Tata Group
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Tata Group

Tata Group of companies
Public
Industry Conglomerate
Founded 1868; 150 years ago (1868)
Founder Jamshetji Tata
Headquarters Bombay House, Mumbai, Maharashtra, India
Area served
Worldwide
Key people
Products
Revenue IncreaseUS$100.4 billion[3] (2017)
IncreaseUS$126 billion[3] (2017)
Owner Tata Sons
Number of employees
695,699 (2017)[3]
Subsidiaries List of subsidiaries
Website www.tata.com

Tata Group is an Indian multinational conglomerate holding company headquartered in Mumbai, Maharashtra. Founded in 1868 by Jamshedji Tata, the company gained international recognition after purchasing several global companies, beginning with Tetley in 2000, recorded as "the biggest acquisition in Indian corporate history."[4] One of India's largest conglomerates, Tata Group is owned by Tata Sons, a registered charity.[5][6]

Each Tata company operates independently under the guidance and supervision of its own board of directors and shareholders. There are 29 publicly listed Tata enterprises with a combined market capitalisation of about $151.62 billion as of March 1, 2018.[3] Significant Tata companies and subsidiaries include Tata Steel, Tata Motors, Jaguar Land Rover with its marques Jaguar and Land Rover, Tata Consultancy Services, Tata Power, Tata Chemicals (including Tata Swach), Tata Global Beverages, Tata Coffee, Tata Teleservices, Titan, Tata Communications, and The Indian Hotels Company Limited (Taj Hotels).

Chairman

The Chairman of Tata Sons is usually the Chairman of the Tata Group.

Subsidiaries

Bombay House, the head office of Tata Group
Tata Bus
Packages of Tata Tea
Himalayan-Tata Mineral Water
Tata bus in Madrid, Spain
Thai assembled Tata Xenon pickup truck
The Taj Mahal Palace Hotel, owned by a Tata subsidiary

This section lists the Tata companies and details their business:

Chemicals

  • Tata Chemicals
  • Advinus Therapeutics
  • Brunner Mond
  • General Chemical Industrial Products
  • Magadi Soda Company
  • Rallis India
  • Tata Pigments Limited

Consumer products

Energy

  • Hooghly Met Coke and Power Company
  • Jamshedpur Utilities and Services Company
  • Powerlinks Transmission
  • Tata Petrodyne
  • Tata Power, one of the largest private sector power companies
  • Tata Power Delhi Distribution Ltd (formerly known as North Delhi Power Ltd)
  • Tata Power Solar, started as a joint venture between Tata Power and BP Solar, now a wholly owned company
  • Tata Power Trading
  • Tata Projects

Engineering

Information systems and communications

Services

Steel

  • JAMIPOL
  • NatSteel Holdings
  • Tata Bearings
  • Tata BlueScope Steel
  • Tata Metaliks
  • Tayo Rolls
  • Tata Sponge Iron
  • Tata Steel
  • Tata Steel Europe
  • Tata Steel KZN
  • Tata Steel Processing and Distribution
  • The Tinplate Company of India
  • TM International Logistics

[Acquisitions]:

Philanthropy

Tata Group has helped establish and finance numerous research, educational and cultural institutes in India,[11][12] and received the Carnegie Medal of Philanthropy.[13] Some of the institutes established by the Tata Group are:

In 2008, Tata Group donated $50 million USD to Cornell University for "agricultural and nutrition programs in India and for the education of Indian students at Cornell."[17]

In 2010, Tata Group donated INR 2.20 billion ($50 million) to the Harvard Business School (HBS) to build an academic and a residential building for executive education programmes on the institute's campus in Boston, Massachusetts, now Tata Hall,[18] which is the largest endowment received by HBS from an international donor.

Ratan-Tata
Ratan Tata, the former chairman of Tata Group[19]

In 2017, Tata Football Academy won the bid to form the Jamshedpur FC, a football club based on Jamshedpur of Jharkhand in the 4th edition of the Indian Super League.

