Temple Name
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Temple Name
Temple name
Chinese name
Traditional Chinese
Simplified Chinese
Vietnamese name
VietnameseMi?u hi?u
Korean name
Hangul
Hanja

Temple names are commonly used when naming most Chinese, Korean (Goryeo and Joseon dynasties), and Vietnamese (such dynasties as Tr?n, , and ) monarchs. They should not be confused with era names and posthumous names.

Compared to posthumous names, the use of temple names is more exclusive. Both titles were given after death to a ruler, but unlike the often elaborate posthumous name, a temple name almost always consists of only two characters:

  1. an adjective: chosen to reflect the circumstances of the emperor's reign (such as "Martial" or "Lamentable"). The vocabulary overlaps with that of posthumous titles' adjectives, but for one emperor, the temple name's adjective character usually does not repeat as one of the many adjective characters in his posthumous name. The usual exception is "Filial" (?). The founders are almost always either "High" (?) or "Grand" (?).
  2. "emperor": either z? (?) or z?ng (?).
    • Zu ("forefather") implies a progenitor, either a founder of a dynasty or a new line within an existing one. Zu is also given to monarchs with great accomplishment. The equivalent in Korean is jo (?), and t? in Vietnamese.
    • Zong ("ancestor") is used in all other rulers. It is rendered as jong (?) in Korean, and tông in Vietnamese.

The "temple" in "temple name" refers to the "grand temple" (), also called "great temple" () or "ancestral temple" (), where crown princes and other royalty gathered to worship their ancestors. The ancestral tablets in the grand temple recorded the temple names of the rulers.

In earlier times, only rulers had temple names, such as Taihao (). Temple names were assigned sporadically from the Shang dynasty and regularly from the Tang dynasty. Some Han emperors had their temple names permanently removed by their descendants in 190 AD. Temple names are the usual way to refer to emperors from the Tang dynasty up to the Ming dynasty. For the Ming dynasty and Qing dynasty (from 1368 AD), era names are often used instead.

In Korea, temple names are used to refer to kings of the early Goryeo (until 1274 AD), and kings and emperors of Joseon. For the Korean Empire, era names should be used, but the temple names are often used instead.[1] In Vietnam, most rulers are known by their temple names, with the exception of Tây S?n and Nguy?n monarchs, who are better known by their era names.

Numerous individuals who did not serve as monarch during their lifetime were posthumously promoted to "emperor" or "king" by their descendants and given temple names.

List of temple names

Tàiz? ()

The temple name Tàiz? (//Thái T?) can be translated to mean "Grand Forefather". It was often given to the founder of a dynasty.

G?oz? ()

The temple name G?oz? (//Cao T?) can be translated to mean "High Forefather". It was often given to the founder of a dynasty.

Sh?z? ()

The temple name Sh?z? (//Th?y T?) can be translated to mean "First Forefather".

Shìz? ()

The temple name Shìz? (//Th? T?) can be translated to mean "Eternal Forefather". It was often given to the founder of a dynasty.

Lièz? ()

The temple name Lièz? (//Li?t T?) can be translated to mean "Ardent Forefather".

Shèngz? (/)

The temple name Shèngz? (///Thánh T?) can be translated to mean "Sacred Forefather".

Sùz? ()

The temple name Sùz? (//Túc T?) can be translated to mean "Solemn Forefather".

Déz? ()

The temple name Déz? (//c T?) can be translated to mean "Virtuous Forefather".

Yìz? ()

The temple name Yìz? (//Ngh? T?) can be translated to mean "Persistent Forefather".

Yìz? ()

The temple name Yìz? (//Ý T?) can be translated to mean "Benign Forefather".

Yìz? ()

The temple name Yìz? () is translated as "" in Korean and "D?c T?" in Vietnamese.

Yìz? (/)

The temple name Yìz? (///Ngh?a T?) can be translated to mean "Righteous Forefather".

Ruìz? ()

The temple name Ruìz? (//Du? T?) can be translated to mean "Astute Forefather".

Y?ngz? ()

The temple name Y?ngz? (//Anh T?) can be translated to mean "Magnificent Forefather".

Chéngz? ()

The temple name Chéngz? (//Thành T?) can be translated to mean "Accomplished Forefather".

J?ngz? ()

The temple name J?ngz? (//C?nh T?) can be translated to mean "Admirable Forefather".

Jìngz? ()

The temple name Jìngz? (//C?nh T?) can be translated to mean "Revered Forefather".

Jìngz? ()

The temple name Jìngz? (//T?nh T?) can be translated to mean "Conciliatory Forefather".

Huìz? ()

The temple name Huìz? (//Hu? T?) can be translated to mean "Compassionate Forefather".

