Selfies
Get Selfies essential facts below. View Videos or join the Selfies discussion. Add Selfies to your Like2do.com topic list for future reference or share this resource on social media.
Selfies
A typical selfie, shot from a high angle.

A selfie [1] is a self-portrait photograph, typically taken with a digital camera which may be held in the hand or supported by a selfie stick. Selfies are often shared on social networking services such as Facebook, Instagram and Twitter. They are for vanity usually flattering and made to appear casual. "Selfie" typically refers to self-portrait photos taken with the camera held at arm's length or pointed at a mirror, as opposed to those taken by using a self-timer or remote.

According to the Oxford English Dictionary, a selfie is described as, "A photograph that one has taken of oneself, typically one taken with a smartphone and shared via social media". [2][3]

History

Self-portraits before digital photography
Robert Cornelius self-portrait
Photographic self-portrait by Robert Cornelius, 1839
Unidentified woman self-portrait
Unidentified woman taking her picture in a mirror, c. 1900

Robert Cornelius, an American pioneer in photography, produced a daguerreotype of himself in 1839 which is also one of the first photographs of a person. Because the process was slow he was able to uncover the lens, run into the shot for a minute or more, and then replace the lens cap.[4] He recorded on the back "The first light Picture ever taken. 1839."[4][5] A copy of his "first selfie" graces his tombstone at Laurel Hill Cemetery in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

The debut of the portable Kodak Brownie box camera in 1900 led to photographic self-portraiture becoming a more widespread technique. The method was usually by mirror and stabilizing the camera either on a nearby object or on a tripod while framing via a viewfinder at the top of the box.[6]Grand Duchess Anastasia Nikolaevna of Russia, at the age of 13, was one of the first teenagers to take her own picture using a mirror to send to a friend in 1914. In the letter that accompanied the photograph, she wrote, "I took this picture of myself looking at the mirror. It was very hard as my hands were trembling."[7]

Photographic self-portraiture flourished in the 1970s when affordable instant cameras birthed a new medium of self-expression, capturing uncharacteristically personal insight into otherwise conservative individuals[8] and allowing amateurs to learn photography with immediate results.[9] This practice transitioned naturally across to digital cameras as they supplanted film cameras around the turn of the millennium.

The first known use of the word selfie in any paper or electronic medium appeared in an Australian internet forum on 13 September 2002. In Karl Kruszelnicki's 'Dr Karl Self-Serve Science Forum', a post by Nathan Hope stated:[10][11]

Um, drunk at a mates 21st, I tripped ofer (sic) and landed lip first (with front teeth coming a very close second) on a set of steps. I had a hole about 1cm long right through my bottom lip. And sorry about the focus, it was a selfie.

Hope has dismissed the notion that he coined the term, describing it as "something that was just common slang at the time, used to describe a picture of yourself".[12]

The concept of uploading group self-taken photographs to the internet, although with a disposable camera and not a smartphone, dates to a webpage created by Australians in September 2001, including photos taken in the late 1990s (captured by the Internet Archive in April 2004).[13][14][15]

As early as 2003, Italian media artist Alberto Frigo started photographing every object his right hand uses. The life long project resulted in the first categorized collection of selfies showing the artist every time he brushed his teeth, every time he put on deodorant etc.[16][17][18]

The Sony Ericsson Z1010 mobile phone, released in late 2003, introduced the concept of a front-facing camera. The Z1010's front-facing camera had a sensor for selfies and video calls.[19]

Popularity

The term "selfie" was discussed by photographer Jim Krause in 2005,[20] although photos in the selfie genre predate the widespread use of the term. In the early 2000s, before Facebook became the dominant online social network, self-taken photographs were particularly common on MySpace. However, writer Kate Losse recounts that between 2006 and 2009 (when Facebook became more popular than MySpace), the "MySpace pic" (typically "an amateurish, flash-blinded self-portrait, often taken in front of a bathroom mirror") became an indication of bad taste for users of the newer Facebook social network. Early Facebook portraits, in contrast, were usually well-focused and more formal, taken by others from distance. In 2009 in the image hosting and video hosting website Flickr, Flickr users used 'selfies' to describe seemingly endless self-portraits posted by teenage girls.[21] According to Losse, improvements in design--especially the front-facing camera of the iPhone 4 (2010), mobile photo apps such as Instagram and Snapchat led to the resurgence of selfies in the early 2010s.[22]

Buzz Aldrin took the first EVA selfie in 1966.

