Slovak Language
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Slovak Language

Slovak
sloven?ina, slovenský jazyk
Native to Slovakia, the Czech Republic, Poland, Hungary, bordering regions of western Ukraine (Zakkarpatia)
Ethnicity Slovaks
Native speakers
5.2 million (2011-2012)[1]
Latin (Slovak alphabet)
Slovak Braille
Official status
Official language in
 Slovakia
 European Union
 Czech Republic[2]
 Vojvodina[3]
Recognised minority
language in
Regulated by Ministry of Culture of the Slovak Republic
Language codes
sk
slo (B)
slk (T)
slk
Glottolog slov1269[4]
Linguasphere 53-AAA-db < 53-AAA-b...-d
(varieties: 53-AAA-dba to 53-AAA-dbs)
Map of Slovak language.svg
The Slovak-speaking world:
  regions where Slovak is the language of the majority
  regions where Slovak is the language of a significant minority
This article contains IPA phonetic symbols. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Unicode characters. For a guide to IPA symbols, see Help:IPA.

Slovak ([5][6]) is an Indo-European language that belongs to the West Slavic languages (together with Czech, Polish, and Sorbian). It is called slovenský jazyk (pronounced ['slnski: 'jazik]) or sloven?ina (['slnt?ina]) in the language itself.

Slovak is the official language of Slovakia, where it is spoken by approximately 5.51 million people (2014). Slovak speakers are also found in the United States, the Czech Republic, Argentina, Serbia, Ireland, Romania, Poland, Canada, Hungary, Croatia, Israel, the United Kingdom, Australia, Austria, Ukraine and many other countries worldwide.

Slovak should not be confused with Slovene, or Slovenian (slovenski jezik or slovenina), the main language of Slovenia.

Phonology

Orthography

Slovak uses the Latin script with small modifications that include the four diacritics (?, ´, ¨, ^) placed above certain letters (a-á,ä; c-?; d-?; dz-d?; e-é; i-í; l-?,?; n-?; o-ó,ô; r-?; s-?; t-?; u-ú; y-ý; z-?)

The primary principle of Slovak spelling is the phonemic principle. The secondary principle is the morphological principle: forms derived from the same stem are written in the same way even if they are pronounced differently. An example of this principle is the assimilation rule (see below). The tertiary principle is the etymological principle, which can be seen in the use of i after certain consonants and of y after other consonants, although both i and y are pronounced almost, but usually the same way.

Finally, the rarely applied grammatical principle is present when, for example, the basic singular form and plural form of masculine adjectives are written differently with no difference in pronunciation (e.g. pekný = nice - singular versus pekní = nice - plural).

In addition, the following rules are present:

  1. When a voiced consonant (b, d, ?, dz, d?, g, h, z, ?) is at the end of a word before a pause, it is devoiced to its voiceless counterpart (p, t, ?, c, ?, k, ch, s, ?, respectively). For example, pohyb is pronounced /pip/ and prípad is pronounced /pri:pat/.
  2. The assimilation rule: Consonant clusters containing both voiced and voiceless elements are entirely voiced if the last consonant is a voiced one, or voiceless if the last consonant is voiceless. For example, otázka is pronounced /?ta:ska/ and vzchopi? sa is pronounced /fsx?pits:a/. This rule applies also over the word boundary. For example, prís? domov [pri:z? d?m] (to come home) and viac jahôd [adz ja?t] (more strawberries). The voiced counterpart of "ch" /x/ is [?], and the unvoiced counterpart of "h" /?/ is /x/.

Most foreign words receive Slovak spelling immediately or after some time. For example, "weekend" is spelled víkend, "software" - softvér, "gay" - gej (both not exclusively), and "quality" is spelled kvalita. Personal and geographical names from other languages using Latin alphabets keep their original spelling unless a fully Slovak form of the name exists (e.g. Londýn for "London").

Slovak features some heterophonic homographs (words with identical spelling but different pronunciation and meaning), the most common examples being krásne /'kra:sn?/ (beautiful) versus krásne /'kra:s/ (beautifully).

