Sati (in Pali;Sanskrit: sm?ti) is mindfulness or awareness, a spiritual or psychological faculty (indriya) that forms an essential part of Buddhist practice. It is the first factor of the Seven Factors of Enlightenment. "Correct" or "right" mindfulness (Pali: samm?-sati, Sanskrit samyak-sm?ti) is the seventh element of the Noble Eightfold Path.
The Buddhist term translated into English as "mindfulness" originates in the Pali term sati and in its Sanskrit counterpart sm?ti. According to Robert Sharf, the meaning of these terms has been the topic of extensive debate and discussion.Sm?ti originally meant "to remember", "to recollect", "to bear in mind", as in the Vedic tradition of remembering sacred texts. The term sati also means "to remember". In the Satipa??h?na-sutta the term sati means to remember the dharmas, whereby the true nature of phenomena can be seen. Sharf refers to the Milindapanha, which explained that the arisement of sati calls to mind the wholesome dhammas such as the four establishments of mindfulness, the five faculties, the five powers, the seven awakening-factors, the Noble Eightfold Path, and the attainment of insight. According to Rupert Gethin,
[sati] should be understood as what allows awareness of the full range and extent of dhammas; sati is an awareness of things in relation to things, and hence an awareness of their relative value. Applied to the satipa??h?nas, presumably what this means is that sati is what causes the practitioner of yoga to "remember" that any feeling he may experience exists in relation to a whole variety or world of feelings that may be skillful or unskillful, with faults or faultless, relatively inferior or refined, dark or pure."[note 1]
Sharf further notes that this has little to do with "bare attention", the popular contemporary interpretation of sati, "since it entails, among other things, the proper discrimination of the moral valence of phenomena as they arise". According to Paul Williams, referring to Erich Frauwallner, mindfulness provided the way to liberation, "constantly watching sensory experience in order to prevent the arising of cravings which would power future experience into rebirths".[note 2] According to Vetter, dhyana may have been the original core practice of the Buddha, which aided the maintenance of mindfulness.
(RR: yeom or y?m)
(Wylie: dran pa;
|Glossary of Buddhism|
The Buddhist term translated into English as "mindfulness" originates in the Pali term sati and in its Sanskrit counterpart sm?ti. Translators rendered the Sanskrit word as trenpa in Tibetan (wylie: dran pa) and as nian ? in Chinese.
The Pali-language scholar Thomas William Rhys Davids (1843-1922) first translated sati in 1881 as English mindfulness in samm?-sati "Right Mindfulness; the active, watchful mind". Noting that Daniel John Gogerly (1845) initially rendered samm?-sati as "Correct meditation", Davids explained,
sati is literally 'memory' but is used with reference to the constantly repeated phrase 'mindful and thoughtful' (sato sampajâno); and means that activity of mind and constant presence of mind which is one of the duties most frequently inculcated on the good Buddhist."
Henry Alabaster, in The Wheel of the Law: Buddhism Illustrated From Siamese Sources by the Modern Buddhist, A Life of Buddha, and an Account of the Phrabat (1871), had earlier defined "Satipatthan/Smrityupasthana" as "The act of keeping one's self mindful."
The English term mindfulness already existed before it came to be used in a (western) Buddhist context. It was first recorded as myndfulness in 1530 (John Palsgrave translates French pensee), as mindfulnesse in 1561, and mindfulness in 1817. Morphologically earlier terms include mindful (first recorded in 1340), mindfully (1382), and the obsolete mindiness (ca. 1200).
John D. Dunne, an associate professor at Emory University whose current research focuses especially on the concept of "mindfulness" in both theoretical and practical contexts, asserts that the translation of sati and sm?ti as mindfulness is confusing and that a number of Buddhist scholars have started trying to establish "retention" as the preferred alternative.
Bhikkhu Bodhi also points to the meaning of "sati" as "memory":
The word derives from a verb, sarati, meaning "to remember," and occasionally in Pali sati is still explained in a way that connects it with the idea of memory. But when it is used in relation to meditation practice, we have no word in English that precisely captures what it refers to. An early translator cleverly drew upon the word mindfulness, which is not even in my dictionary. This has served its role admirably, but it does not preserve the connection with memory, sometimes needed to make sense of a passage.
The Sanskrit word sm?ti ?????? (also transliterated variously as smriti, smRti, or sm'Rti) literally means "that which is remembered", and refers both to "mindfulness" in Buddhism and "a category of metrical texts" in Hinduism, considered second in authority to the ?ruti scriptures.
