Timeline of Telescopes, Observatories, and Observing Technology
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Timeline of Telescopes, Observatories, and Observing Technology
Timeline of telescopes, observatories, and observing technology.
Before the Common Era (BCE)
- 11th-7th century BCE, Zhou dynasty astronomical observatory () in today's Xian, China
Common Era (CE)
- 1803 National Astronomical Observatory (Colombia), the first observatory in the Americas
- 1836 Swathithirunal opened Trivandrum observatory
- 1839 Louis Jacques Mandé Daguerre (inventor of the daguerreotype photographic process) attempts in to photograph the moon. Tracking errors in guiding the telescope during the long exposure made the photograph came out as an indistinct fuzzy spot
- 1840 - John William Draper takes make a successful photographic image of the Moon, the first astronomical photograph
- 1845 - Lord Rosse finishes the Birr Castle 72-inch (1.8 m) optical reflecting telescope, located in Parsonstown, Ireland
- 1849 - Santiago observatory set up by USA, later becomes Chilean National Observatory (now part of the University of Chile)
- 1859 - Kirchhoff and Bunsen develop spectroscopy
- 1864 - Herschel's so-called GC (General Catalogue) of nebulae and star clusters published
- 1868 - Janssen and Lockyer discover Helium observing spectra of Sun
- 1871 - German Astronomical Association organized network of 13 (later 16) observatories for stellar proper motion studies
- 1863 - William Allen Miller and Sir William Huggins use the photographic wet collodion plate process to obtain the first ever photographic spectrogram of a star, Sirius and Capella.
- 1872 - Henry Draper photographs an spectrum of Vega that shows absorption lines.
- 1878 - Dreyer published a supplement to the GC of about 1000 new objects, the New General Catalogue
- 1883 - Andrew Ainslie Common uses the photographic dry plate process and a 36-inch (91 cm) reflecting telescope in his backyard to record 60 minute exposures of the Orion nebula that for the first time showed stars too faint to be seen by the human eye.
- 1887 - Paris conference institutes Carte du Ciel project to map entire sky to 14th magnitude photographically
- 1888 - First light of 91cm refracting telescope at Lick Observatory, on Mount Hamilton near San Jose, California
- 1889 - Astronomical Society of the Pacific founded
- 1890 - Albert A. Michelson proposes the stellar interferometer
- 1892 - George Ellery Hale finishes a spectroheliograph, which allows the Sun to be photographed in the light of one element only
- 1897 - Alvan Clark finishes the Yerkes 40-inch (1.0 m) optical refracting telescope, located in Williams Bay, Wisconsin
- 1960 - Owens Valley 27-meter radio telescopes begin operation, located in Big Pine, California
- 1961 - Parkes 64-metre radio telescope begins operation, located near Parkes, Australia
- 1962 - European Southern Observatory (ESO) founded
- 1962 - Kitt Peak solar observatory founded
- 1962 - Green Bank, West Virginia 90m radio telescope
- 1962 - Orbiting Solar Observatory 1 satellite launched
- 1963 - Arecibo 300-meter radio telescope begins operation, located in Arecibo, Puerto Rico
- 1964 - Martin Ryle's 1-mile (1.6 km) radio interferometer begins operation, located in Cambridge, England
- 1965 - Owens Valley 40-meter radio telescope begins operation, located in Big Pine, California
- 1967 - First VLBI images, with 183 km baseline
- 1969 - Observations start at Big Bear Solar Observatory, located in Big Bear, California
- 1969 - Las Campanas Observatory
- 1970 - Cerro Tololo 158-inch (4.0 m) optical reflecting telescope begins operation, located in Cerro Tololo, Chile
- 1970 - Kitt Peak National Observatory 158-inch (4.0 m) optical reflecting telescope begins operation, located near Tucson, Arizona
- 1970 - Uhuru x-ray telescope satellite
- 1970 - Antoine Labeyrie performs the first high-resolution optical speckle interferometry observations
- 1970 - Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope completed, near Westerbork, Netherlands
- 1972 - 100 m Effelsberg radio telescope inaugurated (Germany)
- 1973 - UK Schmidt Telescope 1.2 metre optical reflecting telescope begins operation, located in Anglo-Australian Observatory near Coonabarabran, Australia
- 1974 - Anglo-Australian Telescope 153-inch (3.9 m) optical reflecting telescope begins operation, located in Anglo-Australian Observatory near Coonabarabran, Australia
- 1975 - Gerald Smith, Frederick Landauer, and James Janesick use a CCD to observe Uranus, the first astronomical CCD observation
- 1975 - Antoine Labeyrie builds the first two-telescope optical interferometer
- 1976 - The 6-m BTA-6 (Bolshoi Teleskop Azimutalnyi or "Large Altazimuth Telescope") goes into operation on Mt. Pashtukhov in the Russian Caucasus
- 1978 - Multiple Mirror 176-inch (4.5 m) equivalent optical/infrared reflecting telescope begins operation, located in Amado, Arizona
- 1978 - International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE) telescope satellite
- 1978 - Einstein High Energy Astronomy Observatory x-ray telescope satellite
- 1979 - UKIRT 150-inch (3.8 m) infrared reflecting telescope begins operation, located at Mauna Kea Observatory, Hawaii
- 1979 - Canada-France-Hawaii 140-inch (3.6 m) optical reflecting telescope begins operation, located at Mauna Kea Observatory, Hawaii
- 1979 - NASA Infrared Telescope Facility 120-inch (3.0 m) infrared reflecting telescope begins operation, located at Mauna Kea, Hawaii
- 2001 - First light at the Keck Interferometer. Single-baseline operations begin in the near-infrared.
