Tobacco Advertising
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Tobacco Advertising

Nicotine marketing is the marketing of nicotine-containing products or use. Traditionally, the tobacco industry markets cigarette smoking, but it is increasingly marketing other products, such as e-cigarettes. Products are marketed through social media, stealth marketing, mass media, and sponsorship (particularly of sporting events). Expenditures on nicotine marketing are in the tens of billions a year; per-capita marketing spending in the US in 2003 alone were $290 per adult smoker, or $45 per inhabitant. It is increasingly regulated; some forms of nicotine advertising are banned in many countries.

Effects

The effectiveness of tobacco marketing is widely documented;[1] tobacco marketing increases consumption. Ads cause new people to become addicted, mostly when they are minors.[2][3][4][1] Ads also keep established smokers from quitting. Advertising peaks in January, when the most people are trying to quit, although the most people take up smoking in the summer.[1]:61

Marketing is also used to oppose regulation of nicotine marketing and other tobacco control measures, both directly and indirectly, for instance by improving the image of the nicotine industry, and reducing criticism from youth and community groups. Industry charity and sports sponsorships are publicized (with publicity costing up to ten times the cost of the publicized act), thus portraying the industry as actively sharing the values of the target audience. Marketing is also used to normalize the industry ("Just Another Fortune 500 Company", "More Than a Tobacco Company").[1]:198-201 Finally, marketing is used to give the impression that nicotine companies are responsible, "Open and Honest". This is done through an emphasis on informed choice and "anti-teen-smoking" campaigns,[1]:198-201 although such ads have been criticized as counterproductive (causing more smoking) by independent groups.[1]:190-196[5]

Magazines, but not newspapers, that get revenue from nicotine advertising are less likely to run stories critical of nicotine products. Internal documents also show that the industry used its influence with the media to shape coverage of news, such as a decision not to mandate health warnings on cigarette packages or a debate over advertising restrictions.[1]:345-350

Counter-marketing is also used, mostly by public health groups and governments. The addictiveness and health effects of tobacco use are generally described, as these are the themes missing from pro-tobacco marketing.[1]:150

Regulation and evasion techniques

Because it harms public health, nicotine marketing is increasingly regulated.

Advertising restrictions typically shift marketing spending to unrestricted media. Banned on television, ads move to print; banned in all conventional media, ads shift to sponsorships; banned as in-store advertising and packaging, advertising shifts to shill (undisclosed) marketing reps, sponsored online content, viral marketing, and other stealth marketing techniques.[1]:272-280 Unlike conventional advertising, stealth marketing is not openly attributed to the organization behind it. This neutralizes mistrust of tobacco companies, which is widespread among children and the teenagers who provide the industry with most new addicts.[1]:Ch.6&7

Another method of evading restrictions is to sell less-regulated nicotine products instead of the ones for which advertising is more regulated. For instance, while TV ads of cigarettes are banned in the United States, similar TV ads of e-cigarettes are not.[6]

The most effective media are usually banned first, meaning advertisers need to spend more money to addict the same number of people.[1]:272 Comprehensive bans can make it impossible to effectively substitute other forms of advertising, leading to actual falls in consumption.[1]:272-280 However, skillful use of allowed media can increase advertising exposure; the exposure of U.S. children to nicotine advertising is increasing as of 2018.[6]

Targets and methods

Youth

Young girl in wearing a Marlboro shirt in the 1980s
Candy cigarettes in a claw crane arcade game in the USA in 2008. Candy cigarettes are illegal in many countries.

A majority of people do not start smoking as adults. As a result, much cigarette advertising is intended to target youth, and depicts young people smoking and using tobacco as a form of leisure and enjoyment.[7] Major cigarette companies would advertise their brands in popular TV shows such as The Flintstones and The Beverly Hillbillies, which were watched by many children and teens.[8] In 1964, after facing much pressure from the public, The Cigarette Advertising Code was created by the Tobacco companies, which prohibited advertising directed to youth.[9]

The use of celebrities and famous athletes would also encourage smoking for youth. Popular comedian Bob Hope was used to advertise for cigarette companies.[9] The African-American magazine Ebony often used athletes to advertise major cigarette brands.[10]

Before 2009, many tobacco companies made flavored tobacco packaged often in colorful candy like wrappers to attract new users, many of which were a younger audience. However these flavored cigarettes were banned on September 22, 2009 by the Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act. Despite this initiative, flavored cigarettes are still on the rise because tobacco companies change their products slightly so they are filtered or slim cigarettes, which are not banned by the act.[clarification needed][11]

The intended audience of tobacco advertising has changed throughout the years, with some brands specifically targeted towards a particular demographic. According to Reynolds American Inc, the Joe Camel campaign in the United States was created to advertise Camel brand to young adult smokers. Class action plaintiffs and politicians described the Joe Camel images as a "cartoon" intended to advertise the product to people below the legal smoking age. Under pressure from various anti-smoking groups, the Federal Trade Commission, and the U.S. Congress, Camel ended the campaign on 10 July 1997.