Monier Monier-Williams's Sanskrit-English Dictionary differentiates eight meanings of sm?ti ??????, "remembrance, reminiscence, thinking of or upon, calling to mind, memory":
Buddhist scholars translated sm?ti with the Chinese word nian ? "study; read aloud; think of; remember; remind". Nian is commonly used in Modern Standard Chinese words such as guannian ?? (??) "concept; idea", huainian ?? (??) "cherish the memory of; think of", nianshu ?? (??) "read; study", and niantou ?? (??) "thought; idea; intention". Two specialized Buddhist terms are nianfo ?? "chant the name of Buddha; pray to Buddha" and nianjing ?? (??) "chant/recite sutras".
This Chinese character nian ? is composed of jin ? "now; this" and xin ? "heart; mind". Bernhard Karlgren graphically explains nian meaning "reflect, think; to study, learn by heart, remember; recite, read - to have ? present to ? the mind". The Chinese character nian or nien ? is pronounced as Korean yeom or y?m ?, Japanese ?? or nen, and Vietnamese ni?m.
A Dictionary of Chinese Buddhist Terms gives basic translations of nian: "Recollection, memory; to think on, reflect; repeat, intone; a thought; a moment."
The Digital Dictionary of Buddhism gives more detailed translations of nian "mindfulness, memory":
The terms sati/smriti have been translated as:
According to Paul Williams, referring to Erich Frauwallner, mindfulness provided the way to liberation, "constantly watching sensory experience in order to prevent the arising of cravings which would power future experience into rebirths."[note 3] Mindfulness is an antidote to delusion (Pali: Moha), and is considered as such one of the 'powers' (Pali: bala) that contribute to the attainment of nirvana. The faculty of mindfulness becomes a power in particular when it is coupled with clear comprehension of whatever is taking place. According to Vetter, dhyana may have been the original core practice of the Buddha, which aided the maintenance of mindfulness. Nirvana is a state of being in which greed, hatred and delusion (Pali: moha) have been overcome and abandoned, and are absent from the mind.
?n?p?nasati (Pali; Sanskrit: ?n?p?nasm?ti; Chinese: ????; P?ny?n: ?nnàb?nnà; Sinhala: ??? ???? ???), meaning "mindfulness of breathing" ("sati" means mindfulness; "?n?p?na" refers to inhalation and exhalation), is a form of Buddhist meditation now common to the Tibetan, Zen, Tiantai, and Theravada schools of Buddhism, as well as western-based mindfulness programs. Anapanasati means to feel the sensations caused by the movements of the breath in the body, as is practiced in the context of mindfulness. According to tradition, Anapanasati was originally taught by the Buddha in several sutras including the ?n?p?nasati Sutta.[note 4] (MN 118)
The Buddha advocated that one should establish mindfulness (satipa??h?na) in one's day-to-day life, maintaining as much as possible a calm awareness of one's body, feelings, mind, and dharmas. The practice of mindfulness supports analysis resulting in the arising of wisdom (Pali: paññ?, Sanskrit: prajñ?).[note 5] A key innovative teaching of the Buddha was that meditative stabilisation must be combined with liberating discernment.
The Satipa??h?na Sutta (Sanskrit: Sm?tyupasth?na S?tra) is an early text dealing with mindfulness.
Vipassan? (P?li) is commonly used as a synonym for vipassan?-meditation, in which satipatthana, four foundations of mindfulness or anapanasati, "mindfulness of breathing," is used to become aware of the impermanence of everything that exists. Vipassan? in the Buddhist tradition means insight into the true nature of reality.
In the Theravadin context, this entails insight into the three marks of existence, namely the impermanence of and the unsatisfactoriness of every conditioned thing that exists, and non-self. In Mahayana contexts, it entails insight into what is variously described as sunyata, dharmata, the inseparability of appearance and emptiness (two truths doctrine), clarity and emptiness, or bliss and emptiness.
Vipassan? is commonly used as one of two poles for the categorization of types of Buddhist practice, the other being samatha (P?li; Sanskrit: ?amatha). Though both terms appear in the Sutta Pitaka[note 6], Gombrich and Brooks argue that the distinction as two separate paths originates in the earliest interpretations of the Sutta Pitaka, not in the suttas themselves.[note 7] Various traditions disagree which techniques belong to which pole. According to the contemporary Theravada orthodoxy, samatha is used as a preparation for vipassan?, pacifying the mind and strengthening the concentration in order to allow the work of insight, which leads to liberation.
