Timeline of Scientific Discoveries
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Timeline of Scientific Discoveries
The timeline below shows the date of publication of possible major scientific theories and discoveries, along with the discoverer. In many cases, the discoveries spanned several years.
- 4th century BC - Mandragora (containing atropin) was described by Theophrastus in the fourth century B.C. for treatment of wounds, gout, and sleeplessness, and as a love potion. By the first century A.D. Dioscorides recognized wine of mandrake as an anaesthetic for treatment of pain or sleeplessness, to be given prior to surgery or cautery.
- 323-283 BC - Euclid: wrote a series of 13 books on geometry called The Elements
- 287-212 BC - Archimedes of Syracuse: derived an accurate approximation of pi, defined and investigating the spiral bearing his name, and creating a system using exponentiation for expressing very large numbers.
- 280 BC - Aristarchus of Samos: used a heliocentric, heliostatic model
- 200s Galen: produced big contributions to medicine.
- 1802 - Jean-Baptiste Lamarck: teleological evolution
- 1805 - John Dalton: Atomic Theory in (Chemistry)
- 1820 - Hans Christian Ørsted discovers that a current passed through a wire will deflect the needle of a compass, establishing a deep relationship between electricity and magnetism (electromagnetism).
- 1821 - Thomas Johann Seebeck is the first to observe a property of semiconductors.
- 1824 - Carnot: described the Carnot cycle, the idealized heat engine
- 1827 - Georg Ohm: Ohm's law (Electricity)
- 1827 - Amedeo Avogadro: Avogadro's law (Gas law)
- 1828 - Friedrich Wöhler synthesized urea, destroying vitalism
- 1830 - Nikolai Lobachevsky created Non-Euclidean geometry
- 1831 - Michael Faraday discovers electromagnetic induction
- 1833 - Anselme Payen isolates first enzyme, diastase
- 1838 - Matthias Schleiden: all plants are made of cells
- 1838 - Friedrich Bessel: first successful measure of stellar parallax (to star 61 Cygni)
- 1842 - Christian Doppler: Doppler effect
- 1843 - James Prescott Joule: Law of Conservation of energy (First law of thermodynamics), also 1847 - Helmholtz, Conservation of energy
- 1846 - Johann Gottfried Galle and Heinrich Louis d'Arrest: discovery of Neptune
- 1848 - Lord Kelvin: absolute zero
- 1858 - Rudolf Virchow: cells can only arise from pre-existing cells
- 1859 - Charles Darwin and Alfred Wallace: Theory of evolution by natural selection
- 1861 - Louis Pasteur: Germ theory
- 1861 - John Tyndall: Experiments in Radiant Energy that reinforced the Greenhouse Effect
- 1864 - James Clerk Maxwell: Theory of electromagnetism
- 1865 - Gregor Mendel: Mendel's laws of inheritance, basis for genetics
- 1865 - Rudolf Clausius: Definition of Entropy
- 1869 - Dmitri Mendeleev: Periodic table
- 1871 - Lord Rayleigh: Diffuse sky radiation (Rayleigh scattering) explains why sky appears blue
- 1873 - Johannes Diderik van der Waals: was one of the first to postulate an intermolecular force: the van der Waals force.
- 1873 - Frederick Guthrie discovers thermionic emission.
- 1873 - Willoughby Smith discovers photoconductivity.
- 1875 - William Crookes invented the Crookes tube and studied cathode rays
- 1876 - Josiah Willard Gibbs founded chemical thermodynamics, the phase rule
- 1877 - Ludwig Boltzmann: Statistical definition of entropy
- 1880 - Pierre Curie and Jacques Curie: Piezoelectricity
- 1884 - Jacobus Henricus van 't Hoff: discovered the laws of chemical dynamics and osmotic pressure in solutions (in his work "Etudes de dynamique chimique").
- 1887 - Albert A. Michelson and Edward W. Morley: lack of evidence for the aether
- 1888 - Friedrich Reinitzer discovers liquid crystals.
- 1892 - Dmitri Ivanovsky discovers for the first time a virus
- 1895 - Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen discovers x-rays
- 1896 - Henri Becquerel discovers radioactivity
- 1896 - Svante Arrhenius derives the basic principles of the greenhouse effect.