A 1914 ad targeting women. Tobacco companies have long targeted the female market, seeing it as a potential growth area.[12]

Poor and marginalized communities

When marketing cigarettes to the developing world, tobacco companies use the Western lifestyle as a mechanism to lure this demographic into purchasing their products.[13] The tobacco industry targeted young rural men by creating advertisements with images of cowboys, hunters, and race car drivers.Teens in rural areas are less likely to be exposed to anti-tobacco messages in the media. Low income and predominantly minority neighborhoods often have more tobacco retailers and more tobacco advertising than other neighborhoods.[14]

Tobacco industry have been targeting marginalized groups over the years, including African Americans,[15]sexual minorities,[16] and even the homeless and the mentally ill.[17] According to the CDC Tobacco Product Use Among Adults 2015 report, American Indian/Alaska Native, non-Hispanic, 0-12 yrs (no diploma) and GED level of education, annual household income <$35,000, the LGB population, the uninsured, and those under serious psychological distress have the highest reported percentage of any tobacco product use.[18] Tobacco industry focus their advertisement towards these vulnerable groups, contributing to the large disparity in smoking and health problems.[19]

History

Nicotine marketing has continually developed new techniques in response to historical circumstances, societal and technological change, and regulation. Countermarketing has also changed, becoming more and less common over the decades.

Pre-1800

The coughing, throat irritation, and shortness of breath caused by smoking are obvious, and tobacco was criticized as unhealthy long before the invention of the clinical study. In the 1604 A Counterblaste to Tobacco, James VI of Scotland and I of England described smoking as "A custome lothsome to the eye, hatefull to the Nose, harmefull to the braine, dangerous to the Lungs, and in the blacke stinking fume thereof, neerest resembling the horrible Stigian smoke of the pit that is bottomelesse", and urged his subjects not to use tobacco.[20] In the 1600s, many countries banned its use.[21]Pope Urban VIII issued a 1624 papal bull that made the use of tobacco in holy places punishable by excommunication;[22]Pope Benedict XIII repealed the ban one hundred years later.[23]

1800-1880

A sign asks readers (likely tobacco chewers) not to spit on the floor. Part of an anti-tuberculosis campaign by the Norwegian Women's Public Health Association.

The first known nicotine advertisement in the United States was for the snuff and tobacco products and was placed in the New York daily paper in 1789. At the time, American tobacco markets were local. Consumers would generally request tobacco by quality, not brand name, until after the 1840s.[24]

Many European tobacco bans were repealed during the Revolutions of 1848.

Cigarettes were first made in Seville, from cigar scraps. British soldiers took up the habit during the Crimean War (1853-1856).[25] The American Civil War in the early 1860s also led to increased demand for tobacco from American soldiers, and in non-tobacco-growing regions.[25]

Public health measures against chewing tobacco (spitting, especially other than in a spitoon, spread diseases such as flu and tuberculosis) increased cigarette consumption.[25]

After the development of color lithography in the late 1870s, collectible picture series were printed onto cigarette cards, previously only used to stiffen the packaging.[24]

Mass production and temperance, 1880-1914

An early cigarette-rolling machine mass-produced cigarettes at fifty times the speed of a human cigarette roller.

Pre-rolled cigarettes, like cigars, were initially expensive, as a skilled cigarette roller could produce only about four cigarettes per minute on average[26] Cigarette-making machines were developed in the 1880s, replacing hand-rolling.[27] One early machine could roll 120,000 cigarettes in 10 hours, or 200 a minute.[26][28][29] Mass production revolutionized the cigarette industry.[30] Cigarette companies began to reckon production in millions of cigarettes per day.[24]

Higher production and cheaper cigarettes gave companies an incentive to increase consumption. By the last quarter of the 19th century, magazines carried advertisements for different brands of cigarettes, snuff, and pipe tobacco.[27] Demand for cigarettes rose exponentially, ~doubling every five years in Canada and the US (until demand began to rise even faster, ~tripling during the four years of World War I).[25]:429, Fig.1

Anti-tobacco movements

"The Deadly Cigarette"; a 1905 cartoon celebrates bans on the sale and possession of tobacco in three U.S. States, and calls on other states follow their lead.

In the late 1800s, the temperance movement was strongly involved in anti-tobacco compaigns, and particularly with the prevention of youth smoking. They argued that smoking was addictive, unhealthy, stunted the growth of children, and, in women, was harmful during pregnancy.[31]

By 1890, 26 American states had banned sales to minors. Over the next decade, further restrictions were legislated, including prohibitions on sale and on giving out free samples of cigarettes; measures were widely circumvented, for instance by selling expensive matches and giving away cigarettes with them.[25]

After women won the vote in the early 1900s, temperance groups successfully campaigned for Juvenile Smoking Laws throughout Australia. At this time, most adults there smoked pipes, and cigarettes were used only by juveniles.[31]

1914-1950

World War I

World War I, circa 1915. A tobacco concession stand, with ads, at Valcartier military base near Quebec City

Free or subsidized branded cigarettes were distributed to troops during World War I.[27] Demand for cigarettes in North America, which had been ~doubling every five years, began to rise even faster, ~tripling during the four years of war.[25]:429, Fig.1

In the face of imminent violent death, the health harms of cigarettes became less of a concern, and there was public support for drives to get cigarettes to the front lines.[31] Billions of cigarettes were distributed to soldiers in Europe by national governments, the YMCA, the Salvation Army, and the Red Cross. Private individuals also donated money to send cigarettes to the front, even from jurisdictions where the sale of cigarettes was illegal. Not giving soldiers cigarettes was seen as unpatriotic.[25]

A poster soliciting donations for a fund to send cigarettes to the front in WWI. A nurse lights a pipe for an injured soldier, who guides her hand. The implication that tobacco heals is subtle, but was consistently used.[32] There is also an implication that the nurse finds smoking sexually attractive.

