|Location||2016: Chaska, Minnesota, U.S.|
|Course(s)||2016: Hazeltine National Golf Club|
|Length||2016: 7,628 yd (6,975 m)|
|Tour(s)||PGA Tour, European Tour|
|Month played||Late September/ Early October|
|2018 Ryder Cup|
The Ryder Cup is a biennial men's golf competition between teams from Europe and the United States. The competition is contested every two years with the venue alternating between courses in the United States and Europe. The Ryder Cup is named after the English businessman Samuel Ryder who donated the trophy. The event is jointly administered by the PGA of America and Ryder Cup Europe, the latter a joint venture of the PGA European Tour (60%), the PGA of Great Britain and Ireland (20%), and the PGA of Europe (20%).
Originally contested between Great Britain and the United States, the first official Ryder Cup took place in 1927 at Worcester Country Club, in Massachusetts, US. The home team won the first five contests, but with the competition's resumption after the Second World War, repeated American dominance eventually led to a decision to extend the representation of "Great Britain and Ireland" to include continental Europe from 1979. The inclusion of continental European golfers was partly prompted by the success of a new generation of Spanish golfers, led by Seve Ballesteros and Antonio Garrido. In 1973 the official title of the British Team had been changed from "Great Britain" to "Great Britain and Ireland", but this was simply a change of name to reflect the fact that golfers from the Republic of Ireland had been playing in the Great Britain Ryder Cup team since 1953, while Northern Irish players had competed since 1947.
Since 1979, Europe has won ten times outright and retained the Cup once in a tied match, with eight American wins over this period. In addition to players from Great Britain and Ireland, the European team has included players from Belgium, Denmark, France, Germany, Italy, Spain and Sweden. The Ryder Cup, and its counterpart the Presidents Cup, remain exceptions within the world of professional sports because the players receive no prize money despite the contests being high-profile events that bring in large amounts of money in television and sponsorship revenue.
The current holders are the United States who won in 2016 at Hazeltine National Golf Club in Chaska, Minnesota, by a score of 17 to 11. The next contest will be on the Albatros Course at Le Golf National in Magny-les-Hameaux (27 km south-east of Paris), France, from 28 to 30 September 2018.
On September 27, 1920 Golf Illustrated wrote a letter to the Professional Golfers' Association of America with a suggestion that a team of 12 to 20 American professionals be chosen to play in the 1921 British Open, to be financed by popular subscription. At that time no American golfer had won the British Open. The idea was that of James D. Harnett, who worked for the magazine. The PGA of America made a positive reply and the idea was announced in the November 1920 issue. The fund was called the British Open Championship Fund. By the next spring the idea had been firmed-up. A team of 12 would be chosen, who would sail in time to play in a warm-up tournament at Gleneagles (the Glasgow Herald 1000 Guinea Tournament) prior to the British Open at St. Andrews, two weeks later. The team of 12 was chosen by PGA President George Sargent and PGA Secretary Alec Pirie, with the assistance of USGA Vice-President Robert Gardner. A team of 11 sailed from New York on the RMS Aquitania on May 24, 1921 together with James Harnett, Harry Hampton deciding at the last minute that he could not travel.
The idea for a 12-a-side International Match between the American and Great Britain professionals was reported in The Times on May 17, with James Douglas Edgar being reported as the probable 12th player. Edgar was already in the United Kingdom. The match would be played at Gleneagles on Monday June 6, the day before the start of the 1000 Guinea Tournament. With Jim Barnes indisposed, the match eventually became a 10-a-side contest, Edgar not being required for the American team. The match consisted of 5 foursomes in the morning and 10 singles in the afternoon, played on the King's Course. The match was won by Great Britain by 9 matches to 3, 3 matches being halved.
