624 - 548 Thales raised the study of nature from the realm of the mythical to the level of empirical study.
610 - 547 Anaximander extends the idea of "law" to the physical world and uses maps and models.
c. 400 BC -- In China, Mozi and the School of Names advocate using one's senses to observe the world, and develop the "three-prong method" for testing the truth or falsehood of statements.
c. 400 BC -- Democritus advocates inductive reasoning through a process of examining the causes of sensory perceptions and drawing conclusions about the outside world.
c. 400 BC -- Plato first provides a detailed definitions for idea, matter, form and appearance as abstract concepts.
c. 320 BC -- First comprehensive documents categorising and subdividing knowledge, dividing knowledge into different areas by Aristotle,(physics, poetry, zoology, logic, rhetoric, politics, and biology). Aristotle's Posterior Analytics defends the ideal of science as necessary demonstration from axioms known with certainty. Aristotle believes that the world is real and that we can learn the truth by experience. Latin:experimentum
c. 341-270 Epicurus scientific method with multiple variables.
c. 240 BC -- Eratosthenes best known for being the first person to calculate the circumference of the Earth, which he did by applying a measuring system using stadia, which was a standard unit of measure during that time period. His calculation was remarkably accurate.
1027 -- In The Book of Healing, Avicenna criticizes the Aristotelian method of induction, arguing that "it does not lead to the absolute, universal, and certain premises that it purports to provide", and in its place, develops examination and experimentation as a means for scientific inquiry.
13th through 17th centuries
1220-1235 -- Robert Grosseteste, an English scholastic philosopher, theologian and the bishop of Lincoln, published his Aristotelian commentaries, which laid out the framework for the proper methods of science.
1265 -- Roger Bacon, an English monk, inspired by the writings of Grosseteste, described a scientific method, which he based on a repeating cycle of observation, hypothesis, experimentation, and the need for independent verification. He recorded the manner in which he conducted his experiments in precise detail so that others could reproduce and independently test his results.
1327 -- Ockham's razor clearly formulated (by William of Ockham) which states that among competing hypotheses, the one with the fewest assumptions should be selected.
1812 -- The formulation by Hans Christian Ørsted of the Latin-German mixed term Gedankenexperiment (lit. experiment conducted in the thoughts, or thought experiment). Although the method had been in use by philosophers since antiquity.
^Plat's article is entitled Strong inference. Certain systematic methods of scientific thinking may produce much more rapid progress than others (Science, 16 October 1964, Volume 146, Number 3642, Pages 347-353.)
"Together, Rockliff and Bruno make the scientific method seem exciting, and kids interested in science and history will likely be, well, mesmerized." â Booklist (starred review)
When American inventor Benjamin Franklin arrives in Paris, he is upstaged by a compelling and enigmatic figure: Dr. Mesmer. In elaborately staged shows, Mesmer has Parisians believing he can control a magic force that changes the taste of water, cures illness, and controls thoughts! Can Ben Franklinâs approach of observing, hypothesizing, and testing get to the bottom of Mesmerâs tricks? A rip-roaring, lavishly illustrated peek into a fascinating moment in history shows the development of the scientific method â and reveals the amazing power of the human mind.
EVERYTHING YOU NEED TO SCORE A PERFECT 5. Equip yourself to ace the AP European History Exam with The Princeton Review's comprehensive study guideâincluding thorough content reviews, targeted strategies for every question type, and 2 full-length practice tests with complete answer explanations.
We don't have to tell you how tough AP European History is to remember and analyzeâor how important getting a stellar exam score can be to your chances of getting into the top college of your choice. Written by the experts at The Princeton Review, Cracking the AP European History Exam arms you to take on the test with:
Techniques That Actually Work. â¢ Tried-and-true strategies to avoid traps and beat the test â¢ Tips for pacing yourself and guessing logically â¢ Essential tactics to help you work smarter, not harder Everything You Need to Know for a High Score. â¢ Comprehensive content review for all test topics â¢ Important information about the upcoming AP European History Course and Exam changes â¢ Engaging activities to help you critically assess your progress
Practice Your Way to Perfection. â¢ 2 full-length practice tests with detailed answer explanations â¢ Practice drills at the end of each content review chapter â¢ Helpful timelines of major developments, plus chapter review questions