Interwar

By the time the war was over, a generation had grown up, and a large proportion of adults smoked, making anti-smoking campaigns substantially more difficult.[31] Returning soldiers continued to smoke, making smoking more socially acceptable. Temperance groups began to concentrate their efforts on alcohol.[31] By 1927, American states had repealed all their anti-smoking laws, except those on minors.[25]

Modern advertising was created with the innovative techniques used in tobacco advertising beginning in the 1920s.[33][34]

Advertising in the interwar period consisted primarily of full page, color magazine and newspaper advertisements. Many companies created slogans for their brand and used celebrity endorsements from famous men and women. Some advertisements contained fictional doctors reassuring customers that their specific brand was good for health.[35]

In the 1920s, tobacco companies continued to target women, aiming to increase the number of smokers.[12] At first, in light of the threat of tobacco prohibition from temperance unions, marketing was subtle; it indirectly and deniably suggested that women smoked. Testimonials from smoking female celebrities were used. Ads were designed to "prey on female insecurities about weight and diet", encouraging smoking as a healthy alternative to eating sweets.[36]

Campaigns used the traditional association that smoking was improper for women to advantage. They marketed cigarettes as "Torches of Freedom", and made a dependence-inducing drug a symbol of women's independence. Lung cancer rates in women rose sharply.[37]

In 1929 Edward Bernays, commissioned by the American Tobacco Company to get more women smoking, decided to hire women to smoke their "torches of freedom" as they walked in the Easter Sunday Parade in New York. He was very careful when picking women to march because "while they should be good looking, they should not look too model-y" and he hired his own photographers to make sure that good pictures were taken and then published around the world.[38]

In 1929, the Sturmabteilung, the paramilitary wing of the Nazi Party, founded a cigarette company as a way to raise funds and make itself less financially dependent on the party leadership. SA members were expected to smoke only SA brands.[39] There is evidence that coercion was used to promote the sale of these cigarettes. Through this scheme, a typical SA unit earned hundreds of Reichsmarks each month.[40] The brand also promoted political ideas, with sets of cigarette cards showing historical army uniforms.[41]

Medical concerns

Skyrocketing European lung cancer rates drew attention from doctors in the twenties and thirties.[42] Lung cancer had been a vanishingly rare disease. Before 1900, there were only 140 documented cases worldwide.[43] Then, suddenly, lung cancer became a leading cause of death in many countries (a status it retains to this day).[43][1]:4[better source needed]

Initially, suspicion was cast on causes including road tar, car exhaust, the 1918 flu pandemic, racial mixing, and the use of chemical weapons in World War I. However, in 1929, a statistical analysis strongly linking lung cancer to smoking was published by Fritz Lickint of Dresden. He did a retrospective cohort study showing that those with lung cancer were, disproportionately, smokers. He also found that men got lung cancer at several times the rate of women, and that, in countries where more women smoked, the difference was much smaller.[43] In 1932, a study in Poland came to the same conclusion, pointing out that the geographic and gender patterns of Polish lung cancer deaths matched those of smoking, but no other suggested cause, such as industry or cars (rare in Poland at the time).[43]

The medical community was criticized for its slow response to these findings. One 1932 paper attributed the slow response to smoking being common among doctors, as well as the general population.[42] A few temperance activists had continued to attack tobacco as expensive, addictive, and leading to petty theft. In the thirties, they also began to publicize the medical findings.[31]

World War II

Despite these findings, free and subsidized branded cigarettes were again distributed to Allied troops during World War II.[27]

Cigarettes were included in American soldiers' C-rations, since many tobacco companies sent the soldiers cigarettes for free. Cigarette sales reached an all-time high at this point, as cigarette companies were not only able to get soldiers addicted, but specific brands also found a new loyal group of customers as soldiers who smoked their cigarettes returned from the war.[44]

A Nazi anti-smoking ad titled "The chain-smoker" saying "He does not [devour] it [the cigarette], it devours him"

Nazis came to oppose tobacco us on grounds of "racial hygiene". The well-funded Institute for Tobacco Hazards Research was founded. Some of those working with it were involved in mass murder and unethical medical experiments, and killed themselves at the end of the war, including Karl Astel, the head of the institute. The institute and other organizations directed anti-smoking campaigns at both the general public and doctors. Campaigns included pamphlets, reprints of academic articles and books, and smoking bans in many public places. An industry-funded counter-institute, the Tabacologia medicinalis, was shut down by Leonardo Conti.[43]

Tobacco companies continue to exploit associations with Nazis to fight anti-tobacco measures. Modern Germany has some of Europe's worst tobacco control policies,[43] and more Germans both smoke and die of it in consequence.[45][46]

1945-70

A Frank Statement to Cigarette Smokers: fulltext on Wikisource

In the late 1940s, scientific evidence that tobacco harmed health mounted.[35]

However, until the 1970s, most tobacco advertising was legal in the United States and most European nations. In the United States, in the 1950s and 1960s, cigarette brands frequently sponsored television shows--notably To Tell the Truth and I've Got a Secret. Smoking was also seen in children's cartoons such as The Flintstones. Brand jingles were commonly used on radio and television.