The British team was: George Duncan (captain), James Braid, Arthur Havers, Abe Mitchell, James Ockenden, Ted Ray, James Sherlock, J.H. Taylor, Josh Taylor, and Harry Vardon. The American team was: Emmet French (captain), Clarence Hackney, Walter Hagen, Charles Hoffner, Jock Hutchison, Tom Kerrigan, George McLean, Fred McLeod, Bill Melhorn and Wilfrid Reid. Gold medals were presented by the Duchess of Atholl to each member of the teams at the conclusion of the Glasgow Herald tournament on Saturday afternoon. The medals "had on one side crossed flags, The Union Jack and Stars and Stripes surmounted by the inscription "For Britain" or "For America" as the case may be" and on the other side "America v Britain. First international golf match at "The Glasgow Herald" tournament, Gleneagles, June 6, 1921"
After the Glasgow Herald Tournament most of the American team travelled to St Andrews to practice for the British Open, for which qualifying began on June 20. However, Walter Hagen and Jock Hutchison played in a tournament at Kinghorn on June 14 and 15. Hagen had a poor first round and didn't turn up for the second day. Hutchison scored 74 and 64 and took the £50 first prize. At St Andrews, Hutchison led the qualifying and then won the Open itself. So, despite losing the International Match, the American team achieved its main objective, winning the British Open.
A match between American and British amateur golfers was played at Hoylake in 1921, immediately before The Amateur Championship. This match was followed by the creation of the Walker Cup, which was first played in 1922. However the 1921 Gleneagles match did not immediately lead to a corresponding match between the professionals.
It was common at this time for a small number of professionals to travel to compete in each other's national championship. In 1926, a larger than usual contingent of American professionals were travelling to Britain to compete in the Open Championship, two weeks before their own Championship. In February it was announced that Walter Hagen would select a team of four American professionals (including himself) to play four British professionals in a match before the Open Championship. The match would be a stroke play competition with each playing the four opposing golfers over 18 holes. In mid-April it was announced that "A golf enthusiast, who name has not yet been made public" was ready to donate a cup for an annual competition. Later in April it was announced that Samuel Ryder would be presenting a trophy "for annual competition between British and American professionals." with the first match to be played on June 4 and 5 "but the details are not yet decided", and then in May it was announced that the match would be a match-play competition, 8-a-side, foursomes on the first day, singles on the second. Eventually, at Hagen's request, 10 players competed for each team. Samuel Ryder (together with his brother James) had sponsored a number of British professional events starting in 1923.
The match resulted in 13-1 victory for the British team (1 match was halved). The American point was won by Bill Mehlhorn with Emmet French being all square. Medals were presented to the players by the American ambassador Alanson B. Houghton.
The match was widely reported as being for the "Ryder Cup". However Golf Illustrated for June 11 states that because of uncertainty following the general strike in May, which led to uncertainty about how many Americans would be visiting Britain, Samuel Ryder had decided to withhold the cup for a year. It has also been suggested that because Walter Hagen chose the American team rather than the American PGA, that only those Americans who had travelled to Britain to play in the Open were available for selection and that it contained a number of players born outside the United States, also contributed to the feeling that the match ought to be regarded as unofficial. In addition the Americans "had only just landed in England and were not yet in full practice."
The British team was: Ted Ray (Captain), Aubrey Boomer, Archie Compston, George Duncan, George Gadd, Arthur Havers, Herbert Jolly, Abe Mitchell, Fred Robson and Ernest Whitcombe. The American team was: Walter Hagen (Captain), Tommy Armour, Jim Barnes, Emmet French, Joe Kirkwood, Fred McLeod, Bill Mehlhorn, Joe Stein, Cyril Walker and Al Watrous. While all ten of the British players subsequently played in the Ryder Cup only three of the Americans did (Hagen, Mehlhorn and Watrous). Armour, Barnes, Kirkwood, McLeod and Walker were excluded by the policy of requiring players to be born in the USA while French and Stein were never selected.