Controversies and criticisms

The Tata Group has also attracted several controversies and criticisms, including the following.

Munnar, Kerala

The Kerala Government filed an affidavit in the high court saying that Tata Tea had 'grabbed' forest land of 3,000 acres (12 km2) at Munnar. The Tatas said they possessed 58,741.82 acres (237.7197 km2) of land, which they are allowed to retain under the Kannan Devan Hill (Resumption of Lands) Act, 1971, and there was a shortage of 278.23 hectares in that. The Chief Minister of Kerala V.S. Achuthanandan, who vowed to evict all on government land in Munnar, formed a special squad for the Munnar land takeover mission and started acquiring back properties. However, later he had to abort the mission as there were many influential land grabbers and faced opposition from his own party.

Kalinganagar, Odisha

On 2 January 2006, policemen at Kalinganagar, Odisha, opened fire at a crowd of tribal villagers. The villagers were protesting the construction of a compound wall on land historically owned by them, for a Tata steel plant. Some of the corpses were returned to the families in a mutilated condition. When pushed for comment, TATA officials said the incident was unfortunate but that it would continue with its plans to set up the plant.[20]

Supplies to Burma's military regime

Tata Motors reported that deals to supply hardware and automobiles to Burma's military junta had come in for criticism from human rights and democracy activists. In December 2006, Gen. Thura Shwe Mann, Myanmar's chief of general staff visited the Tata Motors plant in Pune.[21] In 2009, TATA Motors announced that it would press ahead with plans to manufacture trucks in Myanmar.[22][23]

Land acquisition in Singur

The Singur controversy[24] in West Bengal led to further questions over Tata's social record, with protests by locals and political parties (though the involvement of Mamata Banerjee's party was widely criticised as an act for political gains) over the forced acquisition, eviction and inadequate compensation to those farmers displaced for the Tata Nano plant. As the protests grew, and despite having the support of the Communist Party of India (Marxist) state government, Tata eventually pulled the project out of West Bengal, citing safety concerns. The Singur controversy was one of the few occasions when Ratan Tata was forced to publicly address criticisms and concerns on any environmental or social issue. Ratan Tata subsequently embraced Narendra Modi, the then Chief Minister of Gujarat, who quickly made land available for the Nano project.[25]

In a historic judgement on Aug 31 2016, the Honorable Supreme Court of India set aside the land acquisition by the West Bengal Government in 2006 to facilitate Tata Motors to set up its Nano plant, and directed the West Bengal government to take possession of the land and distribute it to the land owners within 12 weeks.[26]

Dhamra Port, Odisha

On the environmental front, the Port of Dhamara controversy has received significant coverage, both within India and in Tata's emerging global markets.[27][28]

The Dhamra port, a venture between Tata Steel and Larsen & Toubro, has come in for criticism for its proximity to the Gahirmatha Sanctuary and Bhitarkanika National Park, from Indian and international organisations, including Greenpeace. Gahirmatha Beach is one of the world's largest mass nesting sites for the Olive Ridley Turtle, and Bhitarkanika is a designated Ramsar site and India's second largest mangrove forest. TATA officials have denied that the port poses an ecological threat, and stated that mitigation measures are being employed with the advice of the IUCN.[29] On the other hand, conservation organisations, including Greenpeace, have pointed out that no proper environment impact analysis has been done for the project, which has undergone changes in size and specifications since it was first proposed, and say that the port could interfere with mass nesting at the Gahirmtha beaches and the ecology of the Bitharkanika mangrove forest.[30][31]

Soda extraction plant in Tanzania

Tata group, along with a Tanzanian company, joined forces to build a soda ash extraction plant in Tanzania.[32] Environmental activists oppose the plant because it would be near Lake Natron, and it has a very high chance of affecting the lake's ecosystem and its neighbouring dwellers.[33]