In the 1950s, manufacturers began adding filter tips to cigarettes to remove some of the tar and nicotine as they were smoked. "Safer," "less potent" cigarette brands were also introduced. Light cigarettes became so popular that, as of 2004, half of American smokers preferred them over regular cigarettes,[47] According to The Federal Government's National Cancer Institute (NCI), light cigarettes provide no benefit to smokers' health.[48][49]

In 1954, tobacco companies ran the ad "A Frank Statement." The ad was the first in a disinformation campaign, disputing reports that smoking cigarettes could cause lung cancer and had other dangerous health effects.[50]

Prior to 1964, many of the cigarette companies advertised their brand by claiming that their product did not have serious health risks. A couple of examples would be "Play safe with Philip Morris" and "More doctors smoke Camels". Such claims were made both to increase the sales of their product and to combat the increasing public knowledge of smoking's negative health effects.[9]

However, in 1964, Smoking and Health: Report of the Advisory Committee to the Surgeon General of the United States was published. It was based on over 7000 scientific articles that linked tobacco use with cancer and other diseases. This report led to laws requiring warning labels on tobacco products and to restrictions on tobacco advertisements. As these began to come into force, tobacco marketing became more subtle, and a number of advertisements designed to appeal to children, particularly those featuring Joe Camel resulting in increased awareness and uptake of smoking among children.[51] However, restrictions did have an effect on adult quit rates, with its use declining to the point that by 2004, nearly half of all Americans who had ever smoked had quit.[52]

Post-advertising-restrictions; 1970 and later

The period after nicotine advertising restrictions were brought in is characterised by ingenious circumvention of progressively stricter regulations.

Advertising restrictions typically shift advertising spending to unrestricted media. Banned on television, ads move to print; banned in all conventional media, ads shift to sponsorships; banned as in-store advertising and packaging, advertising shifts to shill (undisclosed) marketing reps, sponsored online content, viral marketing, and other stealth marketing techniques.[1]:272-280

Another method of evading restrictions is to sell less-regulated nicotine products instead of the ones for which advertising is more regulated. For instance, while TV ads of cigarettes are baned in the United States, similar TV ads of e-cigarettes are not.[6]

The most effective media are usually banned first, meaning advertisers need to spend more money to addict the same number of people.[1]:272 Comprehensive bans can make it impossible to effectively substitute other forms of advertising, leading to actual falls in consumption.[1]:272-280 However, skillful use of allowed media can increase advertising exposure; the exposure of U.S. children to nicotine advertising is increasing as of 2018.[6]

They industry continued to dispute medical research. They denied that nicotine was addictive while deliberately spiking their cigarettes with additional nicotine to make them more addictive.[35]

E-cigarettes

This 2011 e-cigarette ad emphasizes choice and freedom, not the less attractive entrapment and lack of freedom inherent in addiction. It plays on social anxieties with the phrase "Nobody likes a quitter". The topmost line, "WHY QUIT?", also contradicts the narrative that e-cigarettes help smokers quit. The ad is explicitly addressed at the "concerned smoker", someone considering quitting, and it suggests a more harmful[53] alternative to quitting.
Adverse effects of vaping include throat irritation, cough, increased airway resistance, nausea, vomiting, chest pain, increased blood pressure, and increased heart rate.
The adverse effects of vaping[54] and the addictiveness of nicotine are usually not described in vaping ads.

The use of e-cigarettes has been increasing exponentially since 2004. They are marketed as a cheaper, more pleasant, and more convenient complement or alternative to smoking. More controversially, they are promoted as a harmless or less harmful alternative to smoking, or a way to quit. The evidence for these claims is weak. There have been no studies on the long-term effects of a product that came into common use in 2004, and only one study comparing e-cigarettes to standard quitting methods has been published.[55][56] Many jurisdictions have also regulated e-cigarettes, although they have not won widespread approval as a smoking cessation aid, due to the lack of clinical evidence that they are effective.

There are concerns that e-cigarette use may delay and deter quitting, by giving users an excuse to keep using nicotine.[57][56] E-cigarettes have been marketed at a reason not to quit.[58]

Many other aspect of e-cigarette ads are familiar; like ads from the 1800 and 1900s, they show unrepresentatively healthy, well-dressed, high-status people. They may portray users as more sociable (the ad illustrated here actually asserts that breaking a nicotine addiction will cause you to be disliked). They are likely to imply that users of their product are behaving in an adult manner, making free choices, rebelling against coercive authority, and expressing their individuality; they are unlikely to mention nicotine addiction or other negative health effects. They offer alternatives to quitting for "concerned smokers".