The 1927 competition was organized on a much more formal basis. A Ryder Cup "Deed of Trust" was drawn up formalising the rules of the contest, while each of the PGA organisations had a selection process. In Britain Golf Illustrated launched a fund to raise £3,000 to fund professional golfers to play in the U.S. Open and the Ryder Cup. Ryder contributed £100 and, when the fund closed with a shortfall of £300, he made up the outstanding balance himself. Although not in the rules at that time, the American PGA restricted their team to those born in the United States.
In early 1928 it became clear that an annual contest was not practical and so it was decided that the second contest should be in 1929 and then every two years thereafter.
For the 1929 UK contest at Moortown GC, Leeds, the American PGA again restricted their team to those born in the USA but in late 1929 the Deed of Trust was revised requiring all players to be born in and resident in their respective countries, as well as being members of their respective Professional Golfers' Association.
The most significant change to the Ryder Cup has been the inclusion of continental European golfers since 1979. Up until 1977, the matches featured teams representing the United States and Great Britain and Ireland. From 1979 players from continental Europe have been eligible to join what is now known as Team Europe. The change to include continental Europeans arose from discussion in 1977 between Jack Nicklaus and Edward Stanley, 18th Earl of Derby, who was serving as the President of the Professional Golfers' Association; it was suggested by Nicklaus as a means to make the matches more competitive, since the Americans almost always won, often by lopsided margins. The change worked, as the contests immediately became much more competitive, with talented young Europeans such as Seve Ballesteros and Bernhard Langer bolstering the European side. The present-day popularity of the Ryder Cup, which now generates enormous media attention, can be said to date from that change in eligibility.
The Ryder Cup involves various match play competitions between players selected from two teams of twelve. It takes place from a Friday to a Sunday with a total of 28 matches being played, all matches being over 18 holes. On Friday and Saturday there are four fourball matches and four foursomes matches each day; a session of four matches in the morning and a session of four matches in the afternoon. On Sunday, there are 12 singles matches, when all team members play. Not all players must play on Friday and Saturday; the captain can select any eight players for each of the sessions over these two days.
The winner of each match scores a point for his team, with half a point each for any match that is tied after the 18 holes. The winning team is determined by cumulative total points. In the event of a tie (14 points each) the Ryder Cup is retained by the team who held it before the contest.
A foursomes match is a competition between two teams of two golfers. On a particular hole the golfers on the same team take alternate shots playing the same ball. One team member tees off on all the odd-numbered holes, and the other on all the even-numbered holes. Each hole is won by the team that completes the hole in the fewest shots. A fourball match is also a competition between two teams of two golfers, but all four golfers play their own ball throughout the round rather than alternating shots. The better score of the two golfers in a team determines the team's score on a particular hole; the score of the other member of the team is not counted. Each hole is won by the team whose individual golfer has the lowest score. A singles match is a standard match play competition between two golfers.
The format of the Ryder Cup has changed over the years. From the inaugural event until 1959, the Ryder Cup was a two-day competition with 36-hole matches. In 1961 the matches were changed to 18 holes each and the number of matches doubled. In 1963 the event was expanded to three days, with fourball matches being played for the first time. This format remained until 1977, when the number of matches was reduced to 20, but, in 1979, the first year continental European players participated, the format was changed to the 28-match version in use today, with 8 foursomes/four-ball matches on the first two days and 12 singles matches on the last day. Because of weather disruption the format of the 2010 contest was altered and it was extended to a fourth day.
|Year||Day 1||Day 2||Day 3||Total
|1927-59||4 36-hole foursomes||8 36-hole singles||-||12|
|1961||4 foursomes||4 foursomes||8 singles||8 singles||-||24|
|1963-71||4 foursomes||4 foursomes||4 fourballs||4 fourballs||8 singles||8 singles||32|
|1973||4 foursomes||4 fourballs||4 foursomes||4 fourballs||8 singles||8 singles||32|
|1975||4 foursomes||4 fourballs||4 fourballs||4 foursomes||8 singles||8 singles||32|
|1977||5 foursomes||5 fourballs||10 singles||20|
|4 foursomes||4 fourballs||4 foursomes||4 fourballs||12 singles||28|
|4 fourballs||4 foursomes||4 fourballs||4 foursomes|
The team size was increased from 10 to 12 in 1969.