It could also jeopardise the Lesser Flamingo birds there, which are already endangered. Lake Natron is where two-thirds of Lesser Flamingos reproduce.[34] Producing soda ash involves drawing out salt water from the lake, and then disposing the water back to the lake. This process could interrupt the chemical makeup of the lake.[32] 22 African nations are against the creation of the project and have signed a petition to stop its construction.[32]

Data and intellectual property theft

In April 2016, a U.S. Federal Grand Jury awarded Epic Systems a $940 million judgement against Tata Consultancy Services and Tata America International Corp. Filed 31 October 2014; the suit charged that "6,477 unauthorized downloads could be used to enhance Tata's competing product, Med Mantra."[35][36][37] In 2017, U.S. District Court Judge William Conley reduced the Award to $420 million; the company states that the judgement is also being appealed, as "not supported by evidence presented during the trial and a strong appeal can be made to superior court to fully set aside the jury verdict."[38]

2018 NCLT verdict

In July 2018, the National Company Law Tribunal (NCLT), which "adjudicates issues relating to Indian companies,"[39] issued a verdict in the company's favor on charges of mismanagement leveled in 2016 by ousted chairman, Cyrus Mistry.[40]

2016 fire at headquarters

On 16 June 2016, an electrical short-circuit sparked a fire broke out at Tata Group corporate headquarters in Mumbai. Owing to quick containment, no casualties were reported.[41]