A 2014 review said, "the e-cigarette companies have been rapidly expanding using aggressive marketing messages similar to those used to promote cigarettes in the 1950s and 1960s."[57] E-cigarettes and nicotine are regularly promoted as safe and beneficial in the media and on brand websites.[59] While advertising of tobacco products is banned in most countries, television and radio e-cigarette advertising in some countries may be indirectly encouraging traditional cigarette smoking.[57] There is no evidence that the cigarette brands are selling e-cigarettes as part of a plan to phase out traditional cigarettes, despite some claiming to want to cooperate in "harm reduction".[57] In the US, six large e-cigarette businesses spent $59.3 million on promoting e-cigarettes in 2013.[60] Easily circumvented age verification at company websites enables young people to access and be exposed to marketing for e-cigarettes.[61]

A national US television advertising campaign starred Steven Dorff exhaling a "thick flume" of what the ad describes as "vapor, not tobacco smoke", exhorting smokers with the message "We are all adults here, it's time to take our freedom back."[62] The ads, in a context of longstanding prohibition of tobacco advertising on TV, were criticized by organizations such as Campaign for Tobacco-Free Kids as undermining anti-tobacco efforts.[62] Cynthia Hallett of Americans for Non-Smokers' Rights described the US advertising campaign as attempting to "re-establish a norm that smoking is okay, that smoking is glamorous and acceptable".[62] University of Pennsylvania communications professor Joseph Cappella stated that the setting of the ad near an ocean was meant to suggest an association of clean air with the nicotine product.[62]

A 2014 review said e-cigarettes are aggressively promoted, mostly via the internet, as a healthy alternative to smoking in the US.[63]Celebrity endorsements are used to encourage e-cigarette use.[64] E-cigarettes are marketed to young people[65] using cartoon characters and candy flavors,[66] in a re-use of older (now widely illegal) strategies used to promote chewing tobacco and cigarettes.

The marketing claim that e-cigarettes emit "only water vapor" is false. E-cigarette vapor contains possibly harmful chemicals such as nicotine, carbonyls, metals, and organic volatile compounds, in addition to particulates.[67]

Web

The web is a major medium for nicotine advertising.

Both Google and Microsoft have policies that prohibit the promotion of tobacco products on their advertising networks.[68][69] However, some tobacco retailers are able to circumvent these policies by creating landing pages that promote tobacco accessories such as cigar humidors and lighters.

On Facebook, unpaid content, created and sponsored by tobacco companies, is widely used to advertise nicotine-containing products, with photos of the products, "buy now" buttons and a lack of age restrictions, in contravention of ineffectively-enforced Facebook policies.[70][71][72]

"Harm reduction" advertising

Some tobacco companies have sponsored ads that claim to discourage teen smoking. Such ads are unregulated. However, these ads have been shown, in independent studies, to increase the self-reported likelihood that teens will start smoking. They also cause adults to see tobacco companies as more responsible and less in need of regulation. Unlike promotional ads, tobacco companies do not track the effects of these ads themselves. These ads differ from independently-produced antismoking ads in that they do not mention the health effects of smoking, and present smoking as exclusively an "adult choice", undesirable "if you're a teen".[1]:190-196

Tobacco companies have also funded "anti-smoking" groups. On such organization, funded by Lorillard, enters into exclusive sponsorship agreements with sports organisations. This means that no other anti-smoking campaigns are allowed to be involved with the sporting organisation. Such sponsorships has been criticised by health groups.[5]

There is more exposure to industry-sponsored "antismoking" ads than to antismoking ads run by public health agencies.[1]:189

Film

Nicotine use is frequently shown in movies. While academics had long speculated that there was paid product placement, it was not until internal industry documents were released that there was hard evidence of such practices.[1]:363-364 The documents show that in the 1980s and 1990s, cigarettes were shown return for [1]:401

Smokers in movies are generally healthier, more successful, and more racially-privileged than actual smokers. Health effects, including coughing and addiction, are shown or mentioned in only a few percent of cases, and are less likely to be mentioned in films targeted at younger viewers.[1]:372-374

Sponsorship

Sponsorship has widely been used to circumvent bans on conventional advertising. Sponsors benefit from placing their advertising at sporting events, naming events after themselves, and recruiting political support from sporting agencies.

Economics

As tobacco companies keep spending money on marketing until it stops being profitable, marginal changes in marketing typically have no measurable effect, but the total amount of marketing has a strong effect.[1]:276

Econometric studies have been done into the endogeneity[73] and other aspects of bans.[74][75]

Budgets

Tobacco companies have had particularly large budgets for their advertising campaigns. The Federal Trade Commission claimed that cigarette manufacturers spent $8.24 billion on advertising and promotion in 1999, the highest amount ever at that time. The FTC later claimed that in 2005, cigarette companies spent $13.11 billion on advertising and promotion, down from $15.12 billion in 2003, but nearly double what was spent in 1998. The increase, despite restrictions on the advertising in most countries, was an attempt at appealing to a younger audience, including multi-purchase offers and giveaways such as hats and lighters, along with the more traditional store and magazine advertising.[12]

Marketing consultants ACNielsen announced that, during the period September 2001 to August 2002, tobacco companies advertising in the UK spent £25 million, excluding sponsorship and indirect advertising, broken down as follows:

  • £11 million on press advertising
  • £13.2 million on billboards
  • £714,550 on radio advertising
  • £106,253 on direct mail advertising

Figures from around that time also estimated that the companies spent £8m a year sponsoring sporting events and teams (excluding Formula One) and a further £70m on Formula One in the UK.[76]

The £25 million spent in the UK amounted to approximately $0.60 USD per person in 2002. The 15.12 billion spent in the United States in 2003 amounted to more than $45 for every person in the United States, more than $36 million per day, and more than $290 for each U.S. adult smoker.