There were two singles sessions (morning and afternoon) in 1979, but no player played in both sessions.
Since 1979, there have been 4 foursomes and 4 fourballs on each of the first two days. Currently the home captain decides before the contest starts whether the fourball or foursomes matches are played in the morning. He may choose a different order for the two days.
Since 1979, a player can play a maximum of 5 matches (2 foursomes, 2 fourballs and a singles match), however from 1963 to 1975 it was possible to play 6 matches (2 foursomes, 2 fourballs and 2 singles matches).
The selection process for the Ryder Cup players has varied over the years. In the early contests the teams were generally decided by a selection committee but later qualification based on performances was introduced. The current system by which most of the team is determined by performances with a small number of players selected by the captain (known as "wild cards" or "captain's picks") gradually evolved and has been used by both sides since 1989.
For the 2014 Ryder Cup both teams had 9 players qualifying based on performances with the remaining 3 players selected by the captain. For those players gaining automatic qualification the Europeans used a system, introduced in 2004, using two tables; one using prize money won in official European Tour events and a second based on World Ranking points gained anywhere in the world. Both tables used a 12-month qualifying period finishing at the end of August. The American system, introduced in 2008, was based on prize money earned in official PGA Tour events during the current season and prize money earned in the major championships in the previous season. The qualifying period ended after the PGA Championship.
For the 2016 Ryder Cup there were a number of changes from 2014 in the American system. The number of captain's picks was increased from three to four with the selections being made later than previously, especially moving the fourth and last pick to less than a week before the Ryder Cup, right after the completion of the Tour Championship. The qualifying events now included both the 2015 World Golf Championships events and The Players Championship, on top of the four major championships, but only included 2016 PGA Tour events actually played in 2016, thus excluded any other event played in 2015. The qualifying period was also extended because the Olympic Games had moved the timeslot for the 2016 PGA Championship which took place already at the end of July.
The captains have always selected the players and chosen the playing order in each group of matches. When the contest involved 36-hole matches, it was usual for the captain to be one of the players. The USA only had two non-playing captains in this period: Walter Hagen in 1937 and Ben Hogan in 1949 while Great Britain had non-playing captains in 1933, 1949, 1951 and 1953. With the change to 18-hole matches and the extension to three days, it became more difficult to combine the roles of captain and player and Arnold Palmer in 1963 was the last playing captain. The captains have always been professional golfers and the only captain who never played in the Ryder Cup was J.H. Taylor, the 1933 British captain.
An opening ceremony takes place on the afternoon before play begins.
Since 2012, the Ryder Cup has featured a celebrity match. Celebrities were paired with former Ryder Cup captains in 2012 and 2014. In 2016, only celebrities competed. Participants have included sportspeople Michael Phelps, Scottie Pippen, Martina Navratilova, Alessandro Del Piero and Andriy Shevchenko, and actors Bill Murray and Justin Timberlake.
The 1969 Cup held at Royal Birkdale was perhaps one of the best and most competitive contests in terms of play (18 of the 32 matches went to the last green). It was decided in its very last match, of which United States Captain Sam Snead later said "This is the greatest golf match you have ever seen in England".
With the United States and Great Britain tied at each, Jack Nicklaus led Tony Jacklin by the score of 1 up as they played the 17th hole. Jacklin made a 35-foot eagle putt and when Nicklaus missed his own eagle try from 12 feet, the match was all square.
At the par-5 finishing hole, both Jacklin and Nicklaus got on the green in two. Nicklaus ran his eagle putt five feet past the hole, while Jacklin left his two-foot short. Nicklaus then sank his birdie putt, and with a crowd of 8,000 people watching, picked up Jacklin's marker, conceding the putt Jacklin needed to tie the matches. With the United States team already holding the cup, the tie allowed it to retain the cup. "I don't think you would have missed that putt", Nicklaus said to Jacklin afterwards, "but in these circumstances I would never give you the opportunity."