Social media apps like Snapchat encourage people to take selfies with features like Geofilters and Snapchat stories. Geofilters allow people to take selfies with overlays that can be comedic, altering your selfie image with the ability to show where you are located. Snapchat stories is a feature that lets people share their photographs and selfies to their friends and family. Our story is another feature offered by Snapchat that allows you to have larger audience beyond friends and family. Our story lets people share their photographs and selfies with the world. Snapchat keeps growing and there are more daily users every year. From 2014 to today, 132 more million people use Snapchat daily, equaling a total of 178 million daily users. As of July 2017, Snapchat follows Facebook, Facebook Messenger, and Instagram being in fourth place for most popular social networking apps in the U.S. with 76.88 million monthly users. [23][24]

Initially popular with young people, selfies gained wider popularity over time.[25][26] Life and business coach Jennifer Lee, in January 2011, was the first person to coin it as a hashtag on Instagram.[27][28] By the end of 2012, Time magazine considered selfie one of the "top 10 buzzwords" of that year; although selfies had existed long before, it was in 2012 that the term "really hit the big time".[29] According to a 2013 survey, two-thirds of Australian women age 18-35 take selfies--the most common purpose for which is posting on Facebook.[26] A poll commissioned by smartphone and camera maker Samsung found that selfies make up 30% of the photos taken by people aged 18-24.[30]

"Monkey selfie" of a macaque who had picked up a camera.[31][32]

By 2013, the word "selfie" had become commonplace enough to be monitored for inclusion in the online version of the Oxford English Dictionary.[33] In November 2013, the word "selfie" was announced as being the "word of the year" by the Oxford English Dictionary, which gave the word itself an Australian origin.[34]

Selfies have also been taken beyond Earth. Selfies taken in space include those by astronauts,[35] an image by NASA's Curiosity rover of itself on Mars,[36] and images created by an indirect method, where a self-portrait photograph taken on Earth is displayed on a screen on a satellite, and captured by a camera.[37]

In 2011, a crested black macaque pressed a trigger on a wildlife photographer's camera, set up in an Indonesian jungle for that specific purpose; when the camera was later recovered it was found to contain hundreds of selfies, including one of a grinning female macaque. This incident set off an unusual debate about copyright.[38] In 2016, a federal judge ruled that the monkey cannot own the copyright to the images.[39]

In October 2013, Imagist Labs released an iOS app called Selfie, which allows users to upload photos only from their front-facing smartphone camera.[40] The app shows a feed of public photos of everyone's selfies and from the people they follow. The app does not allow users to comment and users can only respond with selfies. The app soon gained popularity among teenagers.

In describing the popularity of the "foot selfie", a photograph taken of one's feet while sunbathing at exotic locations, The Hollywood Reporter said that it could be "2014's social media pose to beat".[41]

In January 2014, during the Sochi Winter Olympics, a "Selfie Olympics" meme was popular on Twitter, where users took self-portraits in unusual situations.[42] The spread of the meme took place with the usage of the hashtags #selfiegame and #selfieolympics.[43]

In April 2014, the advertising agency iStrategyLabs produced a two-way mirror capable of automatically posting selfies to Twitter, using facial recognition software.[44]

In February 2016, the United States presidential election has popularized voting selfies in such places as the Facebook group Bernie Sanders' Dank Meme Stash.[45]

Selfies have been popular on social media.[46] Instagram has over 53 million photos tagged with the hashtag #selfie. The word "selfie" was mentioned in Facebook status updates over 368,000 times during a one-week period in October 2013. During the same period on Twitter, the hashtag #selfie was used in more than 150,000 tweets.

Sociology

Taking selfies is very popular at wedding ceremonies.

The appeal of selfies comes from how easy they are to create and share, and the control they give self-photographers over how they present themselves. Many selfies are intended to present a flattering image of the person, especially to friends whom the photographer expects to be supportive.[25][26] However, a 2013 study of Facebook users found that posting photos of oneself correlates with lower levels of social support from and intimacy with Facebook friends (except for those marked as Close Friends).[47] The lead author of the study suggests that "those who frequently post photographs on Facebook risk damaging real-life relationships."[48] The photo messaging application Snapchat is also largely used to send selfies. Some users of Snapchat choose to send intentionally-unattractive selfies to their friends for comedic purposes.