Gallery

In a 1922 ad, a small child, smoking a cigarette, tells his amused parents not to worry, as he is smoking for a veteran's charity. Children were often used in early cigarette ads, where they helped normalize smoking as part of family living, and gave associations of purity, vibrancy, and life.[77] 
Belomorkanal - Russian cigarettes 
Hans Rudi Erdt: Problem Cigarettes, 1912 
French Painted Mural Advertisement 
Tobacco display in a store Munich in 2008. In many countries, cigarettes may not be displayed, but must be kept behind the counter. 
Advertisement for "Murad" Turkish cigarettes 1918 
Advertisement for "Egyptian Deities" cigarettes 1919 
Veterans Stadium Philadelphia 1986 
Early 20th Century Cigarettes in Durham, NC 

See also

References

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  9. ^ a b c John W. Richards, Jr., Joe B. Tye and Paul M. Fischer, "The Tobacco Industry's Code of Advertising in the United States: Myth and Reality", Tobacco Control, Vol. 5, (Winter 1996), pp. 297
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  11. ^ Laura Bach, "FLAVORED TOBACCO PRODUCTS ATTRACT KIDS", Campaign for Tobacco-Free Kids, (April. 2017)
  12. ^ a b c Statement: Surgeon General's Report on Women and Tobacco Underscores Need for Congress to Grant FDA Authority Over Tobacco (Campaign for Tobacco-Free Kids). Tobaccofreekids.org.
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  16. ^ Lee, JGL; Griffin, GK; Melvin, CL (2009). "Tobacco use among sexual minorities in the USA, 1987 to May 2007: a systematic review". Tobacco Control. 18: 275-282. doi:10.1136/tc.2008.028241. 
  17. ^ Apollonio, DE; Malone, RE (2005). "Marketing to the marginalised: tobacco industry targeting of the homeless and mentally ill". Tobacco Control. 14: 409-415. doi:10.1136/tc.2005.011890. PMC 1748120 Freely accessible. 
  18. ^ Phillips, Elyse; Wang, Teresa W.; Husten, Corinne G.; Corey, Catherine G.; Apelberg, Benjamin J.; Jamal, Ahmed; Homa, David M.; King, Brian A. (2017). "Tobacco Product Use Among Adults -- United States, 2015". MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. 66 (44): 1209-1215. doi:10.15585/mmwr.mm6644a2. ISSN 0149-2195. 
  19. ^ Baig, Sabeeh A.; Pepper, Jessica K.; Morgan, Jennifer C.; Brewer, Noel T. "Social identity and support for counteracting tobacco company marketing that targets vulnerable populations". Social Science & Medicine. 182: 136-141. doi:10.1016/j.socscimed.2017.03.052. 
  20. ^ A Counterblaste to Tobacco (retrieved February 22, 2008) Quote: A custome lothsome to the eye, hatefull to the Nose, harmefull to the braine, dangerous to the Lungs, and in the blacke stinking fume thereof, neerest resembling the horrible Stigian smoke of the pit that is bottomelesse.
  21. ^ Alston, Lee J.; Dupré, Ruth; Nonnenmacher, Tomas (2002). "Social reformers and regulation: the prohibition of cigarettes in the United States and Canada" (PDF). Explorations in Economic History. 39 (4): 425-445. 
  22. ^ Gately, Iain (2001). Tobacco: A Cultural History of How an Exotic Plant Seduced Civilization. Simon & Schuster. ISBN 0-8021-3960-4. 
  23. ^ Cutler, Abigail. "The Ashtray of History", The Atlantic Monthly, January/February 2007.
  24. ^ a b c More About Tobacco Advertising and the Tobacco Collections. Scriptorium.lib.duke.edu.
  25. ^ a b c d e f g h Alston, Lee J.; Dupré, Ruth; Nonnenmacher, Tomas (2002). "Social reformers and regulation: the prohibition of cigarettes in the United States and Canada" (PDF). Explorations in Economic History. 39 (4): 425-445. 
  26. ^ a b Bonsack's cigarette machine Archived 2006-11-13 at the Wayback Machine.. URL last accessed 2006-10-11.
  27. ^ a b c d James, Randy (2009-06-15). "A Brief History Of Cigarette Advertising". TIME. Retrieved . 
  28. ^ U.S. patent 238,640, with diagrams. URL last accessed 2006-10-11.
  29. ^ U.S. patent 247,795, with diagrams. URL last accessed 2006-10-11
  30. ^ Bennett, W.: The Cigarette Century[permanent dead link], Science 80, September/October 1980. URL last accessed 2006-10-11.
  31. ^ a b c d e f "The anti-tobacco reform and the temperance movement in Australia: connections and differences. - Free Online Library". Retrieved . 
  32. ^ http://tobacco.stanford.edu/tobacco_main/images.php?token2=fm_st232.php&token1=fm_img6772.php&theme_file=fm_mt001.php&theme_name=Doctors%20Smoking&subtheme_name=Hospitalized%20Patients
  33. ^ Donald G. Gifford (2010) Suing the Tobacco and Lead Pigment Industries, p.15 quotation:

    ...during the early twentieth century, tobacco manufacturers virtually created the modern advertising and marketing industry as it is known today.