See also

References

  1. ^ "N Chandrasekaran, CEO and MD of Tata Consultancy Services, is new Chairman of Tata ratan Tata Group". Times of India. New Delhi. 12 January 2017. Retrieved 2017. 
  2. ^ Pandey, Piyush (2017-05-22). "Saurabh Agrawal is the Tata Sons' Chief Finance Officer". The Hindu. ISSN 0971-751X. Retrieved . 
  3. ^ a b c d "Tata Group Financial Statements". Tata Group. 
  4. ^ "Tetley bagged by India's Tata on 27 February 2000". BBC. Retrieved 2018. 
  5. ^ Pocha, Jehangir (12 December 2011). Tata Sons: Passing the Baton. Forbes India. Retrieved 2017. 
  6. ^ "Tata Sons Limited vs The Deputy Cit, Special Range-1 on 28 April, 2006". www.indiankanoon.org. Civil court, Mumbai. Retrieved 2017. 
  7. ^ "TCS boss N Chandrasekaran is the new Tata Sons Chairman". 17 December 2017 – via The Economic Times. 
  8. ^ "Tatas' shopping spree: 27 in 6 years!". Rediff. 24 August 2006. Retrieved 2015. 
  9. ^ "Tata Steel gives India a pound of UK". timesofindia-economictimes. Retrieved 2015. 
  10. ^ Timmons, Heather (4 January 2008). "Tata Pulls Ford Units into Its Orbit". The New York Times. Retrieved 2009. 
  11. ^ "The rainbow effect". 4 May 2008. 
  12. ^ "India's Tata Group: Empowering marginalized communities". 4 May 2008. 
  13. ^ "U.S. and Indian philanthropists recognized for conviction, courage and sustained efforts". 4 May 2008. Archived from the original on 26 September 2008. 
  14. ^ "MIT Tata Center: MIT Tata Center". tatacenter.mit.edu. 
  15. ^ "Tata Centre for Technology & Design at IIT Bombay". 
  16. ^ "Tata Medical Center". Retrieved 2015. 
  17. ^ "$50 million endowment from Tata trust bolsters Cornell ties to India, and to eminent alumnus". Cornell. USA. 17 October 2008. Retrieved 2018. 
  18. ^ "Tatas gift Rs220 crore to Harvard Business School - Mumbai - DNA". Dnaindia.com. 16 October 2010. Retrieved 2011. 
  19. ^ "Cyrus Mistry Replaced by Ratan Tata as Tata Sons chairman - The Economic Times". The Economic Times. Retrieved . 
  20. ^ Nityanand Jayaraman (24 May 2006). "CorpWatch : Stolen for Steel: Tata Takes Tribal Lands in India". Corpwatch.org. Retrieved 2010. 
  21. ^ ["Myanmar Ties." 8 December 2006. The Telegraph, Calcutta, India].
  22. ^ "India's Independent Weekly News Magazine". Tehelka. Retrieved 2010. 
  23. ^ "Ansari visits Myanmar tomorrow, 3 MoUs to be signed". Zeenews.com. 4 February 2009. Retrieved 2010. 
  24. ^ "Singur farmers: Why they oppose Tata plant". Retrieved 2015. 
  25. ^ "Singur's loss". Hinduonnet.com. 7 November 2008. Retrieved 2011. 
  26. ^ "Singur verdict announced, SC says return land to farmers: Here's a timeline of the case - Firstpost". Firstpost. 2016-08-31. Retrieved . 
  27. ^ 'India - Tata in troubled waters', Ethical Corporation, November 2007, London, UK
  28. ^ "India - Tata in troubled waters - Ethical Corporation". Ethicalcorp.com. Retrieved 2010. 
  29. ^ "Page Not Found". Retrieved 2015. 
  30. ^ "Documents And Reports | Save the turtles". Greenpeace.in. 12 June 2009. Retrieved 2010. 
  31. ^ "Sea dredging affecting Olive Ridley turtles, says green body". Thaindian.com. 5 April 2008. Retrieved 2010. 
  32. ^ a b c "Dar annoys neighbours over $400m soda ash project". The East African. Nation Media Group. 5 November 2007. Retrieved 2009. 
  33. ^ Magubira, Patty (16 May 2008). "Tanzania: UK Activists Pile Pressure Against Soda Ash Project". The Citizen. Dar es Salaam: AllAfrica.com. Retrieved 2009. 
  34. ^ Pathak, Maulik (31 October 2007). "Tata Chemicals' African safari hits green hurdle". The Economic Times. India. Retrieved 2009. 
  35. ^ "US jury slaps $940 million fine on Tata group in trade secret case". The Times of India. 16 April 2016. Archived from the original on 16 April 2016. Retrieved 2016. 
  36. ^ Judy Newman (5 April 2016). "Jury trial begins in Epic Systems Corp. lawsuit against India's Tata Consultancy". Wisconsin State Journal. Archived from the original on 16 April 2016. Retrieved 2016. According to the 40-page complaint, Tata employees fraudulently accessed Epic documents and downloaded at least 6,477 of them, containing information that could be used to benefit Tata's own health care software, Med Mantra. 
  37. ^ Kyle Murphy, PhD (11 April 2016). "Epic Systems Taking TCS to Court over Theft of Trade Secrets". EHR Intelligence. Archived from the original on 16 April 2016. Retrieved 2016. [T]he documents downloaded by TCS personnel included, among other things, documents detailing over twenty years of development of Epic's proprietary software and database systems, including programming rules and processes developed to produce optimal functionality of Epic's software; documents that decode the operation of its source code that would otherwise be unusable to those outside of Epic; and information regarding Epic's system capabilities and functions, including procedures for transferring data between customer environments, rules related to information collection, methods for limiting access to patient records, and processes for converting customer data, all of which reveal decades of work with its customers to determine the functionality desirable or required for Epic to provide successful products to those customers. 
  38. ^ Wahlberg, David "Award to Epic in trade secrets case reduced from $940 million to $420 million", Wisconsin State Journal, October 4, 2017. Retrieved July 12, 2018.
  39. ^ "National Company Law Tribunal constituted - new perspectives for dispute resolution". Khaitan & Co. Retrieved 2016. 
  40. ^ "Ratan Tata welcomes NCLT verdict". The Economic Times. 9 July 2018. Retrieved 2018. 
  41. ^ "Fire at TATA Group headquarters". The Economic Times. Times Group. 

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