Posting intentionally unattractive selfies has also become common in the early 2010s--in part for their humor value, but in some cases also to explore issues of body image or as a reaction against the perceived narcissism or over-sexualization of typical selfies.[49]

The practice of taking selfies has been criticised not only for being narcissistic, preventing assessment and appreciation of what is happening in the present, but also for being mindlessly conformist behaviour, when everyone does what everyone else is doing, "like that scene in The Life of Brian - where the crowd gathers outside Brian's window and enthusiastically chants in unison: 'Yes, we're all individuals! ... Yes, we are all different!' "[50]

Gender roles, sexuality, and privacy

Selfies are popular among both genders; however, sociologist Ben Agger describes the trend of selfies as "the male gaze gone viral", and sociologist and women's studies professor Gail Dines links it to the rise of "porn culture" and the idea that sexual attractiveness is the only way in which a woman can make herself visible.[51] Feminist writer Megan Murphy has pointed out that posting images publicly or sharing them with others who do so may have a dramatic effect in the case of revenge porn, where ex-lovers post sexually explicit photographs or nude selfies to exact revenge or humiliate their former lovers.[51] Nonetheless, some feminists view selfies as a subversive form of self-expression that narrates one's own view of desirability. In this sense, selfies can be positive and offer a way of actively asserting agency.[52]Copyright law may be effective in forcing the removal of private selfies from public that were forwarded to another person.[53]

In 2013 in the blog Jezebel, author Erin Gloria Ryan criticized selfies, believing that the images they often portray, as well as the fact that they are usually posted to social media with the intent of getting positive comments and "likes", reinforce the "notion that the most valuable thing [a young woman] has to offer the world is her looks."[54] The Jezebel post provoked commentary on Twitter from users arguing that selfies could be positive for women by promoting different standards of beauty.[55] Media critic Jennifer Pozner saw selfies as particularly powerful for women and girls who did not see themselves portrayed in mainstream media.[56]

Research shows that there is a particular difference between perspectives of youngsters and adults. "While not all representative of all young people's experiences of digital picture-sharing cultures, these discussions point to a significant gap between young people's own interpretations of their ordinary or everyday digital practices and adults' interpretations of these practices."[57]

Celebrity selfies

Former South Korean President Lee Myung-Bak and footballer Ji So Yun

Many celebrities - especially sex symbols - post selfies for their followers on social media, and provocative or otherwise interesting celebrity selfies are the subject of regular press coverage. Some commentators, such as Emma Barnett of The Telegraph, have argued that sexy celebrity selfies (and sexy non-celebrity selfies) can be empowering to the selfie-takers but harmful to women in general as they promote viewing women as sex objects.[58] Actor and avid selfie poster James Franco wrote an op-ed for The New York Times defending this frequent use of selfies on his Instagram page.[59] Franco defends the self-portrait stating they should not be seen as an egocentric act, but instead a journalistic moment as the selfie "quickly and easily shows, not tells, how you're feeling, where you are, what you're doing" in a way that a text communication might fail to convey.[59]

A selfie orchestrated during the 86th Academy Awards by host Ellen DeGeneres was, at one point, the most retweeted tweet ever.[60][61] DeGeneres said she wanted to homage Meryl Streep's record 18 Oscar nominations by setting a new record with her, and invited twelve other Oscar celebrities to join them, which included Meryl Streep, Julia Roberts, Channing Tatum, Bradley Cooper, Kevin Spacey, Angelina Jolie, Brad Pitt, Lupita Nyong'o, Jared Leto and Jennifer Lawrence. The resulting photo of the celebrities broke the previous retweet record within forty minutes, and was retweeted over 1.8 million times in the first hour.[62][63][64] By the end of the ceremony it had been retweeted over 2 million times, less than 24 hours later, it had been retweeted over 2.8 million times.[61][62] It beat the previous record, 778,801, which was held by Barack Obama, following his victory in the 2012 presidential election.[64][65][66]

Politician selfies

Bill Nye takes a selfie with US President Barack Obama and Neil deGrasse Tyson at the White House

U.S. President Barack Obama made news headlines during Nelson Mandela's memorial celebration at Johannesburg's FNB Stadium with various world leaders, as he was snapped taking a selfie and sharing smiles with Danish Prime Minister Helle Thorning-Schmidt, and later with British Prime Minister David Cameron, as they gathered to pay tribute to Mandela.[67] The decision to take the selfies was considered to be in poor taste, as British political columnist Iain Martin critiqued the behaviour as "clowning around like muppets".[67] The photos also depict the First Lady Michelle Obama sitting next to them looking "furious and mortified".[67] Despite the criticism, Roberto Schmidt, the photographer who captured the photos taken at the celebration, reported to the Today show it was taken at "a jovial, celebratory portion of the service".[68]

In India, BJP Prime Ministerial candidate Narendra Modi posted a selfie on Twitter after voting in Gandhinagar, India. The post became a major trending item on the micro-blogging platform.[69] In July 2014, the Swiss government became the first to take and post a picture of an entire national government (the picture was taken by one of the seven members of the government, Alain Berset).[70]

Former Italian Prime Minister Matteo Renzi taking a selfie with a supporter in Bologna.