  34. ^ Stanton Glantz in Mad Men Season 3 Extra - Clearing the Air - The History of Cigarette Advertising, part 1, min 3:38 quotation:

    ...development of modern advertising. And it was really the tobacco industry, from the beginning, that was at the forefront of the development of modern, innovative, advertising techniques.

  35. ^ a b c Markel, Howard (2007-03-20). "Tracing the Cigarette's Path From Sexy to Deadly". The New York Times. 
  36. ^ [http://tobacco.stanford.edu/tobacco_main/images.php?token2=fm_st024.php&token1=fm_img0516.php&theme_file=fm_mt012.php&theme_name=Targeting%20Women&subtheme_name=Mass%20Marketing%20Begins

    As the threat of tobacco prohibition from temperance unions settled down in the late 1920s, tobacco companies became bolder with their approach to targeting women through advertisements, openly targeting women in an attempt to broaden their market and increase sales. The late 1920s saw the beginnings of major mass marketing campaigns designed specifically to target women. Cigarette manufacturers have for a long time subtly suggested in some of their advertising that women smoked, a New York Times article from 1927 reveals. But Chesterfield s 1927 Blow some my way campaign was transparent to the public even at the time of printing, and soon after, the campaigns became less and less subtle. In 1928, Lucky Strike introduced its Cream of the Crop campaign, featuring celebrity testimonials from female smokers, and then followed with Reach for a Lucky Instead of a Sweet in 1929, designed to prey on female insecurities about weight and diet. As the decade turned, many cigarette brands came out of the woodwork and joined in on unabashedly targeting women by illustrating women smoking, rather than hinting at it.

    "Targeting women: Mass marketing begins, Stanford Research into the Impact of Tobacco Advertising"] Check |url= value (help). Retrieved .  line feed character in |url= at position 1343 (help)
  37. ^ [http://tobacco.stanford.edu/tobacco_main/images.php?token2=fm_st025.php&token1=fm_img0541.php&theme_file=fm_mt012.php&theme_name=Targeting%20Women&subtheme_name=Let's%20Smoke%20Girls

    Before the First World War, smoking was associated with the loose morals of prostitutes and wayward women. Clever marketers managed to turn this around in the 1920s and 1930s, latching onto women s liberation movements and transforming cigarettes into symbols of women's independence. In 1929, as part of this effort, the American Tobacco Company organized marches of women carrying Torches of Freedom (i.e., cigarettes) down New York s 5th Avenue to emphasize their emancipation. The tobacco industry also sponsored training sessions to teach women how to smoke, and competitions for most delicate smoker. Many of the advertisements targeting women throughout the decades have concentrated on women s empowerment. Early examples include I wish I were a man so I could smoke (Velvet, 1912), while later examples like You ve come a long way baby (Virginia Slims) were more clearly exploitive of the Women s Liberation Movement. It is interesting to note that the Marlboro brand, famous for its macho Marlboro Man, was for decades a woman s cigarette ( Mild as May with Ivory tips to protect the lips ) before it underwent an abrupt sex change in 1954. Only 5 percent of American women smoked in 1923 versus 12 percent in 1932 and 33 percent in 1965 (the peak year). Lung cancer was still a rare disease for women in the 1950s, though by the year 2000 it was killing nearly 70,000 women per year. Cancer of the lung surpassed breast cancer as the leading cause of cancer death among women in 1987.