This gesture of sportsmanship by Nicklaus caused controversy on the American side, some of whom would have preferred to force Jacklin to attempt the putt for the small chance that he might miss, which would have given the United States team an outright win. "All the boys thought it was ridiculous to give him that putt", said Sam Snead. "We went over there to win, not to be good ol' boys."
Held at The Belfry in England, the 1989 Ryder Cup saw the rising of tensions in the series. After holding the cup for more than two decades, the United States team lost both the 1985 and 1987 matches. At the 1989 matches, the pressure was on the United States team and its captain, Raymond Floyd. At a pre-match opening celebration, Floyd slighted the European team by introducing his United States team as "the 12 greatest players in the world."
The competition saw the beginnings of a feud between Seve Ballesteros and Paul Azinger. Early in their singles match, Ballesteros sought to change a scuffed ball for a new ball under Rule of Golf 5-3. Somewhat unusually, Azinger disputed whether the ball was unfit for play. A referee was called, and sided with Azinger in ruling the ball fit for play. Ballesteros reportedly said to Azinger, "Is this the way you want to play today?" The match continued in a contentious fashion, culminating in Ballesteros unusually contesting whether Azinger took a proper drop after hitting into the water on the 18th hole.
The American team's frustration grew as the matches ended in a tie, with the European team retaining the cup.
The overall tension between the teams and the feud between Ballesteros and Azinger escalated at the Kiawah Island Golf Resort in 1991. At the ceremonial opening dinner, the PGA of America played two videos that were seen as less than hospitable by the European team. The first video was presented as a highlight reel of past Ryder Cups, but reportedly showed only Americans. The second video was a welcoming address by then-United States President George H. W. Bush in which he closed by cheering on the American side.
On the first morning of the competition, Azinger and Chip Beck were paired against Ballesteros and José María Olazábal in a foursome match, an alternate shot event. Azinger and Beck accused Ballesteros of gamesmanship on account of his throat clearing during Beck's shots. Later in the same match, Azinger and Beck, who were playing the same brand and make of ball but each with a slightly different model, switched their balls. While this switching was unlikely to have resulted in an advantage or to have been intentional, it was in violation of the "one ball rule" which was in effect for the competition. Under that rule, a player is prohibited from changing the type of ball he uses during the course of a match. A few holes after the switch had occurred, Ballesteros called the Americans for the violation. Azinger, seeming to feel that his integrity was being questioned, said "I can tell you we're not trying to cheat." Ballesteros responded, "Oh no. Breaking the rules and cheating are two different things." As the violation was called too long after it had occurred, no penalty was assessed against the American pair. The constant goading between Ballesteros and Azinger intensified their respective desires to win. Out of that intensity, they and their playing partners produced what may be regarded as one of the best pairs matches in history, with the Spaniards winning 2 & 1. After the matches concluded, Ballesteros reportedly said, "The American team has 11 nice guys. And Paul Azinger."
The 1991 matches received the sobriquet "the War on the Shore" after some excitable advertising in the American media, and intense home-team cheering by the American home crowds. For his part, Corey Pavin caused controversy by sporting a Desert Storm baseball cap during the event in support of the U.S. and coalition war effort in Iraq.
The matches culminated in one of the single most dramatic putts in the history of golf. With only one match remaining to be completed, between Hale Irwin for the United States and Bernhard Langer for the Europeans, the United States team led by one point. Irwin and Langer came to the last hole tied. To win the cup, the American team needed Irwin to win or tie the match by winning or tying the hole. The Europeans could keep the cup with a win by Langer. Both players struggled on the hole, and found themselves facing a pair of putts; Langer had a six-foot, side-hill par putt, and Irwin had a generally uphill, 18-inch putt for bogey. To the surprise of his teammates, Langer conceded Irwin's bogey putt, leaving himself in a must-make position. Langer missed his putt, the match was halved, and the U.S. team took back the cup.