The Portuguese President Marcelo Rebelo de Sousa is known to pose for several selfies in public appearances, once even claiming to have posed for "over 1500 selfies" in three days, during which he estimated to have greeted about four thousand people -- the social media phenomenon has coined the term "Marcelfie" to refer to these.[71] Most notably, the President posed for a selfie with Prime Minister António Costa in the Paris City Hall, during the Portugal Day ceremonies there on 10 June 2016.[72]

Group selfies

Bangladeshi girls taking group selfie at Pohela Falgun.
Couple posing for a group selfie using selfie stick

In January 2014, Business Insider published a story referring to selfies of groups as usies.[73] A photograph of Pope Francis with visitors to the Vatican was called an usie by The Daily Dot,[74][75] and TMZ has used the term to describe a selfie taken of celebrity couple Justin Bieber and Selena Gomez.[73][76]

The term "groufie" has been trademarked by Chinese phone manufacturer Huawei Technologies in China, France, Germany, Russia, and the U.S.[77][78] The word was introduced during the launch of its Ascend P7 smartphone in 2014.[79] Huawei defines the groufie as a panoramic selfie involving multiple subjects, as well as background scenery, captured using the front facing, 8-megapixel camera and panorama capabilities of its phones.[80][81][82]

Another term for a group selfie is "wefie", originally trademarked by Samsung in the U.S. to promote the wide-angle lens of its NX series of cameras.[78][83][84][85]

Accessories

Devices for holding smartphones or compact cameras called selfie sticks are often used when taking group selfies, as they allow a wider, more panoramic image capture.

Another technology for taking such images is the selfie drone. The concept of taking a dronie (as an alternative to a selfie) first entered the mainstream in 2014 and coincided with a relatively sudden increase in the availability of relatively cheap, camera bearing multicopter drones.[86] In 2014, the Nixie drone was designed to serve as a "personal photographer".[87]

Psychology and neuroscience

First, Farace, van Laer, de Ruyter, and Wetzels[88] reveal three photography techniques with which people are more likely to engage:

  1. first-person perspective;
  2. action and person rather than 'just' selfies;
  3. adaptation into artfulness.

According to a study performed by Nicola Bruno and Marco Bertamini at the University of Parma, selfies by non-professional photographers show a slight bias for showing the left cheek of the selfie-taker.[89]

This is similar to what has been observed for portraits by professional painters from many different historical periods and styles,[90] indicating that the left cheek bias may be rooted in asymmetries of brain lateralization that are well documented within cognitive neuroscience. In a second study, the same group tested if selfie takers without training in photography spontaneously adhere to widely prescribed rules of photographic composition, such as the rule of thirds. It seems that they do not, suggesting that these rules may be conventional rather than hardwired in the brain's perceptual preferences.[91]

In April 2014, a man diagnosed with body dysmorphic disorder recounted spending ten hours a day attempting to take the "right" selfie, attempting suicide after failing to produce what he perceived to be the perfect selfie.[92] The same month brought several scholarly publications linking excessive selfie posting with body dysmorphic disorder.[]

A more recent study examining the relationship between personality and selfie-posting behaviors suggests that extroversion and social exhibitionism positively predict frequency of selfie posting, whereas self-esteem is generally unrelated to selfie-posting behaviors.[93]

In popular culture

In August 2014, selfie was officially accepted for use in the word game Scrabble.[94][95] In September 2014, a short-lived romantic comedy television series titled Selfie premiered on ABC in the United States. The series follows the life of Eliza Dooley, a woman obsessed with the idea of achieving fame through the use of social media platforms, including Instagram, where she regularly posts selfies. She begins to worry that "friending" people online is not a substitute for real friendship, so she seeks help from Henry Higgs, a marketing image guru, to gain friends in the real world and become less self-centered. The show is largely a critique of perceived narcissism in social media.[96]

Injuries while taking photos

The first known selfie-related death occurred 15 March 2014, when a man electrocuted himself on top of a train.[97]

2014, 'The Year of the Selfie', was also the year Makati and Pasig, 'Selfie Capital of the World', saw their first selfie-related death when a 14 year old girl fell from the 3rd floor staircase landing to the 2nd.[98][99][100][101]

In 2015 it was reported that more people had been killed taking selfies that year than by shark attacks.[102] Other publications have debated that analysis.[103][104][105] Takers of selfie photographs have fallen to their deaths while losing their balance in a precarious position,[106][107] and others have been wounded or killed while posing with handguns which have accidentally fired.[108][109]

Concerned about the increasing number of incidents in Russia where attempts to set up a unique selfie had led to injuries and deaths, the Russian Ministry of the Interior released a "Selfie Safety Guide" in 2015 that warned selfie enthusiasts about some common dangerous behaviors.[110][111]Moscow, Russia's most active selfie-taking city, is estimated to have 8 selfie-takers per 100,000 people, and ranks 301st among cities worldwide.[98]