Vipassan?-meditation has gained popularity in the west through the modern Buddhist vipassana movement, modeled after Therav?da Buddhism meditation practices, which employs vipassan? and ?n?p?na meditation as its primary techniques and places emphasis on the teachings of the Satipa??h?na Sutta.
In Buddhist practice, "mindfulness" also includes samprajaña, meaning "clear comprehension" and apram?da meaning "vigilance".[note 8] All three terms are sometimes (confusingly) translated as "mindfulness", but they all have specific shades of meaning.
He held that in the proper practice of right mindfulness, sati has to be integrated with sampajañña, clear comprehension, and it is only when these two work together that right mindfulness can fulfill its intended purpose.[note 9]
In the Satipa??h?na Sutta, sati and sampajañña are combined with atappa (Pali; Sanskrit: ?tapa?), or "ardency,"[note 10] and the three together comprise yoniso manisikara (Pali; Sanskrit: yoni?as manask?ra?), "appropriate attention" or "wise reflection."
|mindfulness/awareness||sati||sm?ti ??????||? (niàn)||trenpa (wylie: dran pa)|
|clear comprehension||sampajañña||samprajñ?na ??????????||??? (zhèng zh? lì)||sheshin (wylie: shes bzhin)|
|vigilance/heedfulness||appamada||apram?da ???????||???? (bù fàng yì zuò)||bakyö (wylie: bag yod)|
|ardency||atappa||?tapa? ???||?? (y?ng m?ng)||nyima (wylie: nyi ma)|
|attention/engagement||manasikara||manask?ra? ????????||???? (rú l? zuò yì)||yila jeypa (wylie: yid la byed pa)|
|foundation of mindfulness||satipa??h?na||sm?tyupasth?na
|?? (niànzhù)||trenpa neybar zagpa (wylie: dran pa nye bar gzhag pa)|
Georges Dreyfus has expressed unease with the definition of mindfulness as "bare attention" or "nonelaborative, nonjudgmental, present-centered awareness", stressing that mindfulness in Buddhist context means also "remembering", which indicates that the function of mindfulness also includes the retention of information. Dreyfus concludes his examination by stating:
[T]he identification of mindfulness with bare attention ignores or, at least, underestimates the cognitive implications of mindfulness, its ability to bring together various aspects of experience so as to lead to the clear comprehension of the nature of mental and bodily states. By over-emphasizing the nonjudgmental nature of mindfulness and arguing that our problems stem from conceptuality, contemporary authors are in danger of leading to a one-sided understanding of mindfulness as a form of therapeutically helpful spacious quietness. I think that it is important not to lose sight that mindfulness is not just a therapeutic technique but is a natural capacity that plays a central role in the cognitive process. It is this aspect that seems to be ignored when mindfulness is reduced to a form of nonjudgmental present-centered form of awareness of one's experiences.
Robert H. Sharf notes that Buddhist practice is aimed at the attainment of "correct view", not just "bare attention":
Mahasi's technique did not require familiarity with Buddhist doctrine (notably abhidhamma), did not require adherence to strict ethical norms (notably monasticism), and promised astonishingly quick results. This was made possible through interpreting sati as a state of "bare awareness" -- the unmediated, non-judgmental perception of things "as they are," uninflected by prior psychological, social, or cultural conditioning. This notion of mindfulness is at variance with premodern Buddhist epistemologies in several respects. Traditional Buddhist practices are oriented more toward acquiring "correct view" and proper ethical discernment, rather than "no view" and a non-judgmental attitude.
Jay Garfield, quoting Shantideva and other sources, stresses that mindfulness is constituted by the union of two functions, calling to mind and vigilantly retaining in mind. He demonstrates that there is a direct connection between the practice of mindfulness and the cultivation of morality - at least in the context of Buddhism from which modern interpretations of mindfulness are stemming.
Mindfulness practice, inherited from the Buddhist tradition, is being employed in psychology to alleviate a variety of mental and physical conditions, including obsessive-compulsive disorder, anxiety, and in the prevention of relapse in depression and drug addiction.
Even so, your Majesty, sati, when it arises, calls to mind dhammas that are skillful and unskillful, with faults and faultless, inferior and refined, dark and pure, together with their counterparts: these are the four establishings of mindfulness, these are the four right endeavors, these are the four bases of success, these are the five faculties, these are the five powers, these are the seven awakening-factors, this is the noble eight-factored path, this is calm, this is insight, this is knowledge, this is freedom. Thus the one who practices yoga resorts to dhammas that should be resorted to and does not resort to dhammas that should not be resorted to; he embraces dhammas that should be embraced and does not embrace dhammas that should not be embraced.