Players on both sides were driven to public tears by the pressure of the matches on the final day. The intense competition of the 1991 Ryder Cup is widely regarded as having elevated public interest in the series.
The 1999 Ryder Cup held at The Country Club in Brookline, Massachusetts, caused great controversy. A remarkable comeback by the American team helped propel the U.S. to a 14½-13½ victory after trailing 10-6 heading into the final day. The U.S. defeated Europe 8½-3½ in the singles matches to seal the first American victory since 1993.
The competition turned on the 17th hole of a match between American Justin Leonard and Spaniard José María Olazábal. With the match all square at the 17th hole, Leonard needed to earn at least a half-point by either winning one of the last two holes (therefore earning a full point), or finishing the match at all square (therefore earning a half-point) to seal an American victory. After Olazábal's second shot left him with a 22-foot putt on the par-4, Leonard hit his shot within 10 feet of the hole and then watched it roll away from the cup, leaving him with a 45-foot putt for birdie. Leonard had made putts of 25 and 35 feet earlier in the round. Leonard holed the astounding putt, and a wild celebration ensued with other U.S. players, their wives, and a few fans running onto the green. Had Leonard's putt sealed the match, this type of behavior would have been inappropriate but moot. Knowing that a made putt would extend the match while a miss would assure Leonard of a half-point and the U.S. a victory (the Americans needed points to gain the cup due to the Europeans' 1997 victory at Valderrama), Olazábal tried to regain his focus. However, he missed the difficult putt, and the American team celebrated once again (although the second celebration was more reserved than the first one).
According to the "Best of the Rest" section of ESPN's Top 5 Reasons You Can't Blame program, NBC television footage and press photos prove that no official rules (Ryder Cup or PGA) were broken when the Americans celebrated after Leonard's putt (i.e., no one walked in or crossed Olazábal's putting line - although Europe player Sam Torrance has said in TV interviews that a TV cameraman stood on Olazábal's line while filming the invasion of the green by players and spectators). However, there remain a number of unwritten rules and codes of conduct which the European players believe were being ignored. Many of the American players believed the Europeans' response was hypocritical; they argued that European players - in particular Seve Ballesteros - had been guilty of excessive celebration and gamesmanship as far back as the 1985 Ryder Cup Matches, without attracting the same opprobrium from the European media. There was still considerable bad blood after the match, with some of the European players complaining about the behavior of the American galleries throughout the match. Sam Torrance branded it "disgusting", while European captain Mark James referred to it as a "bear pit" in a book recounting the event. There were also reports that a spectator spat at James' wife.
Following the 1999 Ryder Cup, many members of the U.S. team apologized for their behavior, and there were numerous attempts by both teams to calm the increasing nationalism of the event. These efforts appear to have been largely successful, with subsequent Cups being played in the "spirit of the game".
The 39th Ryder Cup, held at the Medinah Country Club in Medinah, Illinois, saw an extraordinary comeback by the Europeans. Under captain José María Olazábal of Spain; the Europeans were down 10-4 after 14 matches, with two four-ball matches still on the course and 12 singles matches to be played the next day. A dramatic end to day two saw Ian Poulter make 5 birdies on the final 5 holes to give him and McILroy the point over Dufner and Z.Johnson. Despite being down 10-6 going into the final day Europe came back to win by points to . Out of the 12 points up for grabs on the final day Europe won points with the U.S. winning only points. This feat matched the Americans 1999 comeback at Brookline Country Club.
Martin Kaymer struck the putt (a putt almost identical in length that fellow German Bernhard Langer missed at the 1991 Ryder Cup) that retained the cup for Europe. Francesco Molinari secured the final half-point to win the Ryder Cup outright by winning the 18th hole to halve his match against Tiger Woods. Ian Poulter of the European team finished this Ryder Cup with a perfect 4-0 record.
The 1939 Ryder Cup was planned for November 18-19 at Ponte Vedra Country Club in Jacksonville, Florida; Walter Hagen was chosen as non-playing captain of the U.S. team. The competition was cancelled shortly after the outbreak of World War II in Europe in September.