A 2015 study showed that 20% of young Britons had taken selfies while driving a car.[112]Manchester has the highest amount of selfie-takers per capita in Great Britain with 114 per 100,000 people, and ranks 7th internationally.[98] The Italian chief of state police expressed concern over the same phenomenon in Italy on the occasion of the launch of a short film with the title "Selfie".[113][114]Milan is the 8th most active selfie-taking city in the world with 108 selfie-takers per 100,000 people.[98]

On 1 July 2017, 4 students of Federal University of Technology Akure, Nigeria, went to a river close to the university and took selfies on a canoe stationed at the river. The canoe capsized while the students were taking the pictures killing 2 who could not swim.[115]

According to Professor Amanda du Preez, there are least three types of selfie pictures documenting death:[116]

  • selfies unknowingly taken before death
  • selfies of death where the taker's death is almost witnessed
  • selfies with death where the taker stands by while someone else dies

This does not include a death or injury sustained while attempting to take a selfie.

See also

References

  1. ^ /selfie "selfie noun - Pronunciation - Oxford Advanced Learner's Dictionary at OxfordLearnersDictionaries.com" Check |url= value (help). oxfordlearnersdictionaries.com. 
  2. ^ "History of Selfies - Lava Mobiles". www.lavamobiles.com. Retrieved . 
  3. ^ "'Selfie' named as word of the year". BBC News. 2013-11-19. Retrieved . 
  4. ^ a b "Robert Cornelius' Self-Portrait: The First Ever "Selfie" (1839)". Public Domain Review. Open Knowledge Foundation. Retrieved 2014. 
  5. ^ "Robert Cornelius, self-portrait; believed to be the earliest extant American portrait photo". Prints & Photographs Online Catalog. Library of Congress. Retrieved 2013. 
  6. ^ "Beginners Guide To Understanding And Using A Brownie Box Camera". 
  7. ^ "Diaries and Letters - Letters of Grand Duchess Anastasia". 
  8. ^ "warhol: self portraits". 
  9. ^ "Stevie Nicks self-portraits shown for the first time: 'I never thought anyone would ever see these pictures'". The Guardian. London. 25 September 2014. 
  10. ^ "A brief history of the selfie". ABC Science blog. ABC Online. Retrieved 2015. 
  11. ^ "Oxford Dictionaries Word of the Year 2013 is.." OxfordWords blog. Oxford Dictionaries. Retrieved 2013. 
  12. ^ Zimmer, Ben (22 November 2013). "No, a Drunken Australian Man Did Not Coin the Word Selfie". Slate. ISSN 1091-2339. Retrieved 2017. 
  13. ^ "bogon.8m.com SelfPix". Archived from the original on 13 April 2004. 
  14. ^ "bogon.8m.com Out & About". Archived from the original on 11 October 2001. 
  15. ^ "bogon.8m.com Bogons". Archived from the original on 28 September 2001. 
  16. ^ Mark Wilson (3 March 2015). "For 11 Years, This Man Has Taken Photos Of Everything His Right Hand Touches". Fast Company. 
  17. ^ Corey Charlton (27 February 2015). "The most touching set of photographs you'll ever see!". Daily Mail. 
  18. ^ Cianan Brennan (12 February 2015). "This man has been taking a photo of everything he touches... for the last 11 years". The Journal. 
  19. ^ "Sony Ericsson Z1010 - World's First Phone with a Front-Facing Camera | Nerdeky.Com". nerdeky.com. Retrieved 2015. 
  20. ^ Jim Krause, Photo Idea Index, 2005. page 148.
  21. ^ Horatia Harrod (22 March 2009), The world's photo Album, London: Sunday Telegraph, p. 18, retrieved 2013 
  22. ^ Kate Losse. The Return of the Selfie. The New Yorker. 5 June 2013
  23. ^ "Statista snapchat statistics". 
  24. ^ "Snap Inc" (PDF). 
  25. ^ a b Adewunmi, Bim (2 April 2013). "The rise and rise of the 'selfie'". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 2013. 
  26. ^ a b c McHugh, Jillian (3 April 2013). "'Selfies' just as much for the insecure as show-offs". Bunbury Mail. Retrieved 2013. 
  27. ^ https://www.buzzfeed.com/jtes/this-is-the-first-recorded-use-of-selfie-on-instagram
  28. ^ http://mashable.com/2013/11/19/first-selfie-hashtag-instagram/#uX5Tp3LXSkqx
