Timeline Of Atomic And Subatomic Physics

A timeline of atomic and subatomic physics.

Early beginnings

  • 600 BCE[1]Kanada theorizes the existence of four kinds of atoms, which could combine to produce diatomic and triatomic molecules.
  • 430 BCE[1]Democritus speculates about fundamental indivisible particles--calls them "atoms"
  • 200 BCE[1]Jainism calls atom Paramanu which can neither be created nor destroyed. It is eternal, i.e., it existed in the past, exists in the present and will continue to exist in the future. It is the permanent basis of the physical existence. The entire physical existence is composed of these ultimate atoms.

The beginning of chemistry

Timeline of classical mechanics

The age of quantum mechanics

The formation and successes of the Standard Model

Quantum field theories beyond the Standard Model

See also


  1. ^ a b c Teresi, Dick (2010). Lost Discoveries: The Ancient Roots of Modern Science. Simon and Schuster. pp. 213-214. ISBN 978-1-4391-2860-2. 
  2. ^ Jammer, Max (1966), The conceptual development of quantum mechanics, New York: McGraw-Hill, OCLC 534562 
  3. ^ Gilbert N. Lewis. Letter to the editor of Nature (Vol. 118, Part 2, December 18, 1926, pp. 874-875).
  4. ^ The origin of the word "photon"
  5. ^ The Davisson-Germer experiment, which demonstrates the wave nature of the electron
  6. ^ A. Abragam and B. Bleaney. 1970. Electron Parmagnetic Resonance of Transition Ions, Oxford University Press: Oxford, U.K., p. 911
  7. ^ Feynman, R.P. (2006) [1985]. QED: The Strange Theory of Light and Matter. Princeton University Press. ISBN 0-691-12575-9. 
  8. ^ Richard Feynman; QED. Princeton University Press: Princeton, (1982)
  9. ^ Richard Feynman; Lecture Notes in Physics. Princeton University Press: Princeton, (1986)
  10. ^ Feynman, R.P. (2001) [1964]. The Character of Physical Law. MIT Press. ISBN 0-262-56003-8. 
  11. ^ Feynman, R.P. (2006) [1985]. QED: The Strange Theory of Light and Matter. Princeton University Press. ISBN 0-691-12575-9. 
  12. ^ Schweber, Silvan S. ; Q.E.D. and the men who made it: Dyson, Feynman, Schwinger, and Tomonaga, Princeton University Press (1994) ISBN 0-691-03327-7
  13. ^ Schwinger, Julian ; Selected Papers on Quantum Electrodynamics, Dover Publications, Inc. (1958) ISBN 0-486-60444-6
  14. ^ *Kleinert, H. (2008). Multivalued Fields in Condensed Matter, Electrodynamics, and Gravitation (PDF). World Scientific. ISBN 978-981-279-170-2. 
  15. ^ Yndurain, Francisco Jose ; Quantum Chromodynamics: An Introduction to the Theory of Quarks and Gluons, Springer Verlag, New York, 1983. ISBN 0-387-11752-0
  16. ^ a b Frank Wilczek (1999) "Quantum field theory", Reviews of Modern Physics 71: S83-S95. Also doi=10.1103/Rev. Mod. Phys. 71.
  17. ^ Weinberg, Steven ; The Quantum Theory of Fields: Foundations (vol. I), Cambridge University Press (1995) ISBN 0-521-55001-7. The first chapter (pp. 1-40) of Weinberg's monumental treatise gives a brief history of Q.F.T., pp. 608.
  18. ^ a b Weinberg, Steven; The Quantum Theory of Fields: Modern Applications (vol. II), Cambridge University Press:Cambridge, U.K. (1996) ISBN 0-521-55001-7, pp. 489.
  19. ^ * Gerard 't Hooft (2007) "The Conceptual Basis of Quantum Field Theory" in Butterfield, J., and John Earman, eds., Philosophy of Physics, Part A. Elsevier: 661-730.
  20. ^ Pais, Abraham ; Inward Bound: Of Matter & Forces in the Physical World, Oxford University Press (1986) ISBN 0-19-851997-4 Written by a former Einstein assistant at Princeton, this is a beautiful detailed history of modern fundamental physics, from 1895 (discovery of X-rays) to 1983 (discovery of vectors bosons at C.E.R.N.)
  21. ^ "Press Release: The 1999 Nobel Prize in Chemistry". 12 October 1999. Retrieved 2013. 
  22. ^ Weinberg, Steven; The Quantum Theory of Fields: Supersymmetry (vol. III), Cambridge University Press:Cambridge, U.K. (2000) ISBN 0-521-55002-5, pp. 419.
  23. ^ Leonid Vainerman, editor. 2003. Locally Compact Quantum Groups and Groupoids. Proceed. Theor. Phys. Strassbourg in 2002, Walter de Gruyter: Berlin and New York

External links

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