Syntax

The main features of Slovak syntax are as follows:

Some examples include the following:

Spevá?ka spieva. (The+woman+singer is+singing.)
(Spevá?k-a spieva-?, where -? is (the empty) third-person-singular ending)
Spevá?ky spievajú. (Woman+singers are+singing.)
(Spevá?k-y spieva-j-ú; -ú is a third-person-plural ending, and /j/ is a hiatus sound)
My spevá?ky spievame. (We the+woman+singers are+singing.)
(My spevá?k-y spieva-me, where -me is the first-person-plural ending)
and so forth.
  • Adjectives, pronouns and numerals agree in person, gender and case with the noun to which they refer.
  • Adjectives precede their noun. Botanic or zoological terms are exceptions (e.g. ma?ka divá, literally "cat wild", Felis silvestris) as is the naming of Holy Spirit (Duch Svätý) in a majority of churches.

Word order in Slovak is relatively free, since strong inflection enables the identification of grammatical roles (subject, object, predicate, etc.) regardless of word placement. This relatively free word order allows the use of word order to convey topic and emphasis.

Some examples are as follows:

Ten ve?ký mu? tam dnes otvára obchod. = That big man opens a store there today. (ten = that; ve?ký = big; mu? = man; tam = there; dnes = today; otvára = opens; obchod = store) - The word order does not emphasize any specific detail, just general information.
Ten ve?ký mu? dnes otvára obchod tam. = That big man is today opening a store there. - This word order emphasizes the place (tam = there).
Dnes tam otvára obchod ten ve?ký mu?. = Today over there a store is being opened by that big man. - This word order focuses on the person who is opening the store (ten = that; ve?ký = big; mu? = man).
Obchod tam dnes otvára ten ve?ký mu?. = The store over there is today being opened by that big man. - Depending on the intonation the focus can be either on the store itself or on the person.

The unmarked order is subject-verb-object. Variation in word order is generally possible, but word order is not completely free. In the above example, the noun phrase ten ve?ký mu? cannot be split up, so that the following combinations are not possible:

Ten otvára ve?ký mu? tam dnes obchod.
Obchod mu? tam ten ve?ký dnes otvára. ...

And the following is stylistically not correct:

Obchod ten ve?ký mu? dnes tam otvára. (Only possible in a poem or a similar style.)
This is correct:
Ten ve?ký mu? tam dnes otvára obchod
Ten ve?ký mu? tam otvára dnes obchod
Otvára tam dnes ten ve?ký mu? obchod?

Morphology

Articles

Slovak does not have articles. The demonstrative pronoun ten (fem: , neuter: to) may be used in front of the noun in situations where definiteness must be made explicit.

Nouns, adjectives, pronouns

Slovak nouns are inflected for case and number. There are six cases: nominative, genitive, dative, accusative, locative, and instrumental. The vocative is no longer morphologically marked. There are two numbers: singular and plural. Nouns have inherent gender. There are three genders: masculine, feminine, and neuter. Adjectives and pronouns must agree with nouns in case, number, and gender.

Numerals

The numerals 0-10 have unique forms, with numerals 1-4 requiring specific gendered representations. Numerals 11-19 are formed by adding nás? to the end of each numeral. The suffix dsa? is used to create numerals 20, 30 and 40; for numerals 50, 60, 70, 80 and 90, desiat is used. Compound numerals (21, 1054) are combinations of these words formed in the same order as their mathematical symbol is written (e.g. 21 = dvadsa?jeden, literally "twenty-one").

The numerals are as follows:

1-10 11-20 10-100
1 jeden (number, masculine), jedno (neuter), jedna (feminine) 11 jedenás? 10 desa?
2 dva (number, masculine), dve (neuter, feminine), dvaja (special masculine) 12 dvanás? 20 dvadsa?
3 tri (number, neuter, masculine, feminine), traja (special masculine) 13 trinás? 30 tridsa?
4 ?tyri (number, neuter, masculine, feminine), ?tyria (special masculine) 14 ?trnás? 40 ?tyridsa?
5 pä? 15 pätnás? 50 pä?desiat
6 ?es? 16 ?estnás? 60 ?es?desiat
7 sedem 17 sedemnás? 70 sedemdesiat
8 osem 18 osemnás? 80 osemdesiat
9 devä? 19 devätnás? 90 devä?desiat
10 desa? 20 dvadsa? 100 sto

Some higher numbers: (200) dvesto,... (300) tristo,... (900) devä?sto,... (1,000) tisíc,... (1,100) tisícsto,... (2,000) dvetisíc,... (100,000) stotisíc,... (200,000) dvestotisíc,... (1,000,000) milión,... (1,000,000,000) miliarda,...