  29. ^ Steinmetz, Katy (4 December 2012). Top 10 Buzzwords - 9 Selfie, Time
  30. ^ Melanie Hall, "Family albums fade as the young put only themselves in picture" Telegraph, 13 June 2013.
  31. ^ Hui, Susan (7 August 2014). "Monkeys take 'selfies,' sparking copyright dispute". AP News. Retrieved 2014. 
  32. ^ Leonard, Andrew (6 August 2014). "Wikipedia at war! "Monkey selfie" sets off bizarre copyright dispute". Salon. Retrieved 2014. 
  33. ^ Coulthard, Charissa (7 June 2013). "Self-portraits and social media: The rise of the 'selfie'". BBC News online. Retrieved 2013. 
  34. ^ "The Oxford Dictionaries Word of the Year 2013 is... | OxfordWords blog". Blog.oxforddictionaries.com. 18 November 2013. Retrieved 2013. 
  35. ^ "The 50 Best Space Photos of 2013". AOL Weather. Retrieved 2013. 
  36. ^ "Ancient Mars lake may have supported life". Associated Press. 9 December 2013. Retrieved 2013. 
  37. ^ Howell, Elizabeth (11 June 2013). "'Space Selfie' Telescope Could Hunt Alien Planets ... If It Raises A Cool $2M". Universe Today. Retrieved 2013. 
  38. ^ Hatch, Patrick (7 August 2014). "Wikimedia sides with monkey in photo copyright battle over macaque's selfie". The Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved 2014. 
  39. ^ Kravets, David (6 January 2016). "Judge says monkey cannot own copyright to famous selfies". Ars Technica. Retrieved 2016. 
  40. ^ Mulshine, Molly (22 October 2013). "New Selfie App Will Be Your New Fave Or Your Worst Nightmare". "BetaBeat". Retrieved 2014. 
  41. ^ Jenson, Wendy (31 December 2013). "The New Selfie: Feet". The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved 2016. 
  42. ^ Lingebach, Chris (4 January 2014). "Trending: 2014 Selfie Olympics Take Over Twitter". CBS Washington. Retrieved 2014. 
  43. ^ Boboltz, Sara (3 January 2014). "'Selfie Olympics' Are Here To Prove Selfies Will Only Get Crazier in 2014". Huffington Post. Retrieved 2014. 
  44. ^ Stan Schroeder (10 April 2014). "This Mirror Takes Your 'Selfies' and Posts Them on Twitter". Mashable. 
  45. ^ Nerdstrom (24 February 2016). "Bernie Sanders is Going to Win (Because of the Internet)". Daily Kos. Kos Media, LLC. Retrieved 2016. 
  46. ^ Dubois, Lou (2 November 2013). "The selfie won't die - in fact, it just got its own social network". "NBC News". Retrieved 2014. 
  47. ^ Houghton, David and Joinson, Adam and Caldwell, Nigel and Marder, Ben (2013) Tagger's delight? Disclosure and liking in Facebook: the effects of sharing photographs amongst multiple known social circles. Discussion Paper. University of Birmingham, Birmingham.
  48. ^ Sharing photographs on Facebook could damage relationships, new research shows. News & events, Heriot-Watt University Edinburgh. 9 August 2013.
  49. ^ Hills, Rachel (29 March 2013). "Ugly Is the New Pretty: How Unattractive Selfies Took Over the Internet". New York Magazine. Retrieved 2013. 
  50. ^ Ireland, Judith (1 April 2016). "How selfies hijacked our sense of self". The Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved 2016. 
  51. ^ a b Murphy, Meghan (3 April 2013). "Putting selfies under a feminist lens". Georgia Straight. Retrieved 2013. 
  52. ^ Simmons, Rachel. (20 November 2013) Selfies on Instagram and Facebook are tiny bursts of girl pride. Slate.com. Retrieved on 12 March 2014.
  53. ^ Hartzog, Woodrow (10 May 2013). "How to Fight Revenge Porn". The Atlantic. 
  54. ^ Ryan, Erin Gloria. "Selfies Aren't Empowering. They're a Cry for Help". Retrieved 2014. 
  55. ^ "7 tips for taking better selfies". CNN. 12 December 2013. Retrieved 2015. 
  56. ^ Bennett, Jessica (11 August 2014). "Our Bodies, Our Selfies: The Feminist Photo Revolution". Time Magazine. Retrieved 2015. 
  57. ^ Kath, Albury (2015). "Selfies, Sexts andSneaky Hats:Young people's understandings of gendered practices of self-representation". international journal of Communication. 
  58. ^ Barnett, Emma (19 August 2013) Why sexy girl pictures online are more harmful than lads' mags. Telegraph. Retrieved on 12 March 2014.