- 1897 - J.J. Thomson discovers the electron in cathode rays
- 1898 - Martinus Beijerinck: concluded a virus infectious--replicating in the host--and thus not a mere toxin and gave it the name 'virus
- 1898 - J.J. Thomson proposed the Plum pudding model of an atom
- 1898 - Marie Curie discovers polonium, radium, and coins the term "radioactivity"
- 1900 - Max Planck: Planck's law of black body radiation, basis for quantum theory
- 1901 - Annie Jump Cannon: stellar classification
- 1905 - Albert Einstein: theory of special relativity, explanation of Brownian motion, and photoelectric effect
- 1906 - Walther Nernst: Third law of thermodynamics
- 1907 - Alfred Bertheim: Arsphenamine, the first modern chemotherapeutic agent
- 1909 - Fritz Haber: Haber Process for industrial production of ammonia
- 1909 - Robert Andrews Millikan: conducts the oil drop experiment and determines the charge on an electron
- 1910 - Williamina Fleming: the first white dwarf, 40 Eridani B
- 1911 - Ernest Rutherford: Atomic nucleus
- 1911 - Heike Kamerlingh Onnes: Superconductivity
- 1912 - Alfred Wegener: Continental drift
- 1912 - Max von Laue : x-ray diffraction
- 1912 - Vesto Slipher : galactic redshifts
- 1912 - Henrietta Swan Leavitt: Cepheid variable period luminosity relation
- 1913 - Henry Moseley: defined atomic number
- 1913 - Niels Bohr: Model of the atom
- 1915 - Albert Einstein: theory of general relativity - also David Hilbert
- 1915 - Karl Schwarzschild: discovery of the Schwarzschild radius leading to the identification of black holes
- 1918 - Emmy Noether: Noether's theorem - conditions under which the conservation laws are valid
- 1920 - Arthur Eddington: Stellar nucleosynthesis
- 1922 - Frederick Banting, Charles Best, James Collip, John Macleod: isolation and production of insulin to control diabetes
- 1924 - Wolfgang Pauli: quantum Pauli exclusion principle
- 1924 - Edwin Hubble: the discovery that the Milky Way is just one of many galaxies
- 1925 - Erwin Schrödinger: Schrödinger equation (Quantum mechanics)
- 1925 - Cecilia Payne-Gaposchkin: Discovery of the composition of the Sun and that Hydrogen is the most abundant element in the Universe
- 1927 - Werner Heisenberg: Uncertainty principle (Quantum mechanics)
- 1927 - Georges Lemaître: Theory of the Big Bang
- 1928 - Paul Dirac: Dirac equation (Quantum mechanics)
- 1929 - Edwin Hubble: Hubble's law of the expanding universe
- 1928 - Alexander Fleming: Penicillin, the first beta-lactam antibiotic
- 1929 - Lars Onsager's reciprocal relations, a potential fourth law of thermodynamics
- 1930 - Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar discovers his eponymous limit of the maximum mass of a white dwarf star
- 1932 - James Chadwick: Discovery of the neutron
- 1932 - Karl Guthe Jansky discovers the first astronomical radio source, Sagittarius A
- 1932 - Ernest Walton and John Cockcroft: Nuclear fission by proton bombardment
- 1934 - Enrico Fermi: Nuclear fission by neutron irradiation
- 1934 - Clive McCay: Calorie restriction extends the maximum lifespan of another species
- 1938 - Otto Hahn, Lise Meitner and Fritz Strassmann: Nuclear fission of heavy nuclei
- 1938 - Isidor Rabi: Nuclear magnetic resonance
- 1943 - Oswald Avery proves that DNA is the genetic material of the chromosome
- 1945 - Howard Florey Mass production of penicillin
- 1947 - William Shockley, John Bardeen and Walter Brattain invent the first transistor
- 1948 - Claude Elwood Shannon: 'A mathematical theory of communication' a seminal paper in Information theory.
- 1948 - Richard Feynman, Julian Schwinger, Sin-Itiro Tomonaga and Freeman Dyson: Quantum electrodynamics
- 1951 - George Otto Gey propagates first cancer cell line, HeLa
- 1952 - Jonas Salk: developed and tested first polio vaccine
- 1952 - Frederick Sanger: demonstrated that proteins are sequences of amino acids
- 1953 - James Watson, Francis Crick, Maurice Wilkins and Rosalind Franklin: helical structure of DNA, basis for molecular biology
- 1962 - Riccardo Giacconi and his team discover the first cosmic x-ray source, Scorpius X-1
- 1963 - Lawrence Morley, Fred Vine, and Drummond Matthews: Paleomagnetic stripes in ocean crust as evidence of plate tectonics (Vine-Matthews-Morley hypothesis).