- 2001 - First light at VLTI interferometry array. Operations on the interferometer start with single-baseline near-infrared observations with the 103 m baseline.
- 2005 - First imaging with the VLTI using the AMBER optical aperture synthesis instrument and three VLT telescopes.
- 2005 - First light at SALT, the largest optical telescope in the Southern Hemisphere, with a primary mirror diameter of 11 meters.
- ^ King, David A. (2002), "A Vetustissimus Arabic Text on the Quadrans Vetus", Journal for the History of Astronomy, 33: 237-255 [237-8], Bibcode:2002JHA....33..237K
- ^ Kennedy, Edward S. (1962), "Review: The Observatory in Islam and Its Place in the General History of the Observatory by Aydin Sayili", Isis, 53 (2): 237-239, doi:10.1086/349558
- ^ Langermann, Y. Tzvi (1985), "The Book of Bodies and Distances of Habash al-Hasib", Centaurus, 28: 108-128 , Bibcode:1985Cent...28..108T, doi:10.1111/j.1600-0498.1985.tb00831.x
- ^ O'Connor, John J.; Robertson, Edmund F., "Al-Khujandi", MacTutor History of Mathematics archive, University of St Andrews.
- ^ David Kahn (March 1980), "On the Origin of Polyalphabetic Substitution", Isis, University of Chicago Press, 71 (1): 122-127 , doi:10.1086/352410, JSTOR 230316
- ^ Bryan S. Turner (March 1987), "State, Science and Economy in Traditional Societies: Some Problems in Weberian Sociology of Science", British Journal of Sociology, Blackwell Publishing, 38 (1): 1-23 , JSTOR 590576
- ^ Will Durant (1950). The Story of Civilization IV: The Age of Faith, pp. 239-45.
- ^ John Brian Harley; David Woodward; G. Malcolm Lewis (1992). The History of Cartography: Cartography in the traditional Islamic and South Asian societies. 2. Oxford University Press. pp. 28-9. ISBN 0-226-31635-1.
- ^ Hassan, Ahmad Y., Transfer Of Islamic Technology To The West, Part II: Transmission Of Islamic Engineering, retrieved
- ^ Lorch, R. P. (1976), "The Astronomical Instruments of Jabir ibn Aflah and the Torquetum", Centaurus, 20 (1): 11-34, Bibcode:1976Cent...20...11L, doi:10.1111/j.1600-0498.1976.tb00214.x
- ^ Ancient Discoveries, Episode 11: Ancient Robots, History Channel, retrieved
- ^ "History of the sundial". National Maritime Museum. Archived from the original on 2007-10-10. Retrieved .
- ^ Jones, Lawrence (December 2005), "The Sundial And Geometry", North American Sundial Society, 12 (4)
- ^ Pedersen, Olaf (2010). A Survey of the Almagest. Springer. p. 20. ISBN 0387848258.
- ^ a b Tekeli, Sevim (1997). "Taqi al-Din". Encyclopaedia of the History of Science, Technology, and Medicine in Non-Western Cultures. Kluwer Academic Publishers. ISBN 0-7923-4066-3.
- ^ Savage-Smith, Emilie (1985), Islamicate Celestial Globes: Their History, Construction, and Use, Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, D.C.
- ^ Isaac Newton: adventurer in thought, by Alfred Rupert Hall, page 67
- ^ Keenan, Philip C. (February 1, 1991). "The Earliest National Observatories in Latin America". Journal for the History of Astronomy. 22 (1): 21-30 - via SAGE Journals.
- ^ Chronology of Science in the United States 1840-1849 (derived from Clark A. Elliott, History of Science in the United States: A Chronology and Research Guide - New York and London: Garland Publishing, 1996, pp. 34-177).
- ^ a b Spectrometers, ASTROLab of Mont-Mégantic National Park
- ^ J. B. Hearnshaw (1996-05-02). The Measurement of Starlight: Two Centuries of Astronomical Photometry. Cambridge University Press. p. 122. ISBN 978-0-521-40393-1.
- ^ Public Telescope: Erstes öffentliches Weltraumteleskop
- ^ Weltraumteleskop für jedermann welt.de
- ^ The first public space telescope Popular Astronomy UK
- Michael A. Hoskin (1997). The Cambridge Illustrated History of Astronomy. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-41158-5.
- Edgardo Marcorini (1988). Scienza e tecnica. ISBN 978-0-87196-475-5.
- George Ochoa; Melinda Corey (1997). The Wilson Chronology of Science and Technology: A Record of Scientific Discovery and Technological Invention, from the Stone Age to the Information Age. New York : H.W. Wilson. ISBN 978-0-8242-0933-9.
- Rushd? R?shid; Régis Morelon (1996). Encyclopedia of History of Arabic Science: Astronomy- theoretical and applied. Psychology Press. ISBN 978-0-415-12410-2.