|Archeological Site and Historical City|
view of Rupnagar from Indus Valley Civilization site's mound
|Established||19th century (2000 BCE)|
|o Type||Municipal council|
|o Body||Ropar MC|
|Elevation||262 m (860 ft)|
|Time zone||IST (UTC+5:30)|
|Vehicle registration||PB 12|
Rupnagar also spelled Ropar or Rupar, is a city and a municipal council in Rupnagar district in the Indian state of Punjab. Ropar is a newly created fifth "Divisional Headquarters" of Punjab comprising Ropar, Mohali, and its adjoining districts. The ancient town of Rupnagar is said to have been named by a Raja called Rokeshar, who ruled during the 11th century and named it after his son Rup Sen. It is also one of the bigger sites belonging to the Indus Valley Civilization.
Rupnagar is located at  It has an average elevation of 260 metres (850 ft). The town lies on bank of Satluj River and Shivalik hill range spreads along the opposite bank of the river..
Rupnagar is nearly 50 km (31 mi) to the northwest of Chandigarh (the nearest airport). It is bordered by Himachal Pradesh to the north and Shahid Bhagat Singh Nagar district (formerly known as Nawanshahr district) to its west. The major cities in Ropar District are Morinda, Nangal, Anandpur Sahib and Chamkaur Sahib. The town of Mohali was once part of Ropar District before it became a separate district in 2006. The Bhakra Dam in Nangal lies on the boundary with the neighboring state of Himachal Pradesh. Dadhi is one of the most important villages of the district, particularly because of Gurudwara Sri Hargobindsar Sahib.
There are many historical places in Ropar and religious places including gurdwaras such as Gurudwara Bhhatha Sahib, Gurudwara Tibbi Sahib, Shri AnandPur Sahib and Sadabarat Sahib.
The climate of Rupnagar District is characterized by general dryness (except in the south west monsoon season), a hot summer and a cold winter. The year may be divided into four seasons. The period from about middle of November to February is the cold season. This is followed by the summer season from March to about the end of June. The south-west monsoon season commences late in June and continues up to about middle of September. The period from mid September to the middle of November constitute the post-monsoon or transition season. The temperature ranges from minimum of 1 °C (34 °F) in winter to 47 °C (117 °F) in summer. May and June are generally the hottest months and December and January are the coldest months. Relative humidity is high, averaging about 70% during monsoon. The average annual rainfall in district is 775.6 millimetres (30.54 in). About 78% of the annual rainfall is received during June through September.
As per 2001 India census, Rupnagar had a population of 48,165. Males constitute 53% of the population and females 47%. Rupnagar has an average literacy rate of 75%, higher than the national average of 59.5%: male literacy is 78%, and female literacy is 82%. In Rupnagar, 11% of the population is under 6 years of age.
There is an Archaeological Museum in the city which is about 40 km (25 mi) northeast of Chandigarh. It was opened in the year 1998 for general public. The museum exhibits the archaeological remains of excavated site in the city, the first Harappan site of Independent India.
The city has one of the three important wetlands of the Punjab State known as Ropar Wetland. The area has a large number of birds, mammals and vegetation cover. It has at least 9 mammals, 154 birds, 35 fishes, 9 arthropods, 11 rotifers, and 10 protozoan species. This important ecological zone is located in the Shivalik foothills of the Lower Himalayas and was created in 1952 on the Sutlej River, in the Punjab state of India, by building a head regulator. The total area of the wetland is 1,365 hectares (3,370 acres). The wetland is surrounded by Shivalik hills to the northwest and by plains to the south and southeast.
Rupnagar city houses one of the prestigious technological institutes of the country, the IIT Ropar. The area surrounding the institute has developed well due to the establishment of the Institute during 2009.There are large no of govt, public and private schools in the city .