Timeline of Microscope Technology
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Timeline of Microscope Technology
Timeline of microscope technology
- c. 700 BCE - The "Nimrud lens" of Assyrians manufacture, a rock crystal disk with a convex shape believed to be a burning or magnifying lens.
- 167 BCE - The Chinese use simple microscopes made of a lens and a water-filled tube to visualize the unseen.
- 13th century - The increase in use of lenses in eyeglasses probably led to the wide spread use of simple microscopes (single lens magnifying glasses) with limited magnification.
- 1590 - earliest date of a claimed Hans Martens/Zacharias Janssen invention of the compound microscope (claim made in 1655).
- After 1609 - Galileo Galilei is described as being able to close focus his telescope to view small objects close up and/or looking through the wrong end in reverse to magnify small objects. A telescope used in this fashion is the same as a compound microscope but historians debate whether Galileo was magnifying small objects or viewing near by objects with his terrestrial telescope (convex objective/concave eyepiece) reversed.
- 1619 - Earliest recorded description of a compound microscope, Dutch Ambassador Willem Boreel sees one in London in the possession of Dutch inventor Cornelius Drebbel, an instrument about eighteen inches long, two inches in diameter, and supported on 3 brass dolphins.
- 1621 - Cornelius Drebbel presents, in London, a compound microscope with a convex objective and a convex eyepiece (a "Keplerian" microscope).
- c.1622 - Drebbel presents his invention in Rome.
- 1624 - Galileo improves on a compound microscope he sees in Rome and presents his occhiolino to Prince Federico Cesi, founder of the Accademia dei Lincei (in English, The Linceans).
- 1625 - Francesco Stelluti and Federico Cesi publish Apiarium, the first account of observations using a compound microscope
- 1625 - Giovanni Faber of Bamberg (1574 - 1629) of the Linceans, after seeing Galileo's occhiolino, coins the word microscope by analogy with telescope.
- 1655 - In an investigation by Willem Boreel, Dutch spectacle-maker Johannes Zachariassen claims his father, Zacharias Jansen, invented the compound microscope in 1590. Zachariassen's claimed dates are so early it is sometimes assumed, for the claim to be true, that his grandfather, Hans Martens, must have invented it. Findings are published by writer Pierre Borel. Discrepancies in Boreel's investigation and Zachariassen's testimony (including misrepresenting his date of birth and role in the invention) has led some historians to consider this claim dubious.
- 1665 - Robert Hooke publishes Micrographia, a collection of biological micrographs. He coins the word cell for the structures he discovers in cork bark.
- 1674 - Anton van Leeuwenhoek improves on a simple microscope for viewing biological specimens.
- 1850s - John Leonard Riddell, Professor of Chemistry at Tulane University, invents the first practical binocular microscope.
- 1863 - Henry Clifton Sorby develops a metallurgical microscope to observe structure of meteorites.
- 1860s - Ernst Abbe discovers the Abbe sine condition, a breakthrough in microscope design, which until then was largely based on trial and error. The company of Carl Zeiss exploited this discovery and becomes the dominant microscope manufacturer of its era.
- 1928 - Edward Hutchinson Synge publishes theory underlying the near-field scanning optical microscope
- 1931 - Ernst Ruska starts to build the first electron microscope. It is a Transmission electron microscope (TEM)
- 1936 - Erwin Wilhelm Müller invents the field emission microscope.
- 1938 - James Hillier builds another TEM
- 1951 - Erwin Wilhelm Müller invents the field ion microscope and is the first to see atoms.
- 1953 - Frits Zernike, professor of theoretical physics, receives the Nobel Prize in Physics for his invention of the phase contrast microscope.
- 1955 - George Nomarski, professor of microscopy, published the theoretical basis of Differential interference contrast microscopy.
- 1967 - Erwin Wilhelm Müller adds time-of-flight spectroscopy to the field ion microscope, making the first atom probe and allowing the chemical identification of each individual atom.
- 1981 - Gerd Binnig and Heinrich Rohrer develop the scanning tunneling microscope (STM).
- 1986 - Gerd Binnig, Quate, and Gerber invent the Atomic force microscope (AFM)
- 1988 - Alfred Cerezo, Terence Godfrey, and George D. W. Smith applied a position-sensitive detector to the atom probe, making it able to resolve materials in 3-dimensions with near-atomic resolution.
- 1988 - Kingo Itaya invents the Electrochemical scanning tunneling microscope
- 1991 - Kelvin probe force microscope invented.
- ^ "The Nimrud lens / the Layard lens". Collection database. The British Museum. Retrieved Oct 21, 2012.
- ^ Bardell, David (May 2004). "The Invention of the Microscope". Bios. 75 (2): 78-84. JSTOR 4608700.
- ^ Atti Della Fondazione Giorgio Ronchi E Contributi Dell'Istituto Nazionale Di Ottica, Volume 30, La Fondazione-1975, page 554
- ^ a b Jan L. Harrington, Technology and Society, Jones & Bartlett Publishers - 2011, page 221
- ^ Albert Van Helden; Sven Dupré; Rob van Gent (2010). The Origins of the Telescope. Amsterdam University Press. p. 25. ISBN 978-90-6984-615-6.
- ^ Robert D. Huerta, Giants of Delft: Johannes Vermeer and the Natural Philosophers : the Parallel Search for Knowledge During the Age of Discovery, Bucknell University Press - 2003, page 126
- ^ A. Mark Smith, From Sight to Light: The Passage from Ancient to Modern Optics, University of Chicago Press - 2014, page 387
- ^ William Rosenthal, Spectacles and Other Vision Aids: A History and Guide to Collecting, Norman Publishing, 1996, page 391 - 392
- ^ Jerome Ch'en, Nicholas Tarling, Studies in the Social History of China and South-East Asia: Essays in Memory of Victor Purcell, Cambridge University Press, Jun 10, 2010, page 215
- ^ a b Albert Van Helden; Sven Dupré; Rob van Gent (2010). The Origins of the Telescope. Amsterdam University Press. p. 24. ISBN 978-90-6984-615-6.
- ^ The Microscope - Its Design, Construction and Applications by F. S. Spiers. Books.google.be. 2008-11-30. ISBN 978-1-4437-2594-1. Retrieved .
- ^ Brian Shmaefsky, Biotechnology 101 - 2006, page 171
- ^ Albert Van Helden; Sven Dupré; Rob van Gent (2010). The Origins of the Telescope. Amsterdam University Press. pp. 32-36, 43. ISBN 978-90-6984-615-6.
- ^ Riddell JL (1854). "On the binocular microscope". Q J Microsc Sci. 2: 18-24.
- ^ Nomarski, G. (1955). Microinterféromètre différentiel à ondes polarisées. J. Phys. Radium, Paris 16: 9S-11S