Counted nouns have two forms. The most common form is the plural genitive (e.g. pä? domov = five houses or stodva ?ien = one hundred two women), while the plural form of the noun when counting the amounts of 2-4, etc., is usually the nominative form without counting (e.g. dva domy = two houses or dve ?eny = two women) but gender rules do apply in many cases.

Verbs

Verbs have three major conjugations. Three persons and two numbers (singular and plural) are distinguished. Several conjugation paradigms exist as follows:

  • á- type verbs
vola?, to call Singular Plural Past participle (masculine - feminine - neuter)
1st person volám voláme volal - volala - volalo
2nd person volá? voláte
3rd person volá volajú
býva?, to live Singular Plural Past participle
1st person bývam bývame býval - bývala - bývalo
2nd person býva? bývate
3rd person býva bývajú
  • á- type verbs (soft stem)
vraca?, to return or (mostly in slang) to vomit Singular Plural Past participle
1st person vraciam vraciame vracal - vracala - vracalo
2nd person vracia? vraciate
3rd person vracia vracajú
  • í- type verbs
robi?, to do, work Singular Plural Past participle
1st person robím robíme robil - robila - robilo
2nd person robí? robíte
3rd person robí robia
  • í- type verbs - rhythmic law
vráti?, to return Singular Plural Past participle
1st person vrátim vrátime vrátil - vrátila - vrátilo
2nd person vráti? vrátite
3rd person vráti vrátia
  • ie -type verbs
vidie?, to see Singular Plural Past participle
1st person vidím vidíme videl - videla - videlo
2nd person vidí? vidíte
3rd person vidí vidia
  • e- type verbs (ova?)
kupova?, to buy Singular Plural Past participle
1st person kupujem kupujeme kupoval - kupovala - kupovalo
2nd person kupuje? kupujete
3rd person kupuje kupujú
  • e- type verbs (typically -cnu?)
zabudnú?, to forget Singular Plural Past participle
1st person zabudnem zabudneme zabudol - zabudla - zabudlo
2nd person zabudne? zabudnete
3rd person zabudne zabudnú
  • ie -type verbs (typically -vnu?)
minú?, to spend, miss Singular Plural Past participle
1st person miniem minieme minul - minula - minulo
2nd person minie? miniete
3rd person minie minú
  • ie -type verbs (-c?, -s?, -z?)
nies?, to carry Singular Plural Past participle
1st person nesiem nesieme niesol - niesla - nieslo
2nd person nesie? nesiete
3rd person nesie nesú
  • ie -type verbs (-nie?)
stu?nie?, to carry (be fat) Singular Plural Past participle
1st person stu?niem stu?nieme stu?nel - stu?nela - stu?nelo
2nd person stu?nie? stu?niete
3rd person stu?nie stu?nejú
  • Irregular verbs
by?, to be jes?, to eat vedie?, to know
1st singular som jem viem
2nd singular si je? vie?
3rd singular je je vie
1st plural sme jeme vieme
2nd plural ste jete viete
3rd plural jedia vedia
Past participle bol, bola, bolo jedol, jedla, jedlo vedel, vedela, vedelo
  • Subject personal pronouns are omitted unless they are emphatic.
  • Some imperfective verbs are created from the stems of perfective verbs to denote repeated or habitual actions. These are considered separate lexemes. One example is as follows: to hide (perfective) = skry?, to hide (habitual) = skrýva?.
  • Historically, two past tense forms were utilized. Both are formed analytically. The second of these, equivalent to the pluperfect, is not used in the modern language, being considered archaic and/or grammatically incorrect. Examples for two related verbs are as follows:
skry?: skryl som (I hid / I have hidden); bol som skryl (I had hidden)
skrýva?: skrýval som; bol som skrýval.
  • One future tense exists. For imperfective verbs, it is formed analytically, for perfective verbs it is identical with the present tense. Some examples are as follows:
skry?: skryjem
skrýva?: budem skrýva?
  • Two conditional forms exist. Both are formed analytically from the past tense:
skry?: skryl by som (I would hide), bol by som skryl (I would have hidden)
skrýva?: skrýval by som; bol by som skrýval
  • The passive voice is formed either as in English (to be + past participle) or using the reflexive pronoun 'sa':
skry?: je skrytý; sa skryje
skrýva?: je skrývaný; sa skrýva
  • The active present participle (= ~ing (one)) is formed using the suffixes -úci/ -iaci / -aci
skry?: skryjúci
skrýva?: skrývajúci
skry?: skryjúc (by hiding (perfective))
skrýva?: skrývajúc ((while/during) hiding)
  • The active past participle (= ~ing (in the past)) was formerly formed using the suffix -v?í, but is no longer used.
  • The passive participle (= ~ed (one), the "third form") is formed using the suffixes -ný / -tý / -ený:
skry?: skrytý
skrýva?: skrývaný
  • The gerund (= the (process of) ...ing) is formed using the suffix -ie:
skry?: skrytie
skrýva?: skrývanie