    "Targeting women:Let's Smoke Girls, Stanford Research into the Impact of Tobacco Advertising"] Check |url= value (help). Retrieved .  line feed character in |url= at position 1715 (help)
  38. ^ Brandt, Allan M. (2007). The Cigarette Century. New York: Basic Books, pp. 84-85.
  39. ^ Robert N. Proctor, The Nazi War on Cancer, pp. 234-237.
  40. ^ Thomas D. Grant, Stormtroopers and Crisis in the Nazi Movement, p. 102.
  41. ^ Joyce Goodman and Jane Martin, Gender, Colonialism and Education, p. 81.
  42. ^ a b Rolleston, J. D. (1932-07-01). "The Cigarette Habit". British Journal of Inebriety (Alcoholism and Drug Addiction). 30 (1): 1-27. doi:10.1111/j.1360-0443.1932.tb04849.x. ISSN 1360-0443. Retrieved . 
  43. ^ a b c d e f Proctor, Robert N. (2001-02-01). "Commentary: Schairer and Schöniger's forgotten tobacco epidemiology and the Nazi quest for racial purity". International Journal of Epidemiology. 30 (1): 31-34. doi:10.1093/ije/30.1.31. ISSN 0300-5771. Retrieved . 
  44. ^ Vernellia R. Randall (1999-08-31). "The History of Tobacco". Academic.udayton.edu. Retrieved . 
  45. ^ Zigarettenwerbung in Deutschland - Marketing für ein gesundheitsgefährdendes Produkt (PDF). Rote Reihe: Tabakprävention und Tabakkontrolle. Heidelberg: Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum. 2012. Retrieved . 
  46. ^ Dr. Annette Bornhäuser; Dr. med. Martina Pötschke-Langer (2001). Factsheet Tabakwerbeverbot (PDF). Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum. Retrieved . 
  47. ^ Light but just as deadly, by Peter Lavelle. The Pulse, 21 October 2004.
  48. ^ The Truth About "Light" Cigarettes: Questions and Answers, from the National Cancer Institute factsheet
  49. ^ 'Safer' cigarette myth goes up in smoke, by Andy Coghlan. New Scientist, 2004
  50. ^ Daily Doc: TI, Jan 4, 1954: The 'Frank Statement' of 1954. Tobacco.org. 30 September 2000. Retrieved 17 July 2009.
  51. ^ While D, Kelly S, Huang W, Charlton A (17 August 1996). "Cigarette advertising and onset of smoking in children: questionnaire survey". BMJ. 313 (7054): 398-9. doi:10.1136/bmj.313.7054.398. PMC 2351819 Freely accessible. PMID 8761227. 
  52. ^ Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) (November 2005). "Cigarette smoking among adults--United States, 2004". MMWR Morb. Mortal. Wkly. Rep. 54 (44): 1121-4. PMID 16280969. 
  53. ^ WHO. "Electronic nicotine delivery systems" (PDF). pp. 1-13. Retrieved 2014. 
  54. ^ Detailed reference list is located on a separate image page.
  55. ^ Hartman-Boyce, Jamie; McRobbie, Hayden; al, et (2016). "Electronic cigarettes for smoking cessation". Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 9: CD010216. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD010216.pub3. PMID 27622384. 
  56. ^ a b Kalkhoran, Sara; Glantz, Stanton A (2016). "E-cigarettes and smoking cessation in real-world and clinical settings: a systematic review and meta-analysis". The Lancet Respiratory Medicine. 4: 116-128. doi:10.1016/s2213-2600(15)00521-4. PMC 4752870 Freely accessible. PMID 26776875. 
  57. ^ a b c d Grana, R; Benowitz, N; Glantz, SA (13 May 2014). "E-cigarettes: a scientific review". Circulation. 129 (19): 1972-86. doi:10.1161/circulationaha.114.007667. PMC 4018182 Freely accessible. PMID 24821826. 
  58. ^ see image in article, File:No-one_likes_a_quitter,_e-cigarette_ad.jpg
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  60. ^ Wasowicz A., Feleszko W., Goniewicz M.L. (2015). "E-Cigarette use among children and young people: the need for regulation". Expert Rev Respir Med. 9: 1-3. doi:10.1586/17476348.2015.1077120. PMID 26290119. 
  61. ^ Grana R.A., Ling P.M. (2014). ""Smoking revolution": a content analysis of electronic cigarette retail websites". Am J Prev Med. 46 (4): 395-403. doi:10.1016/j.amepre.2013.12.010. PMC 3989286 Freely accessible. PMID 24650842. 
  62. ^ a b c d Daniel Nasaw (5 December 2012). "Electronic cigarettes challenge anti-smoking efforts". BBC News. 
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  64. ^ Linda Bauld; Kathryn Angus; Marisa de Andrade (May 2014). "E-cigarette uptake and marketing" (PDF). Public Health England. pp. 1-19. 
  65. ^ "E-cigarettes and Lung Health". American Lung Association. 2015. 
  66. ^ "Myths and Facts About E-cigarettes". American Lung Association. 2015. 
  67. ^ Fernández, Esteve; Ballbè, Montse; Sureda, Xisca; Fu, Marcela; Saltó, Esteve; Martínez-Sánchez, Jose M. (2015). "Particulate Matter from Electronic Cigarettes and Conventional Cigarettes: a Systematic Review and Observational Study". Current Environmental Health Reports. 2: 423-9. doi:10.1007/s40572-015-0072-x. ISSN 2196-5412. PMID 26452675. 
  68. ^ Advertising.microsoft.com. Advertising.microsoft.com (28 September 2011).
  69. ^ Adwords.google.com. Adwords.google.com.
  70. ^ April 5, Ashley Welch CBS News; 2018; Pm, 5:02. "Facebook is used to promote tobacco, despite policies against it, study finds". Retrieved . 
  71. ^ Affairs, By Amy Jeter Hansen Amy Jeter Hansen is a digital media specialist for the medical school's Office of Communication & Public. "Tobacco products promoted on Facebook despite policies". News Center. Retrieved . 
  72. ^ Hansen, Author Amy Jeter (2018-04-05). "Despite policies, tobacco products marketed on Facebook, Stanford researchers find". Scope. Retrieved . 
  73. ^ Nelson J.P. (August 2003). "Cigarette Demand, Structural Change, and Advertising Bans: International Evidence, 1970-1995, B.E". Journal of Economic Analysis and Public Policy/Contributions: 1-27. 
  74. ^ J.P. Nelson, "Cigarette Advertising Regulation: A Meta-Analysis," International Review of Law and Economics, 26(2), June 2006, pp. 195-226
  75. ^ J. P. Nelson, "What is Learned from Longitudinal Studies of Advertising and Youth Drinking and Smoking? A Critical Assessment," International Journal of Environmental Research & Public Health, 7(3), March 2010, pp. 870-926. MDPI.com.
  76. ^ Ash.org.uk
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Bibliography

External links

Examples of Tobacco Advertising
Laws and legislation
Anti-smoking organizations
Miscellaneous

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