Religion in Slovenia is predominantly the Catholic Church, this being the largest Christian denomination in the country. Besides Catholicism, other Christian religions having significant following in the country include Eastern Orthodoxy and Protestantism (Lutheranism). Islam (2.4%), Judaism and Hinduism are small minorities in Slovenia. A significant part of the population is not religious (atheists and agnostics representing about 10% of the population).
Religion played a significant role in the development of the Slovene nation and the country of Slovenia. After centuries-long tradition of a state church, interrupted by the periods of Protestant Reformation in the 16th century and post-World War II socialism ousting religion from the public life, a degree of separation of the state and the church has been reached in the independent Slovenia. In February 2007 a new Religious Freedom Act was passed in Slovenia, with a bias towards the Catholic Church, particularly in regard to state funding and the strict terms for the registration of new religious communities.
There are around 1,195,000 Catholics in the country (about 57.8% of the total population as per the 2002 Census). The country is divided into six dioceses, including two archdioceses. The diocese of Maribor was elevated to an archdiocese by Pope Benedict XVI in 2006. Additionally, the pope created three new sees, namely Novo Mesto, Celje and Murska Sobota.
Protestantism has a long history in Slovenia, with the Reformation being strong in the 16th century. Lutheranism became the most popular Protestant denomination in Slovenia, with minor conversions to Calvinism. Today, most Protestants live in the Prekmurje region. Protestantism survived the Counter-Reformation implemented by the Habsburgs. The Counter-Reformation swept through most of Slovenia, excluding easternmost regions (including Prekmurje) which were ruled by Hungarian nobles, who themselves often happened to be Calvinist. They did not seek to extinguish Lutheranism, which became the preferred confession among Slovenes. Historically speaking, Hungarians took up Lutheranism first, before leaving it in favor of a more radical theology of Calvinism. Primoz Trubar was a leading Lutheran reformer in Slovenia, contributing to the development of the Slovene language and Slovenian culture.
Eastern Orthodoxy maintains a significant presence in the country and is practised mainly by the ethnic Serb population. Eastern Orthodox Christians in Slovenia are under ecclesiastical jurisdiction of the Serbian Orthodox Metropolitanate of Zagreb and Ljubljana.
The Muslims in Slovenia are ethnically mostly Bosniaks and other Slavic Muslims. In 2014, there were 48,266 Muslims in Slovenia, making up about 2.4 percent of the total population. The Muslim community of Slovenia is headed by Ned?ad Grabus.
There are also Muslims from Central, South and Southeast Asia, who are not counted in the census because they are migrant workers.
The small Jewish community of Slovenia (Slovene: Judovska skupnost Slovenije) is estimated at 400 to 600 members, with the Jewish community of Slovenia suggesting 500 to 1000 members. Around 130 are officially registered, most of whom live in the capital, Ljubljana. The Jewish community was devastated by the Shoah, and has never fully recovered. Until 2003, Ljubljana was the only European capital city without a Jewish place of worship.
Religiosity of Slovene citizens according to population censuses 1991, 2002 and 2012.
|Lutheranism and other Protestants||0.9%||0.8%|
|Spiritual but not member of religions||0.2%||3.5%|