Adverbs

Adverbs are formed by replacing the adjectival ending with the ending -o or -e / -y. Sometimes both -o and -e are possible. Examples include the following:

vysoký (high) - vysoko (highly)
pekný (nice) - pekne (nicely)
priate?ský (friendly) - priate?sky (in a friendly manner)
rýchly (fast) - rýchlo (quickly)

The comparative/superlative of adverbs is formed by replacing the adjectival ending with a comparative/superlative ending -(ej)?í or -(ej)?ie. Examples include the following:

rýchly (fast) - rýchlej?í (faster) - najrýchlej?í (fastest): rýchlo (quickly) - rýchlej?ie (more quickly) - najrýchlej?ie (most quickly)

Prepositions

Each preposition is associated with one or more grammatical cases. The noun governed by a preposition must appear in the case required by the preposition in the given context (e.g. from friends = od priate?ov). Priate?ov is the genitive case of priatelia. It must appear in this case because the preposition od (= from) always calls for its objects to be in the genitive.

around the square = po námestí (locative case)
past the square = po námestie (accusative case)

Po has a different meaning depending on the case of its governed noun.

History

Relationships to other languages

The Slovak language is a descendant of Proto-Slavic, itself a descendant of Proto-Indo-European. It is closely related to the other West Slavic languages, primarily to Czech and Polish. Czech also influenced the language in its later development. To lesser degrees, moreover, Slovak has been influenced by German, Latin, Hungarian, and recently English.

Czech

Although most dialects of Czech and Slovak are mutually intelligible (see Comparison of Slovak and Czech), eastern Slovak dialects are less intelligible to speakers of Czech and closer to Polish, and contact between speakers of Czech and speakers of the eastern dialects is limited.

Since the dissolution of Czechoslovakia it has been permitted to use Czech in TV broadcasting and--like any other language of the world--during court proceedings (Administration Procedure Act 99/1963 Zb.). From 1999 to August 2009, the Minority Language Act 184/1999 Z.z., in its section (§) 6, contained the variously interpreted unclear provision saying that "When applying this act, it holds that the use of the Czech language fulfills the requirement of fundamental intelligibility with the state language"; the state language is Slovak and the Minority Language Act basically refers to municipalities with more than 20% ethnic minority population (no such Czech municipalities are found in Slovakia). Since 1 September 2009 (due to an amendment to the State Language Act 270/1995 Z.z.) a language "fundamentally intelligible with the state language" (i.e. the Czech language) may be used in contact with state offices and bodies by its native speakers, and documents written in it and issued by bodies in the Czech Republic are officially accepted. Regardless of its official status, Czech is used commonly both in Slovak mass media and in daily communication by Czech natives as an equal language.

Czech and Slovak have a long history of interaction and mutual influence well before the creation of Czechoslovakia in 1918, a state which existed until 1993. Literary Slovak shares significant orthographic features with Czech, as well as technical and professional terminology dating from the Czechoslovak period, but phonetic, grammatical, and vocabulary differences do exist.

