Timeline of 9th-century Muslim History
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Timeline of 9th-century Muslim History
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. (December 2009)
9th century (801-900 CE / 184-288 AH)
- 803: Downfall of the Barmakids. Execution of Ja'far ibn Yahya.
- 805: Outbreak of revolt of Rafi ibn al-Layth in Khurasan.
- 806: Harun al-Rashid leads a huge campaign against the Byzantines.
- 809: Death of Harun al-Rashid. Accession of al-Amin.
- 810: Muhammad al-Taqi, the 9th Shia Imam was born.
- 811: Abbasid Civil War: Battle of Rayy in Persia.
- 812, August: Abbasid Civil War: the Siege of Baghdad begins
- 813, September: Abbasid Civil War: the Siege of Baghdad ends with the capture of the city by the forces of al-Ma'mun and the death of al-Amin
- 815: Shi'a revolt under Abu 'l-Saraya al-Sirri in Iraq. Harthama ibn A'yan quells the revolt.
- 816: Shi'a revolt in Mecca; In Spain the Umayyads capture the island of Corsica. Harthama ibn A'yan is executed.
- 818: Ali al-Rida dies in Mashhad. Muhammad al-Taqi becomes Imam. The Umayyads of Spain capture the islands of Ibiza, Majorca, and Sardinia.
- 820: Tahir ibn Husayn establishes the rule of the Tahirids in Khurasan.
- 822: Death of al-Hakam I in Spain; accession of Abd ar-Rahman II.
- 823: Death of Tahir in Khurasan. Accession of Talha and his deposition. Accession of Abdallah ibn Tahir al-Khurasani.
- ca. 825: Establishment of the Emirate of Crete.
- 827: Ali al-Hadi, the 10th Shia Imam is born. Ma'mun declares the Mu'tazili creed as the state religion. Beginning of the Muslim conquest of Sicily.
- 833: 9 August-- Death of Ma'mun. Accession of al-Mu'tasim.
- 835: Muhammad al-Taqi is poisoned. Ali al-Hadi becomes Imam.
- 836: al-Mu'tasim moves the capital to Samarra.
- 837: Revolt of the Jats.
- 838: Revolt of Babak Khorramdin in Azarbaijan suppressed. Sack of Amorium by al-Mu'tasim.
- 839: Revolt of Mazyar in Tabaristan. The Muslims occupy South Italy. Capture of the city of Messina in Sicily.
- 842: 5 January-- Death of al-Mu'tasim, accession of al-Wathiq.
- 843: Revolts of the Arabs. Unsuccessful Byzantine attempt to reconquer the Emirate of Crete.
- 846: Battle of Mauropotamos between Byzantines and Abbasids in Asia Minor.
- 846: Hasan al-Askari, the 11th Shia Imam is born.
- 847: Death of Wathiq, accession of al-Mutawakkil.
- 850: Al-Mutawakkil restores orthodoxy.
- 849: Death of the Tahirid ruler Abdallah ibn Tahir al-Khurasani; accession of Tahir II.
- 852: Death of Abd ar-Rahman II of Spain;. accession of Muhammad I.
- 856: Umar ibn Abd al-Aziz founds the Habbarid rule in Sind.
- 858: Al-Mutawakkil founds the town of Jafariya.
- 860: Ahmad founds the Samanid rule in Transoxiana.
- 861: Murder of the Abbasid Caliph al-Mutawakkil; accession of al-Muntasir and beginning of the "Anarchy at Samarra".
- 862: Muntasir poisoned to death; accession of al-Musta'in.
- 863: The Battle of Lalakaon breaks the power of the emirate of Malatya. Start of the Byzantine counter-offensive.
- 864: Zaydi state established in Tabaristan by Hasan ibn Zayd (Alavids).
- 866: Abbasid Civil War: Al-Musta'in flees from Samarra, his deposition and accession of al-Mu'tazz; Muhammad ibn Yusuf Al-Ukhaidhir, a descendent of Ali, establishes an independent kingdom in Yamamah.
- 867: Ya'qub ibn al-Layth al-Saffar founds the Saffarid rule in Sistan.
- 868: Ali al-Hadi is poisoned. Hasan al-Askari becomes Imam. Muhammad al-Mahdi, the last Imam of shiite is born. Ahmad ibn Tulun finds the Tulunid rule in Egypt.
- 869: The Abbasid Caliph Mu'tazz forced to abdicate, his death and accession of al-Muhtadi. Beginning of Zanj Rebellion in Basra.
- 870: Turks revolt against Muhtadi, his death and accession of al-Mu'tamid.
- 871: Bari is captured by Louis II of Italy, ending the Emirate of Bari.
- 873: Tahirid rule extinguished.
- 874: Hasan al-Askari is poisoned. Muhammad al-Mahdi becomes Imam. Zanji state established at al-Muktara during the Zanj Rebellion in South Iraq. Death of the Samanid ruler Ahmad, accession of Nasr I.
- 877: Death of Ya'qub ibn al-Layth al-Saffar in Sistan, accession of Amr bin Layth.
- 878: Fall of Syracuse to the Muslims.
- 883: End of Zanj Rebellion
- 885: Death of Ahmad ibn Tulun in Egypt, accession of Khumarawayh ibn Ahmad ibn Tulun.
- 886: Death of Muhammad I the Umayyad ruler of Spain, accession of al-Mundhir. Death of Abdullah ibn Umar the Habbari ruler of Sind.
- 888: Death of Mundhir the Umayyad ruler of Spain, accession of Abdullah ibn Muhammad al-Umawi.
- 891: The Qarmatian state established at Bahrain.
- 892: Abbasid Caliph al-Mu'tamid death. al-Mu'tadid becomes Caliph. Death of the Samanid ruler Nasr, accession of Ismail I.
- 893: Zaydi Imamate is established in Yemen by al-Hadi Yahya ibn al-Husayn ibn al-Qasim
- 894: The Rustamids become the vassals of Spain.
- 896: Death of Khumarawayh ibn Ahmad ibn Tulun; accession of Abu 'l-Asakir Jaysh.
- 897: Assassination of Abu 'l-Asakir Jaysh; accession of Abu Musa Harun.
- 898: Qarmatians sack Basra. By the end of this century, global Muslim population had grown to 3 per cent of the total.