Timeline Of Low-temperature Technology

The following is a timeline of low-temperature technology and cryogenic technology (refrigeration down to -150 °C, -238 °F or 123 K and cryogenics).[1]

18th century BCE - 18th century

  • c. 1700 BCE - Zimri-Lim, ruler of Mari in Syria commanded the construction of one of the first ice houses near the Euphrates.[2]
  • c. 500 BCE - The yakhchal (meaning "ice pit" in Persian;) is an ancient Persian type of refrigerator. The structure was formed from a mortar resistant to heat transmission, in the shape of a dome. Snow and ice was stored beneath the ground, effectively allowing access to ice even in hot months and allowing for prolonged food preservation. Often a badgir was coupled with the yakhchal in order to slow the heat loss. Modern refrigerators are still called yakhchal in Persian.
  • 1396 CE - Ice storage warehouses called "Dong-bing-go-tango (meaning "east ice storage warehouse" in Korean) and Seo-bing-go ("west ice storage warehouse") were built in Han-Yang (currently Seoul, Korea). The buildings housed ice that was collected from the frozen Han River in January (by lunar calendar). The warehouse was well-insulated, providing the royal families with ice into the summer months.[] These warehouses were closed in 1898 AD but the buildings are still intact in Seoul.
  • 1650 - Otto von Guericke designed and built the world's first vacuum pump and created the world's first ever vacuum known as the Magdeburg hemispheres to disprove Aristotle's long-held supposition that 'Nature abhors a vacuum'.
  • 1656 - Robert Boyle and Robert Hooke built an air pump on this design.
  • 1662 - Boyle's law (gas law relating pressure and volume) is demonstrated using a vacuum pump
  • 1665 - Boyle theorizes a minimum temperature in New Experiments and Observations touching Cold.
  • 1679 - Denis Papin - safety valve
  • 1702 - Guillaume Amontons first calculates absolute zero to be -240 °C using an air thermometer, theorizing at this point the gas would reach zero volume and zero pressure.
  • 1756 - The first documented public demonstration of artificial refrigeration by William Cullen[3]
  • 1782 - Antoine Lavoisier and Pierre-Simon Laplace invent the ice-calorimeter
  • 1784 - Gaspard Monge liquefied the first gas producing liquid sulfur dioxide.
  • 1787 - Charles's law (Gas law, relating volume and temperature)

19th century

20th century

21st century

  • 2000 - Nuclear spin temperatures below 100 pK were reported for an experiment at the Helsinki University of Technology's Low Temperature Lab in Espoo, Finland. However, this was the temperature of one particular degree of freedom - a quantum property called nuclear spin - not the overall average thermodynamic temperature for all possible degrees in freedom.[12][13]
  • 2013 - Physicist Ulrich Schneider of the University of Munich in Germany reported to have achieved temperatures below absolute zero ("negative temperatures") in gases; the gas reportedly became hotter rather than colder.[14]
  • 2014 - Scientists in the CUORE collaboration at the Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso in Italy cooled a copper vessel with a volume of one cubic meter to 0.006 kelvins (-273.144 °C; -459.659 °F) for 15 days, setting a record for the lowest temperature in the known universe over such a large contiguous volume[15]
  • 2015 - Experimental physicists at Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) successfully cooled molecules in a gas of sodium potassium to a temperature of 500 nanokelvins, and it is expected to exhibit an exotic state of matter by cooling these molecules a bit further.[16]
  • 2017 - Cold Atom Laboratory (CAL), an experimental instrument being developed for launch to the International Space Station (ISS) in June. The instrument will create extremely cold conditions in the microgravity environment of the ISS leading to the formation of Bose Einstein Condensates that are a magnitude colder than those that are created in laboratories on Earth. In a space-based laboratory, up to 20 seconds interaction times and as low as 1 picokelvin ( K) temperatures are achievable, and it could lead to exploration of unknown quantum mechanical phenomena and test some of the most fundamental laws of physics. [17]

[18]

See also

References

  1. ^ Martynov, A. V. (1976). "The terminology of low-temperature technology (discussion)". Chemical and Petroleum Engineering. 12 (5): 470-472. doi:10.1007/BF01146769. Retrieved 2015. 
  2. ^ Stephanie Dalley (1 January 2002). Mari and Karana: Two Old Babylonian Cities. Gorgias Press LLC. p. 91. ISBN 978-1-931956-02-4. 
  3. ^ William Cullen, Of the Cold Produced by Evaporating Fluids and of Some Other Means of Producing Cold, in Essays and Observations Physical and Literary Read Before a Society in Edinburgh and Published by Them, II, (Edinburgh 1756)
  4. ^ 1803 - Thomas Moore
  5. ^ 1844 - Charles Piazzi Smyth
  6. ^ 1851 John Gorrie
  7. ^ "Patent Images". Retrieved 2015. 
  8. ^ "app-a1". Retrieved 2015. 
  9. ^ Vacuum Science & Technology Timeline
  10. ^ "New State of Matter Seen Near Absolute Zero". NIST. 
  11. ^ "World record in low temperatures". Archived from the original on 2009-06-18. Retrieved . 
  12. ^ Knuuttila, Tauno (2000). Nuclear Magnetism and Superconductivity in Rhodium. Espoo, Finland: Helsinki University of Technology. ISBN 951-22-5208-2. Retrieved . 
  13. ^ "Low Temperature World Record" (Press release). Low Temperature Laboratory, Teknillinen Korkeakoulu. 8 December 2000. Archived from the original on 2008-02-18. Retrieved . 
  14. ^ "Atoms Reach Record Temperature, Colder than Absolute Zero". livescience.com. 
  15. ^ "CUORE: The Coldest Heart in the Known Universe.". INFN Press Release. Retrieved 2014. 
  16. ^ "MIT team creates ultracold molecules". Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Massachusetts, Cambridge. 
  17. ^ "Cold Atom Laboratory Mission". Jet Propulsion Laboratory. NASA. 2017. Retrieved . 
  18. ^ "Cold Atom Laboratory Creates Atomic Dance". NASA News. 26 September 2014. Retrieved . 

External links


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Timeline_of_low-temperature_technology