Other Slavic languages

Slavic language varieties tend to be closely related, and have had a large degree of mutual influence, due to the complicated ethnopolitical history of their historic ranges. This is reflected in the many features Slovak shares with neighboring language varieties. Standard Slovak shares high degrees of mutual intelligibility with many Slavic varieties. Despite this closeness to other Slavic varieties, significant variation exists among Slovak dialects. In particular, eastern varieties differ significantly from the standard language, which is based on central and western varieties.

Eastern Slovak dialects have the greatest degree of mutual intelligibility with Polish of all the Slovak dialects followed by Rusyn, but both lack technical terminology and upper register expressions. Polish and Sorbian also differ quite considerably from Czech and Slovak in upper registers, but non-technical and lower register speech is readily intelligible. Some mutual intelligibility occurs with spoken Rusyn, Ukrainian, and even Russian (in this order), although their orthographies are based on the Cyrillic script.

English Slovak Czech Rusyn Ukrainian Belarusian Polish Serbo-Croatian Bulgarian Slovenian
to buy kupova? kupovat (kupovaty) (kupuvaty) ? (kuplia?) kupowa? kupovati / (kupuva) kupovati
Welcome Vitajte Vítejte ? (vitajte) (vitaju) (vitaju) Witajcie Dobro do?li / (dobre do?li) Dobrodo?li
morning ráno ráno/jitro ? (rano) ?/ (rano/ranok) ?/ (rana/ranak) rano/ranek jutro / ? (utro) jutro
Thank you ?akujem D?kuji (diakuju) (diakuju) (dziakuj) Dzi?kuj? Hvala / (blagodarja) Hvala
How are you? Ako sa má Jak se má ?/?
(jak ?a maje?/ma)
? (jak spravy?) ? (jak spravy?) Jak si? masz? (colloquially "jak leci?") Kako si? / ? (Kak si?) Kako se ima/Kako si?

(jak ?a maje)

(jak maje?sia?)

Latin

  • baku?a: baculum (stick)
  • dom: domus (house)
  • klá?tor: claustrum (monastery)
  • kostol: castellum (church)
  • ko?e?a: casula (shirt)
  • machu?a: macula (blot, stain)
  • ?kola: scola (school)
  • skri?a: skrinium (cupboard)
  • titul: titulus (title)

English

Sports:

  • ?portova?: to do sports
  • ?port: sport
  • futbal: Football (Association football; it can also mean American football, especially when specified as americký futbal)
  • offsajd: offside
  • aut: out (football)
  • hokej: hockey
  • body?ek: body check (hockey)

Food:

  • hemendex: ham & eggs
  • pizza: pizza
  • ke?up: ketchup

Clothing:

  • d?ínsy: jeans
  • legíny: leggings
  • sveter: sweater
  • tenisky: tennis shoes

Exclamations:

  • fajn: fine
  • super: super
  • fakt:
    • When used as an exclamation or a question (Fakt! or Fakt?), fakt word translates to "really," and is used to verify that something is true, such as in the statement "Spala som len dve hodiny." "Fakt?" ("I only slept for two hours." "Really?")
    • Fakt can also be used as a flavoring particle in a sentence, similar in meaning to word "indeed." It emphatically underscores the truth of a sentence, such as in the statement "On bol fakt nepríjemný" ("He was indeed unpleasant.")

German

Nouns:

  • brak: Brack (rubbish)
  • cech: Zeche (guild)
  • cie?: Ziel (goal/target)
  • cín: Zinn (tin)
  • deka: Decke (blanket)
  • drôt: Draht (wire)
  • falo?: Falschheit (falsity)
  • farba: Farbe (color)
  • fa?iangy: Fasching (carnival)
  • fialka: Veilchen (viola)
  • f?a?a: Flasche (bottle)
  • fúra: Fuhre (load)
  • gróf: Graf (count)
  • hák: Haken (hook)
  • helma: Helm (helmet)
  • hoblík: Hobel (hand plane)
  • jarmok: Jahrmarkt (funfair)
  • kned?a: Knödel (dumpling)
  • minca: Münze (coin)
  • ortie?: Urteil (verdict)
  • pan?ucha: Bundschuh (stocking)
  • plech: Blech (sheet metal)
  • regál: Regal (shelf)
  • ruksak: Rucksack (backpack)
  • rúra: Rohr (pipe)
  • rytier: Ritter (knight)
  • ?achta: Schacht (mine shaft)
  • ?inde?: Schindel (roof shingle)
  • ?núra: Schnur (cord)
  • ta?ka: Tasche (purse)
  • téma: Thema (topic)
  • va?a: Badewanne (bathtub)
  • Vianoce: Weihnachten (Christmas)
  • vlo?ka: Flocke (flake)
  • ?umpa: Sumpf (cesspit)