- 1964 - Murray Gell-Mann and George Zweig: postulates quarks leading to the standard model
- 1964 - Arno Penzias and Robert Woodrow Wilson: detection of CMBR providing experimental evidence for the Big Bang
- 1965 - Leonard Hayflick: normal cells divide only a certain number of times: the Hayflick limit
- 1967 - Jocelyn Bell Burnell and Antony Hewish discover first pulsar
- 1967 - Vela nuclear test detection satellites discover the first gamma-ray burst
- 1971 - Place cells in the brain are discovered by John O'Keefe
- 1974 - Russell Alan Hulse and Joseph Hooton Taylor, Jr. discover indirect evidence for gravitational wave radiation in the Hulse-Taylor binary
- 1977 - Frederick Sanger sequences the first DNA genome of an organism using Sanger sequencing
- 1980 - Klaus von Klitzing discovered the Quantum Hall Effect.
- 1982 - Becker et al. discover the first millisecond pulsar
- 1983 - Kary Mullis invents the polymerase chain reaction, a key discovery in molecular biology.
- 1986 - Karl Müller and Johannes Bednorz: Discovery of High-temperature superconductivity.
- 1988 - Bart van Wees and colleagues at TU Deflt and Philips Research discovered the quantized conductance in a two-dimensional electron gas.
- 1992 - Aleksander Wolszczan and Dale Frail observe the first pulsar planets (this was the first confirmed discovery of planets outside the Solar System)
- 1994 - Andrew Wiles proves Fermat's Last Theorem
- 1995 - Michel Mayor and Didier Queloz definitively observe the first extrasolar planet around a main sequence star
- 1995 - Eric Cornell, Carl Wieman and Wolfgang Ketterle attained the first Bose-Einstein Condensate with atomic gases, so called fifth state of matter at an extremely low temperature.
- 1996 - Roslin Institute: Dolly the sheep was cloned.
- 1997 - CDF and DØ experiments at Fermilab: Top quark.
- 1998 - Supernova Cosmology Project and the High-Z Supernova Search Team: discovery of the accelerated expansion of the Universe / Dark Energy.
- 2000 - The Tau neutrino is discovered by the DONUT collaboration
- ^ Robert S. Holzman, MD (July 1998). "The Legacy of Atropos". Anesthesiology. 89 (1): 241-249. doi:10.1097/00000542-199807000-00030. PMID 9667313. citing J. Arena, Poisoning: Toxicology-Symptoms-Treatments, 3rd edition. Springfield, Charles C. Thomas, 1974, p 345
- ^ Page 26, (2nd chapter) in: Ronald L. Numbers (ed.) Galileo Goes to Jail, and Other Myths about Science and Religion (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2009). Note: the first tree chapters of the book can be found here .
- ^ "Kirschner, Stefan, "Nicole Oresme", The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Fall 2009 Edition), Edward N. Zalta (ed.)". Plato.stanford.edu. Retrieved .
- ^ L.M. Smith (2008-10-01). "Luca Pacioli: The Father of Accounting". Acct.tamu.edu. Retrieved .
- ^ "John Napier and logarithms". Ualr.edu. Retrieved .
- ^ "The Roslin Institute (University of Edinburgh) - Public Interest: Dolly the Sheep". www.roslin.ed.ac.uk. Retrieved 2017.
- ^ "JCVI: First Self-Replicating, Synthetic Bacterial Cell Constructed by J. Craig Venter Institute Researchers". jcvi.org. Retrieved .
- ^ Anderson, Gina (28 September 2015). "NASA Confirms Evidence That Liquid Water Flows on Today's Mars". NASA. Retrieved 2017.
- ^ Landau, Elizabeth; Chou, Felicia; Washington, Dewayne; Porter, Molly (16 October 2017). "NASA Missions Catch First Light from a Gravitational-Wave Event". NASA. Retrieved 2017.
- ^ "Neutron star discovery marks breakthrough for 'multi-messenger astronomy'". csmonitor.com. 2017-10-16. Retrieved .
- ^ "Hubble makes milestone observation of gravitational-wave source". slashgear.com. 2017-10-16. Retrieved .