In early April 1939, the British P.G.A. chose a selection committee of six and selected Henry Cotton as captain. In August, eight players were named in the team: Cotton, Jimmy Adams, Dick Burton, Sam King, Alf Padgham, Dai Rees, Charles Whitcombe and Reg Whitcombe. Charles Whitcombe immediately withdrew from the team, not wishing to travel to the United States. With seven selected, three places were left to be filled. War was declared on 3 September and the British P.G.A. immediately cancelled the match: "The P.G.A. announce that the Ryder Cup match for this year has been cancelled by the state of war prevailing in this country. The P.G.A. of the United States is being informed."
The Ryder Cup was not played in these scheduled years due to the war; by the fall of 1945, many members of the British team were still in the military. After a decade-long absence, it resumed in November 1947 at the Portland Golf Club in Portland, Oregon.
The competition, scheduled for 28-30 September at The Belfry's Brabazon Course, was postponed a year because of the September 11 terrorist attacks. "The PGA of America has informed the European Ryder Cup Board that the scope of the last Tuesday's tragedy is so overwhelming that it would not be possible for the United States Ryder Cup team and officials to attend the match this month." The manager of Phil Mickelson and Mark Calcavecchia had earlier announced that the two players would not travel to Europe. Other American players were said to be concerned about attending the event. It was played in 2002 at the original venue with the same teams that had been selected to play a year earlier. The display boards at The Belfry still read "The 2001 Ryder Cup", and U.S. captain Curtis Strange deliberately referred to his team as "The 2001 Ryder Cup Team" in his speech at the closing ceremony.
It was later decided to hold the subsequent Ryder Cup in 2004 (rather than 2003) and thereafter in even-numbered years. This change also affected the men's Presidents Cup and Seve Trophy and women's Solheim Cup competitions, as each switched from even to odd years.
| Great Britain/
Great Britain & Ireland
Although the team was referred to as "Great Britain" up to 1971, a number of golfers from the Republic of Ireland, Northern Ireland, Guernsey and Jersey had played for Great Britain before that date. In 1973 the official team name was changed to "Great Britain and Ireland", but this was simply a change of name to reflect the fact that golfers from the Republic of Ireland had played in the "Great Britain" Ryder Cup team since Harry Bradshaw in 1953, while Northern Irish players had competed since Fred Daly in 1947.
The team in place of the original "Great Britain" team has been referred to as "Europe" since 1979, when players from continental Europe were included. Since then, the "United States" team has won 8 matches and the "Europe" team has won 10 matches, while retaining the Ryder Cup once with a tie.
The bidding process for the 2022 Ryder Cup opened on 23 June 2014. Interested countries had until 31 August to formally express an interest in bidding. These expressions had to come either from a central government or a national golf governing body. On 5 September, seven nations had expressed an interest in hosting. Formal bids were to be submitted by 16 February 2015, with the host to be selected that autumn. In November 2014 it was announced that Denmark had withdrawn from the bidding process leaving six remaining countries. The date for submissions of the formal bids was extended to 30 April 2015.
On 14 December 2015, Rome was announced as the host of 2022 Ryder Cup. Italy beat Germany, Austria and Spain to win the bid for 44th edition of Ryder Cup.