Verbs:

  • ?tudova?: studieren (to study (as in, to major in))
  • vin?ova?: wünschen (to wish)
    • Note: colloquially, the standard term in Slovak is ?ela?[7]

Greetings:

Servus is commonly used as a greeting or upon parting in Slovak-speaking regions and some German-speaking regions, particularly Austria. Papa is also commonly used upon parting in these regions. Both servus and papa are used in colloquial, informal conversation.

Hungarian

Hungarians and Slovaks have had a language interaction ever since the settlement of Hungarians in the Carpathian area. Hungarians also adopted many words from various Slavic languages related to agriculture and administration, and a number of Hungarian loanwords are found in Slovak. Some examples are as follows:

  • "wicker whip": Slovak korbá? (the standard name for "whip" is bi? and korbá?, itself originating from Turkish k?rbaç, usually means only one particular type of it--the "wicker whip") - Hungarian korbács;
  • "dragon/kite": Slovak ?arkan (rather rare, drak is far more common in this meaning; ?arkan often means only "kite", esp. a small one that is flown for fun and this term is far more common than drak in this meaning; for the "dragon kite", the term drak is still used almost exclusively) - Hungarian sárkány.[8]
  • "rumour": Slovak chýr, Hungarian hír;
  • "camel": Slovak ?ava, Hungarian teve;
  • "ditch": Slovak jarok, Hungarian árok;
  • "glass": Slovak pohár, Hungarian pohár;

Dialects

Official usage of the Slovak language in Vojvodina, Serbia

There are many Slovak dialects, which are divided into the following four basic groups:

The fourth group of dialects is often not considered a separate group, but a subgroup of Central and Western Slovak dialects (see e.g. ?tolc, 1968), but it is currently undergoing changes due to contact with surrounding languages (Serbo-Croatian, Romanian, and Hungarian) and long-time geographical separation from Slovakia (see the studies in Zborník Spolku vojvodinských slovakistov, e.g. Dudok, 1993).

For an external map of the three groups in Slovakia see here.

The dialect groups differ mostly in phonology, vocabulary, and tonal inflection. Syntactic differences are minor. Central Slovak forms the basis of the present-day standard language. Not all dialects are fully mutually intelligible. It may be difficult for an inhabitant of the western Slovakia to understand a dialect from eastern Slovakia and the other way around.

The dialects are fragmented geographically, separated by numerous mountain ranges. The first three groups already existed in the 10th century. All of them are spoken by the Slovaks outside Slovakia (USA, Canada, Croatian Slavonia, and elsewhere), and central and western dialects form the basis of the lowland dialects (see above).

The western dialects contain features common with the Moravian dialects in the Czech Republic, the southern central dialects contain a few features common with South Slavic languages, and the eastern dialects a few features common with Polish and the East Slavonic languages (cf. ?tolc, 1994). Lowland dialects share some words and areal features with the languages surrounding them (Serbo-Croatian, Hungarian, and Romanian).

See also

References

  1. ^ Slovak at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
  2. ^ E.g. law 500/2004, 337/1992. Source: http://portal.gov.cz/app/zakony/download?idBiblio=58370&nr=500~2F2004~20Sb.&ft=pdf
  3. ^ "Autonomous Province of Vojvodina". Government of the Autonomous Province of Vojvodina. 2013. Retrieved 2017.
  4. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Slovak". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
  5. ^ Wells, John C. (2008), Longman Pronunciation Dictionary (3rd ed.), Longman, ISBN 9781405881180
  6. ^ Roach, Peter (2011), Cambridge English Pronouncing Dictionary (18th ed.), Cambridge University Press, ISBN 9780521152532
  7. ^ http://www.fhv.umb.sk/app/cmsFile.php?disposition=a&ID=3394 google.com
  8. ^ Imre, Pacsai. "Magyar Nyelv?r - Pacsai Imre: Magyar-szlovák kulturális és nyelvi kapcsolat jegyei..." www.c3.hu.

