|Archeological Site and Historical City|
Gurudwara Tibbi Sahib situated on the banks of Satluj, Rupnagar.
|Established||19th century (2000 BCE)|
|o Type||Municipal council|
|o Body||Ropar MC|
|Elevation||262 m (860 ft)|
|Time zone||IST (UTC+5:30)|
|Vehicle registration||PB 12|
Rupnagar (; formerly known as Ropar or Rupar), is a city and a municipal council in Rupnagar district in the Indian state of Punjab. Rupnagar is a newly created fifth Divisional Headquarters of Punjab comprising Rupnagar, Mohali, and its adjoining districts. It is also one of the bigger sites belonging to the Indus Valley Civilization. Rupnagar is nearly 50 km (31 mi) to the northwest of Chandigarh (the nearest airport and the capital of Punjab). It is bordered by Himachal Pradesh to the north and Shahid Bhagat Singh Nagar district (formerly known as Nawanshahr district) to its west.
There are many historical and religious places in Rupnagar, including gurdwaras such as Gurudwara Bhhatha Sahib and Gurudwara Tibbi Sahib.
The ancient town of Rupnagar is said to have been named by a Raja called Rokeshar, who ruled during the 11th century and named it after his son Rup Sen.
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Rupnagar is one of the Indus Valley sites along the Ghaggar-Hakra beds. There is an Archaeological Museum in the city which was opened in the year 1998 for general public. The museum exhibits the archaeological remains of excavated site in the city, the first Harappan site of Independent India. These excavations reveal a cultural sequence from Harappan to medieval times. Some of the important exhibits include antiquities of Harappan times, gold coins of Chandragupta and copper and bronze implements.
The climate of Rupnagar is characterized by general dryness (except in the south west monsoon season), a hot summer and a cold winter. The year may be divided into four seasons. The period from about middle of November to February is the cold season. This is followed by the summer season from March to about the end of June. The south-west monsoon season commences late in June and continues up to about middle of September. The period from mid September to the middle of November constitute the post-monsoon or transition season. The temperature ranges from minimum of 1 °C (34 °F) in winter to 47 °C (117 °F) in summer. May and June are generally the hottest months and December and January are the coldest months. Relative humidity is high, averaging about 70% during monsoon. The average annual rainfall in district is 775.6 millimetres (30.54 in). About 78% of the annual rainfall is received during June through September.
The city has one of the three important wetlands of the Punjab State known as Ropar Wetland. This is a man-made freshwater wetland covering 1,365 hectares. Also called the Ropar Lake, the wetland developed consequent to the construction of a regulator on the Sutlej River. The area has a large number of birds, mammals and vegetation cover. It has at least 9 mammals, 154 birds, 35 fishes, 9 arthropods, 11 rotifers, and 10 protozoan species. This important ecological zone is located in the Shivalik foothills of the Lower Himalayas and was created in 1952 on the Sutlej River, in the Punjab state of India, by building a head regulator. The total area of the wetland is 1,365 hectares (3,370 acres). The wetland is surrounded by Shivalik hills to the northwest and by plains to the south and southeast.
The District is administered by Municipal Council Rupnagar.
Rupnagar city has good road network to surrounding village and towns in district as well as to all major cities like Una, Baddi, Ludhiana, Jalandhar, Chandigarh and Delhi. Rupnagar is well connected by National Highway system to the following nearby cities, by the following highway routes:
As per 2001 India census, Rupnagar had a population of 48,165. Males constitute 53% of the population and females 47%. Rupnagar has an average literacy rate of 75%, higher than the national average of 59.5%: male literacy is 78%, and female literacy is 82%. In Rupnagar, 11% of the population is under 6 years of age.
Rupnagar has public as well as private schools which are affiliated to either Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE) or Punjab School Education Board (PSEB) and follow the 10+2 plan of education.
Rupnagar houses one of the prestigious technological institutes of the country, the Indian Institute of Technology Ropar. Other important colleges are Institute of Engineering and Technology, Bhaddal, Government College (affiliated to Punjabi University, Patiala) and Rayat Bahra Ropar Campus of the Rayat Bahra University.