|Winning bid is marked in bold|
|Bids submitted in time are marked in green|
|Cancelled/withdrawn bids are marked in red|
|Austria||Oberwaltersdorf||Golf Club Fontana|
|Golf Club Fontana, Oberwaltersdorf. Fontana was chosen by the Austrian Golf Federation ÖGV on 28 January 2015 against the other bidder Golf Club Zillertal, Uderns|
|Denmark||withdrew on 13 November 2014|
|Denmark withdrew its bid on 13 November 2014|
|Germany||Berlin, Scharmuetzelsee||Golf Club Bad Saarow|
|The Golf Club Bad Saarow at Scharmuetzelsee near Berlin was chosen by RC Deutschland, the German Golf Federation's bid team, on 25 March 2015 against the other bidder Golf Club Groß Kienitz, also near Berlin. Other interested venues were considered earlier, however Gut Kaden near Hamburg never bid officially and Golf Valley Resort near Munich withdrew its bid on 9 December 2014|
|Italy||Guidonia Montecelio, Rome||Marco Simone Golf and Country Club|
|Italy will bid to hold the 2022 Ryder Cup at Marco Simone club just outside Rome.|
|Portugal||withdrew on 15 April 2015|
|Portugal was among the nations that expressed interest to host the 2022 Ryder Cup. However the Portuguese Golf Federation has informed Ryder Cup Europe on 15 April 2015 "that the prevailing economic environment would prevent us from developing as strong a bid as we would wish and have therefore decided to wait for a future opportunity."|
|Spain||Caldes de Malavella||PGA Catalunya Resort|
|Real Federación Española de Golf, in partnership with Generalitat de Catalunya and other public Spanish and Catalan stakeholders, have announced their intention on 24 November 2014 to bid to bring the 2022 Ryder Cup to Catalunya, PGA Catalunya Resort in Caldes de Malavella|
|Turkey||withdrew on 16 March 2015|
|Turkey originally intended to build a new venue. However Turkey withdrew its bid on 16 March 2015 because it required up to 15,000 trees to be cut down to accommodate grandstands at its chosen course.|
The Ryder Cup matches were always covered by the BBC, whether in Britain or in the United States, even prior to the British team's merger with Europe. In the 1990s, Sky Sports became heavily involved in the Ryder Cup, and has since taken over live coverage, including creating a channel specifically dedicated for the 2014 and 2016 competition. The BBC still screens edited highlights each night.
In the United States, the Ryder Cup was first televised live at the 1983 matches in Florida, with ABC Sports covering just the final four holes of the singles matches. A highlight package of the 1985 singles matches was produced by ESPN, but no live coverage aired from England. In 1987, with the matches back in the United States, ABC covered both weekend days, but only in the late afternoon.
In 1989, USA Network began a long association with the Ryder Cup, by televising all three days live from England, the first live coverage of a Ryder Cup from Europe. This led to a one-year deal for the 1991 matches in South Carolina to be carried by NBC live on the weekend, with USA Network continuing to provide live coverage of the first day. All five sessions were broadcast for the first time. The success of the 1991 matches led to a contract extension with USA and NBC through 1997, marking a turning point in the competition's popularity. For the European matches, the first two days were taped and aired on delay in the U.S. Another extension with USA and NBC covering the 1999-2003 (later moved to 2004) competitions increased the number of hours of coverage to include the entire first day and most of the second day. Tape delay was still employed for competitions from Europe.
The Ryder Cup's increased success led to a landmark contract with NBC (which had recently bought USA Network) to air the 2006-14 competitions on USA and NBC. It called for a record increase in coverage hours, with the second day now having near-complete coverage. Tape delay was last used for the 2006 event in Ireland. In 2006, ESPN was sub-licensed rights to Friday coverage, as part of a larger transaction between NBC and Disney that also resulted in ABC Sports personality Al Michaels moving to NBC to join their then-upcoming Sunday-night NFL games, ESPN gaining expanded access to highlights from events whose rights are owned by NBC, and Disney acquiring the rights to the cartoon character Oswald the Lucky Rabbit (who was created by Walt Disney in 1927 for a series of animated shorts distributed by Universal Pictures).
The Presidents Cup is similar to the Ryder Cup, except that the competing sides are a U.S. side and an International side from the rest of the world consisting of players who are ineligible for the Ryder Cup. It is held in years when there is no Ryder Cup.
Other team golf events between U.S. and either Europe or Great Britain and Ireland include:
According to [Ryder Cup Europe director Richard] Hills, the European Tour controls 60 percent of the event [in Europe], with the PGA of Great Britain and the PGA of Europe each holding 20 percent.