbols are found in all government buildings and public places.
According to the 2007 Census, 81.3% of the population were Catholics.
At the 2007 Census there were 12.5% of the population identifying themselves as Protestants, mainly Evangelicals. In Latin America most Protestants are called Evangelicos because most of them are Evangelical Protestants, while some are also traditional Mainline Protestant. They continue to grow faster than the national growth rate.
There are currently two LDS temple in Peru, located at La Molina in Lima and a second temple in Trujillo. The LDS church also announced a third temple to be built in Arequipa, announced October 6, 2012. At the General Conference for the LDS church on April 3, 2016, it was announced that a fourth temple would be built in Peru in Los Olivos, Lima.  This second temple in Lima will make the city one of the few in the world with two temples. Peru is also home to more than 100 stakes of the LDS church.
Buddhism was introduced to Peru in 1899 when the ship Sakura Maru arrived at Callao, Peru, with 790 people from Japan. Japanese, Chinese, and Korean immigration to Peru during the 19th and 20th Century brought Mahayana Buddhism to Peru, and followers of that style of Buddhism remain largely concentrated within those ethnic groups. While Mahayana remains the largest school of Buddhism in Peru, other schools such as the Diamond form have begun to spread so that Peru has more than 50,000 practicing Buddhists.
The Bahá'í Faith in Peru begins with references to Peru in Bahá'í literature as early as 1916, with the first Bahá'ís visiting as early as 1919. A functioning community wasn't founded in Peru until the 1930s with the beginning of the arrival of coordinated pioneers from the United States which progressed into finding national Peruvian converts and achieved an independent national community in 1961. The Association of Religion Data Archives (relying mostly on the World Christian Encyclopedia) estimated some 41,000 Bahá'ís in 2005.