Shùnz? (/)

The temple name Shùnz? (///Thu?n T?) can be translated to mean "Obedient Forefather".

Wénz? ()

The temple name Wénz? (//V?n T?) can be translated to mean "Civil Forefather".

Xìnz? ()

The temple name Xìnz? () can be translated to mean "Faithful Forefather".

Qìngz? (/)

The temple name Qìngz? (///Khánh T?) can be translated to mean "Celebrated Forefather".

Gu?ngz? ()

The temple name Gu?ngz? (//Quang T?) can be translated to mean "Radiant Forefather".

Wángz? ()

The temple name Wángz? (//Vng T?) can be translated to mean "Sovereign Forefather".

Xu?nz? ()

The temple name Xu?nz? () is translated as "" in Korean and "Tuyên T?" in Vietnamese.

Xuánz? ()

The temple name Xuánz? (//Huy?n T?) can be translated to mean "Profound Forefather".

Zh?oz? ()

The temple name Zh?oz? (//Chiêu T?) can be translated to mean "Illustrious Forefather".

Zhàoz? ()

The temple name Zhàoz? (//Tri?u T?) can be translated to mean "Original Forefather".

X?z? ()

The temple name X?z? (//Hi T?) can be translated to mean "Glorious Forefather".

X?z? ()

The temple name X?z? (//Hy T?) can be translated to mean "Jubilant Forefather".

Rénz? ()

The temple name Rénz? (//Nhân T?) can be translated to mean "Benevolent Forefather".

X?ngz? (/)

The temple name X?ngz? (///H?ng T?) can be translated to mean "Prosperous Forefather".

Yu?nz? (/)

The temple name Yu?nz? (/) can be translated to mean "Erudite Forefather".

Yuánz? ()

The temple name Yuánz? (//Nguyên T?) can be translated to mean "Primal Forefather".

Mùz? ()

The temple name Mùz? (//M?c T?) can be translated to mean "Majestic Forefather".

Hóngz? ()

The temple name Hóngz? (//Ho?ng T?) can be translated to mean "Great Forefather".

Yùz? ()

The temple name Yùz? (//D? T?) can be translated to mean "Affluent Forefather".

Yánz? (/)

The temple name Yánz? (//Nghiêm T?) can be translated to mean "Austere Forefather".

Dàiz? ()

The temple name Dàiz? (//i T?) can be translated to mean "Generational Forefather".

Guóz? (/)

The temple name Guóz? (///Qu?c T?) can be translated to mean "National Forefather".

Dùz? ()

The temple name Dùz? (//?oan T?) can be translated to mean "Magnanimous Forefather".

T?ngz? (/)

The temple name T?ngz? (///Th?ng T?) can be translated to mean "Commanding Forefather".

Húanz? ()

The temple name Húanz? (//Hoàn T?) can be translated to mean "Exploratory Forefather".

Níngz? (/)

The temple name Níngz? (///Ninh T?) can be translated to mean "Amicable Forefather".

Shénz? ()

The temple name Shénz? (//Th?n T?) can be translated to mean "Divine Forefather".

Zhu?ngz? ()

The temple name Zhu?ngz? (//Trang T?) can be translated to mean "Dignified Forefather".

Zhèngz? ()

The temple name Zhèngz? (//Chính T?) can be translated to mean "Orthodox Forefather".

Xi?nz? (/)

The temple name Xi?nz? (///Hi?n T?) can be translated to mean "Eminent Forefather".

Xiànz? (/)

The temple name Xiànz? (///Hi?n T?) can be translated to mean "Constitutional Forefather".

Xiànz? (/)

The temple name Xiànz? (///Hi?n T?) can be translated to mean "Dedicated Forefather".

Chúnz? (/)

The temple name Chúnz? (///Thu?n T?) can be translated to mean "Refined Forefather".

Chúnz? ()

The temple name Chúnz? () can be translated to mean "Honorable Forefather".

Tàiz?ng ()

The temple name Tàiz?ng (//Thái Tông) can be translated to mean "Grand Ancestor".

Shìz?ng ()

The temple name Shìz?ng (//Th? Tông) can be translated to mean "Eternal Ancestor".

G?oz?ng ()

The temple name G?oz?ng (//Cao Tông) can be translated to mean "High Ancestor".

Xi?nz?ng (/)

The temple name Xi?nz?ng (///Hi?n Tông) can be translated to mean "Eminent Ancestor".

Xiànz?ng (/)

The temple name Xiànz?ng (///Hi?n Tông) can be translated to mean "Constitutional Ancestor".

Xiànz?ng (/)

The temple name Xiànz?ng (///Hi?n Tông) can be translated to mean "Dedicated Ancestor".