  59. ^ a b Franco, James (26 December 2013). "The Meanings of the Selfie". The New York Times. Retrieved 2014. 
  60. ^ "Selfie at Oscars breaks retweet record". BBC News. 3 March 2014. Retrieved 2014. 
  61. ^ a b DeGeneres, Ellen (2 March 2014). "If only Bradley's arm was longer. Best photo ever. #oscars". Twitter. Retrieved 2014. 
  62. ^ a b #BBCtrending: Selfie at Oscars breaks retweet record. Bbc.com (3 March 2014). Retrieved on 12 March 2014.
  63. ^ Ellen DeGeneres' Selfie at Oscars Sets Retweet Record, Crashes Twitter, pictured: Jared Leto, Jennifer Lawrence, Meryl Streep, Ellen DeGeneres, Bradley Cooper, Peter Nyong'o Jr., and, second row, from left, Channing Tatum, Julia Roberts, Kevin Spacey, Brad Pitt, Lupita Nyong'o and Angelina Jolie.
  64. ^ a b Hubbard, Amy. (2 March 2014) Oscars 2014, the year of the selfie: Ellen tweet grabs retweet record. Latimes.com. Retrieved on 12 March 2014.
  65. ^ "Barack Obama victory tweet most retweeted ever". BBC News. 7 November 2012. Retrieved 2013. 
  66. ^ "Four more years" Barack Obama on Twitter, 6 November 2012.
  67. ^ a b c Soltis, Andy (10 December 2013). "Michelle not amused by Obama's memorial selfie". New York Post. Retrieved 2014. 
  68. ^ Swann, Elaine. "What's the etiquette of 'selfies' at funerals?". CNN. Retrieved 2014. 
  69. ^ "Narendra Modi selfie trends big on Twitter". timesofindia-economictimes. 30 April 2014. 
  70. ^ (in French) Nic Ulmi, "Selfie politique, une spécialité suisse", Le Temps, Thursday 21 August 2014, page 17.
  71. ^ Alves, Joana Marques (9 March 2017). "#Marcelfies. Um ano em fotografias espalhadas pela internet" [#Marcelfies. A year's worth of photographs spread across the internet]. i (in Portuguese). Retrieved 2017. 
  72. ^ "A "selfie" de Marcelo e Costa em Paris" [Marcelo and Costa's selfie in Paris]. Expresso (in Portuguese). 10 June 2016. Retrieved 2017. 
  73. ^ a b Alyson Shontell (13 January 2014). "Selfies Are Dead, It's All About The 'Usie' Now". Business Insider. Retrieved 2014. 
  74. ^ Sunayana Suresh (19 March 2014). "Has the 'usie' taken over the 'selfie'?". The Times of India. Retrieved 2014. 
  75. ^ Miles Klee (13 January 2014). "The only thing worse than 'group selfies' is what people are calling them". The Daily Dot. Retrieved 2014. 
  76. ^ "Justin Bieber and Selena Gomez Take An Usie Together". TMZ. Retrieved 2014. 
  77. ^ Leonid Bershidsky (8 May 2014). "Chinese Phone Maker Trademarks the 'Groufie'". Bloomberg View. Retrieved 2014. 
  78. ^ a b Martin Gicheru (19 May 2014). "Huawei's Groufie versus Samsung's Wefie, which one's cooler?". TechWeez. Retrieved 2014. 
  79. ^ Ansuya Harjani (8 May 2014). "The next social media buzz word: Groufie". CNBC. Retrieved 2014. 
  80. ^ Alistair Charlton (7 May 2014). "Huawei Ascend P7 announced - this one's for the selfie lovers". Mobile Choice. Retrieved 2014. 
  81. ^ Matthew Sparkes (9 May 2014). "Huawei registers 'groufie' trademark". The Daily Telegraph. London. Retrieved 2014. 
  82. ^ Edwin Kee (12 May 2014). "Huawei Wants 'Groufie' Trademark". Ubergizmo. Retrieved 2014. 
  83. ^ "Wefie - Trademark Details". Justia Trademarks. Justia. Retrieved 2014. 
  84. ^ "Wefie". LegalForce. Trademarkia, Inc. 3 April 2014. Retrieved 2014. 
  85. ^ Rohan Swamy (9 March 2014). "Samsung NX mini 'wefie' focused mirrorless camera announced". NDTV. Retrieved 2014. 
  86. ^ "The 'selfie' is dead. Introducing the 'dronie'". Retrieved 2014. 
  87. ^ Flaherty, Joseph (6 October 2014). "The inventors of the wristwatch drone share their vision of the future". Wired. Retrieved 2014. 
  88. ^ Farace, S., van Laer, T., de Ruyter, K., & Wetzels, M. (2017). "Assessing the effect of narrative transportation, portrayed action, and photographic style on the likelihood to comment on posted selfies." European Journal of Marketing. Available at SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=2638273 or doi: https://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.2638273
