Timeline of Geology
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Timeline of Geology

Timeline of geology

Early works

16th and 17th centuries

Portuguese and Spanish explorers systematically measure magnetic declination to estimate the geographical longitude [4][5]

18th century

  • 1701 - Edmund Halley suggests using the salinity and evaporation of the Mediterranean to determine the age of the Earth
  • 1743 - Dr Christopher Packe produces a geological map of south-east England
  • 1746 - Jean-Étienne Guettard presents the first mineralogical map of France to the French Academy of Sciences.
  • 1760 - John Michell suggests earthquakes are caused by one layer of rocks rubbing against another
  • 1776 - James Keir suggests that some rocks, such as those at the Giant's Causeway, might have been formed by the crystallisation of molten lava
  • 1779 - Comte de Buffon speculates that the Earth is older than the 6,000 years suggested by the Bible
  • 1785 - James Hutton presents paper entitled Theory of the Earth - earth must be old
  • 1799 - William Smith produces the first large scale geological map, of the area around Bath

19th century

20th century

21st century

See also


  1. ^ A. Salam (1984), "Islam and Science". In C. H. Lai (1987), Ideals and Realities: Selected Essays of Abdus Salam, 2nd ed., World Scientific, Singapore, pp. 179-213.
  2. ^ Stephen Toulmin and June Goodfield (1965). The Discovery of Time, p. 64. University of Chicago Press, Chicago.
  3. ^ Toulmin, S. and Goodfield, J. (1965), 'The Ancestry of science: The Discovery of Time', Hutchinson & Co., London, p. 64.
  4. ^ a b c Geoscience blog
  5. ^ Alvarez & Leitao, 2010, Geology, 38, 231-234, doi:10.1130/G30602.1
  6. ^ G. B. Vai et W. Cavazza, ed, Four centuries of the word 'Geology', Ulisse Aldrovandi 1603 in Bologna, Minerva Edizioni, Bologna, 2003

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