Zh?ngz?ng ()

The temple name Zh?ngz?ng (//Trung Tông) can be translated to mean "Resurgent Ancestor".

Sùz?ng (/)

The temple name Sùz?ng (///Túc Tông) can be translated to mean "Solemn Ancestor".

X?ngz?ng (/)

The temple name X?ngz?ng (///H?ng Tông) can be translated to mean "Prosperous Ancestor".

Rénz?ng ()

The temple name Rénz?ng (//Nhân Tông) can be translated to mean "Benevolent Ancestor".

Wénz?ng ()

The temple name Wénz?ng (//V?n Tông) can be translated to mean "Civil Ancestor".

W?z?ng ()

The temple name W?z?ng (//V? Tông) can be translated to mean "Martial Ancestor".

Shénz?ng ()

The temple name Shénz?ng (//Th?n Tông) can be translated to mean "Divine Ancestor".

Mùz?ng ()

The temple name Mùz?ng (//M?c Tông) can be translated to mean "Majestic Ancestor".

Zhéz?ng ()

The temple name Zhéz?ng (//Tri?t Tông) can be translated to mean "Sagacious Ancestor".

Huáiz?ng (/)

The temple name Huáiz?ng (///Hoài Tông) can be translated to mean "Yearned Ancestor".

Yuánz?ng ()

The temple name Yuánz?ng (//Nguyên Tông) can be translated to mean "Primal Ancestor".

Xu?nz?ng ()

The temple name Xu?nz?ng () is translated as "" in Korean and "Tuyên Tông" in Vietnamese.

Xuánz?ng ()

The temple name Xuánz?ng (//Huy?n Tông) can be translated to mean "Profound Ancestor".

Lièz?ng ()

The temple name Lièz?ng (//Li?t Tông) can be translated to mean "Ardent Ancestor".

Hu?z?ng ()

The temple name Hu?z?ng (//Huy Tông) can be translated to mean "Exemplary Ancestor".

Huìz?ng ()

The temple name Huìz?ng (//Hu? Tông) can be translated to mean "Compassionate Ancestor".

Ruìz?ng ()

The temple name Ruìz?ng (//Du? Tông) can be translated to mean "Astute Ancestor".

Déz?ng ()

The temple name Déz?ng (//c Tông) can be translated to mean "Virtuous Ancestor".

J?ngz?ng ()

The temple name J?ngz?ng (//C?nh Tông) can be translated to mean "Admirable Ancestor".

Jìngz?ng ()

The temple name Jìngz?ng (//Kính Tông) can be translated to mean "Revered Ancestor".

Jìngz?ng ()

The temple name Jìngz?ng (//T?nh Tông) can be translated to mean "Conciliatory Ancestor".

Xiàoz?ng ()

The temple name Xiàoz?ng (//Hi?u Tông) can be translated to mean "Filial Ancestor".

Shùnz?ng (/)

The temple name Shùnz?ng (///Thu?n Tông) can be translated to mean "Obedient Ancestor".

Chéngz?ng ()

The temple name Chéngz?ng (//Thành Tông) can be translated to mean "Accomplished Ancestor".

Y?ngz?ng ()

The temple name Y?ngz?ng (//Anh Tông) can be translated to mean "Magnificent Ancestor".

G?ngz?ng ()

The temple name G?ngz?ng (//Cung Tông) can be translated to mean "Reverent Ancestor".

Chúnz?ng (/)

The temple name Chúnz?ng (///Thu?n Tông) can be translated to mean "Refined Ancestor".

Dàiz?ng ()

The temple name Dàiz?ng (//i Tông) can be translated to mean "Generational Ancestor".

Dàiz?ng ()

The temple name Dàiz?ng (//i Tông) can be translated to mean "Esteemed Ancestor".

Zh?oz?ng ()

The temple name Zh?oz?ng (//Chiêu Tông) can be translated to mean "Illustrious Ancestor".

Míngz?ng ()

The temple name Míngz?ng (//Minh Tông) can be translated to mean "Brilliant Ancestor".

K?ngz?ng ()

The temple name K?ngz?ng (//Khang Tông) can be translated to mean "Harmonious Ancestor".

Dìngz?ng ()

The temple name Dìngz?ng (//nh Tông) can be translated to mean "Resolute Ancestor".

Gu?ngz?ng ()

The temple name Gu?ngz?ng (//Quang Tông) can be translated to mean "Radiant Ancestor".

Níngz?ng (/)

The temple name Níngz?ng (///Ninh Tông) can be translated to mean "Amicable Ancestor".

Yìz?ng ()

The temple name Yìz?ng (//Ngh? Tông) can be translated to mean "Persistent Ancestor".

Yìz?ng ()

The temple name Yìz?ng (//Ý Tông) can be translated to mean "Benign Ancestor".