  89. ^ Martinez, Luis M.; Bruno, Nicola; Bertamini, Marco (2013). "Self-Portraits: Smartphones Reveal a Side Bias in Non-Artists". PLoS ONE. 8 (2): e55141. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0055141. PMC 3566189 Freely accessible. PMID 23405117. 
  90. ^ Bonora, M; Wieckowsk, M R; Chinopoulos, C; Kepp, O; Kroemer, G; Galluzzi, L; Pinton, P (2015). "Molecular mechanisms of cell death: central implication of ATP synthase in mitochondrial permeability transition". Oncogene. 34 (12): 1608. doi:10.1038/onc.2014.462. PMID 25790189. 
  91. ^ Bruno, Nicola; Gabriele, Valentina; Bertamini, Marco; Tasso, Tiziana (2014). "'Selfies' Reveal Systematic Deviations from Known Principles of Photographic Composition". Art & Perception. 2 (1-2): 45-58. doi:10.1163/22134913-00002027. 
  92. ^ Rebecca Savastio. "Selfies Cause Narcissism, Mental Illness, Addiction and Suicide?". Guardian Liberty Voice. 
  93. ^ Sorokowska, Agnieszka; Oleszkiewicz, Anna; Frackowiak, Tomasz; Pisanski, Katarzyna; Chmiel, Anna; Sorokowski, Piotr (2016). "Selfies and personality: Who posts self-portrait photographs?". Personality and Individual Differences. 90: 119-23. doi:10.1016/j.paid.2015.10.037. 
  94. ^ "Guardian". Retrieved 2014. 
  95. ^ Steinmetz, Katy (4 August 2014). "Time". Retrieved 2014. 
  96. ^ Kondolojy, Amanda (8 May 2014). "ABC Greenlights 'Secrets & Lies', 'Selfie', 'Manhattan Love Story', 'Agent Carter', 'Forever', 'How to Get Away With Murder', 'Black-ish', 'American Crime', 'Galavant' & 'The Whispers'". TV by the Numbers. Retrieved 2015. 
  97. ^ "Man dies while taking selfie on top of train". 18 March 2014. Retrieved 2016. 
  98. ^ a b c d "The Definitive Ranking Of The Selfiest Cities in the World". TIME.com. Retrieved 2016. 
  99. ^ Correspondent, By Gilbert P. Felongco, (4 July 2014). "Student falls to death while taking 'selfie'". Retrieved 2016. 
  100. ^ CNN, Naomi Ng, for. "Twitter declares 2014 year of the selfie". CNN. Retrieved 2016. 
  101. ^ "The year of the selfie". www.google.ie. Retrieved 2016. 
  102. ^ Horton, Helena (22 September 2015). "More people have died by taking selfies this year than by shark attacks". The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 2015. 
  103. ^ Dewey, Caitlin (22 September 2015). "No, selfies have not killed more people than sharks. That's ridiculous" - via washingtonpost.com. 
  104. ^ "The Murky Meaning of the Killer Selfie". The New York Times. 11 December 2015. 
  105. ^ Fung, Kaiser; Gelman, Andrew (5 October 2015). "Debunking the Great 'Selfies Are More Deadly Than Shark Attacks' Myth". 
  106. ^ Payne, Samantha (22 April 2014). "Russia: Attempted Selfie Causes Death of Teenager Xenia Ignatyeva". International Business Times. Retrieved 2015. 
  107. ^ Felongco, Gilbert P. (4 July 2014). "Student falls to death while taking 'selfie'". Gulf News. Retrieved 2014. 
  108. ^ "15-year-old boy accidentally shoots self while taking selfie". ANC Yahoo News. 22 August 2014. Retrieved 2014. 
  109. ^ "Drunk Mexican man accidentally shoots himself in head while posing for selfie". nydailynews.com. New York. 4 August 2014. 
  110. ^ " ". RT. 7 July 2015. Retrieved 2015. 
  111. ^ "Russian Selfie Guide Translated in English - Connecticut.Marketing". 
  112. ^ "One in five young Britons taking selfies behind the wheel, a trend also growing in Australia, experts say". ABC News. 
  113. ^ "Selfie-loving drivers cause spike in accidents". 
  114. ^ Kirstie McCrum (21 July 2015). "Selfie-obsessed drivers who snap pictures behind wheel blamed for spike in road accidents". mirror. 
  115. ^ Damisi, Ojo. "Two FUTA students drown while taking selfie". The Nation. The Nation. Retrieved 2017. 
  116. ^ Amanda du Preez (17 May 2016). "The deadly selfie game - the thrill to end all thrills". The Conversation. Retrieved 2016. 

External links

  • Media related to selfies at Wikimedia Commons

  This article uses material from the Wikipedia page available here. It is released under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0.


Selfies
 



 

Top US Cities