Bibliography

  • Dudok, D. (1993) Vznik a charakter slovenských náre?í v juhoslovanskej Vojvodine [The emergence and character of the Slovak dialects in Yugoslav Vojvodina]. Zborník spolku vojvodinských slovakistov 15. Nový Sad: Spolok vojvodinských slovakistov, pp. 19-29.
  • Musilová, K. and Sokolová, M. (2004) Funk?nost ?esko-slovenských kontaktových jev? v sou?asnosti [The functionality of Czech-Slovak contact phenomena in the present-time]. In Fiala, J. and Machala, L. (eds.) Studia Moravica I (AUPO, Facultas Philosophica Moravica 1). Olomouc: Univerzita Palackého v Olomouci, pp. 133-146.
  • Náb?lková, M. (2003) Sú?asné kontexty slovensko-?eskej a ?esko-slovenskej medzijazykovosti [Contemporary contexts of the Slovak-Czech and Czech-Slovak interlinguality]. In Pospí?il, I. - Zelenka, M. (eds.) ?esko-slovenské vztahy v slovanských a st?edoevropských souvislostech (meziliterárnost a areál). Brno: ÚS FF MU, pp. 89-122.
  • Náb?lková, M. (2006) V ?om bliie, v ?om ?alej... Spisovná sloven?ina vo vz?ahu k spisovnej ?e?tine a k obecnej ?e?tine [In what closer, in what further... Standard Slovak in relation to Standard Czech and Common Czech]. In Gladkova, H. and Cvr?ek, V. (eds.) Sociální aspekty spisovných jazyk? slovanských. Praha: Euroslavica, pp. 93-106.
  • Náb?lková, M. (2007) Closely related languages in contact: Czech, Slovak, "Czechoslovak". International Journal of the Sociology of Language 183, pp. 53-73.
  • Náb?lková, M. (2008) Sloven?ina a ?e?tina v kontakte: Pokra?ovanie príbehu. [Slovak and Czech in Contact: Continuation of the Story]. Bratislava/Praha: Veda/Filozofická fakulta Univerzity Karlovy. 364 pp., ISBN 978-80-224-1060-1
  • Sloboda, M. (2004) Slovensko-?eská (semi)komunikace a vzájemná (ne)srozumitelnost [Slovak-Czech (semi)communication and the mutual (un)intelligibility]. ?e?tina doma a ve sv?t? XII, No. 3-4, pp. 208-220.
  • Sokolová, M. (1995) ?eské kontaktové javy v sloven?ine [Czech contact phenomena in Slovak]. In Ondrejovi?, S. and ?imková, M. (eds.) Sociolingvistické aspekty výskumu sú?asnej sloven?iny (Sociolinguistica Slovaca 1). Bratislava: Veda, pp. 188-206.
  • ?tolc, Jozef (1968) Re? Slovákov v Juhoslávii I.: Zvuková a gramatická stavba [The speech of the Slovaks in Yugoslavia: phonological and grammatical structure]. Bratislava: Vydavate?stvo Slovenskej akadémie vied.
  • ?tolc, Jozef (1994) Slovenská dialektológia [Slovak dialectology]. Ed. I. Ripka. Bratislava: Veda.

Further reading

  • Hanulíková, Adriana; Hamann, Silke (2010), "Slovak" (PDF), Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 40 (3): 373-378, doi:10.1017/S0025100310000162
  • Krá?, Ábel (1988), Pravidlá slovenskej výslovnosti, Bratislava: Slovenské pedagogické nakladate?stvo
  • Mistrík, Jozef (1988) [First published 1982], A Grammar of Contemporary Slovak (2nd ed.), Bratislava: Slovenské pedagogické nakladate?stvo
  • Pauliny, Eugen; Rui?ka, Jozef; ?tolc, Jozef (1968), Slovenská gramatika, Slovenské pedagogické nakladate?stvo
  • Short, David (2002), "Slovak", in Comrie, Bernard; Corbett, Greville G., The Slavonic Languages, London and New York: Routledge, pp. 533-592, ISBN 9780415280785

External links


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