Thomas Whitfield Davidson (September 23, 1876 - January 26, 1974) was a United States federal judge.
Born in Harrison County, Texas, Davidson read law to enter the bar in 1903. He briefly attended East Texas State Normal College before studying at the University of Chicago and then Columbia University. He was in private practice in Marshall, Texas from 1903 to 1907. He was the city attorney of Marshall 1907 to 1914, thereafter resuming his private practice in Dallas, Texas until 1920. Davidson was a member of the Texas State Senate from 1920 to 1922, and was lieutenant governor of Texas from 1923 to 1925 serving under Governor Pat M. Neff. He then returned to private practice in Dallas until 1936.
On January 22, 1936, Davidson was nominated by President Franklin D. Roosevelt to a seat on the United States District Court for the Northern District of Texas vacated by Edward R. Meek. Davidson was confirmed by the United States Senate on January 30, 1936, and received his commission on February 5, 1936. He served as chief judge from 1954 to 1959, and assumed senior status on November 1, 1965, holding that position until his death, in 1974.