Yìz?ng ()

The temple name Yìz?ng () is translated as "" in Korean and "D?c Tông" in Vietnamese.

Yìz?ng (/)

The temple name Yìz?ng (///Ngh?a Tông) can be translated to mean "Righteous Ancestor".

Yìz?ng (/)

The temple name Yìz?ng (///Ngh? Tông) can be translated to mean "Competent Ancestor".

T?ngz?ng (/)

The temple name T?ngz?ng (///Th?ng Tông) can be translated to mean "Commanding Ancestor".

W?iz?ng ()

The temple name W?iz?ng (//Uy Tông) can be translated to mean "Mighty Ancestor".

X?z?ng ()

The temple name X?z?ng (//Hi Tông) can be translated to mean "Glorious Ancestor".

X?z?ng ()

The temple name X?z?ng (//Hy Tông) can be translated to mean "Jubilant Ancestor".

X?z?ng ()

The temple name X?z?ng (//Hy Tông) can be translated to mean "Coruscating Ancestor".

Zhu?ngz?ng ()

The temple name Zhu?ngz?ng (//Trang Tông) can be translated to mean "Dignified Ancestor".

Qìngz?ng (/)

The temple name Qìngz?ng (///Khánh Tông) can be translated to mean "Celebrated Ancestor".

Zh?nz?ng ()

The temple name Zh?nz?ng (//Chân Tông) can be translated to mean "Sterling Ancestor".

Zh?nz?ng (/)

The temple name Zh?nz?ng (///Trinh Tông) can be translated to mean "Steadfast Ancestor".

Q?nz?ng (/)

The temple name Q?nz?ng (///Khâm Tông) can be translated to mean "Laudable Ancestor".

L?z?ng ()

The temple name L?z?ng (//Lý Tông) can be translated to mean "Enlightened Ancestor".

Dùz?ng ()

The temple name Dùz?ng (// Tông) can be translated to mean "Magnanimous Ancestor".

Du?nz?ng ()

The temple name Du?nz?ng (//?oan Tông) can be translated to mean "Noble Ancestor".

Shèngz?ng (/)

The temple name Shèngz?ng (///Thánh Tông) can be translated to mean "Sacred Ancestor".

Dàoz?ng ()

The temple name Dàoz?ng (//o Tông) can be translated to mean "Principled Ancestor".

Zh?ngz?ng ()

The temple name Zh?ngz?ng (//Chng Tông) can be translated to mean "Decorous Ancestor".

A?z?ng ()

The temple name A?z?ng (//Ai Tông) can be translated to mean "Lamentable Ancestor".

Chóngz?ng ()

The temple name Chóngz?ng (//Sùng Tông) can be translated to mean "Lofty Ancestor".

Huánz?ng ()

The temple name Huánz?ng (//Hoàn Tông) can be translated to mean "Exploratory Ancestor".

Xi?ngz?ng ()

The temple name Xi?ngz?ng (//Tng Tông) can be translated to mean "Assisted Ancestor".

Yùz?ng ()

The temple name Yùz?ng (//D? Tông) can be translated to mean "Affluent Ancestor".

S?z?ng ()

The temple name S?z?ng (//T? Tông) can be translated to mean "Pensive Ancestor".

?nz?ng ()

The temple name ?nz?ng (//An Tông) can be translated to mean "Pacific Ancestor".

Shàoz?ng (/)

The temple name Shàoz?ng (///Thi?u Tông) can be translated to mean "Perpetual Ancestor".

M?nz?ng (/)

The temple name M?nz?ng (//M?n Tông) can be translated to mean "Solicitous Ancestor".

M?nz?ng ()

The temple name M?nz?ng (//M?n Tông) can be translated to mean "Dejected Ancestor".

Zhèngz?ng ()

The temple name Zhèngz?ng (//Chính Tông) can be translated to mean "Orthodox Ancestor".

Ji?z?ng ()

The temple name Ji?z?ng (//Gia Tông) can be translated to mean "Exalted Ancestor".

Hóngz?ng ()

The temple name Hóngz?ng (//Ho?ng Tông) can be translated to mean "Great Ancestor".

Yòuz?ng ()

The temple name Yòuz?ng (//H?u Tông) can be translated to mean "Blessed Ancestor".

Ji?nz?ng (/)

The temple name Ji?nz?ng (///Gi?n Tông) can be translated to mean "Modest Ancestor".

Kuíz?ng ()

See also

References

  1. ^ Keith Pratt; Richard Rutt; James Hoare (1999). Korea: a historical and cultural dictionary. Routledge. ISBN 0-7007-0464-7.

  This article uses material from the Wikipedia page available here. It is released under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0.

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