Tourism in Colombia
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Tourism in Colombia
Playa Brava in Tayrona National Natural Park
Cabo San Juan in Tayrona National Park

The contribution of Travel & Tourism to GDP was USD5,880.3bn (2.0% of total GDP) in 2016. Tourism generated 556,135 jobs (2.5% of total employment) in 2016.[1] Foreign tourist visits were predicted to have risen from 0.6 million in 2007 to 3.3 million in 2016.[2][3]

Colombia has major attractions as a tourist destination, such as Cartagena and its historic surroundings, which are on the UNESCO World Heritage List; the insular department of San Andrés, Providencia y Santa Catalina; and Santa Marta and the surrounding area. The coffee region is also a very popular destination, especially the city of Armenia and its surroundings. Fairly recently, Bogotá, the nation's capital, has become Colombia's major tourist destination because of its improved museums and entertainment facilities and its major urban renovations, including the rehabilitation of public areas, the development of parks, and the creation of an extensive network of cycling routes. With its very rich and varied geography, which includes the Amazon and Andean regions, the llanos, the Caribbean and Pacific coasts, and the deserts of La Guajira, and its unique biodiversity, Colombia also has major potential for ecotourism.[4]

History

In the early to mid-1980s, international tourism arrivals in Colombia reached nearly 1.4 million per year. Although they decreased by more than half thereafter, they have recovered at rates of more than 10 percent annually since 2002, reaching 1.9 million visitors in 2006. Tourism usually has been considered a low-growth service industry in Colombia because of internal violence, but in 2006 the country earned US$2 billion from international tourism. Tourists visiting Colombia from abroad came mainly from the United States (24.5 percent), followed by Venezuela (13.4 percent), Ecuador (9.1 percent), Spain (6.4 percent), and Mexico (4.9 percent). Approximately 90 percent of foreign tourists arrive by air, 10 percent by land transportation, and a tiny share by sea.[4]

The recovery of tourism has been helped by the Democratic Security and Defense Policy of Álvaro Uribe Vélez (president between 2002 and 2010) and the so-called tourist caravans (caravanas turísticas), in which military forces provide reinforced protection on previously scheduled days to roads reaching major holiday attractions. The Democratic Security Policy, as it is known, is aimed at reestablishing control over all of the nation's territory, fighting illegal drugs and organized crime, and strengthening the justice system. The government also has been working toward generating a significant recovery in international tourism through Proexport Colombia, the public export-promotion agency.[4] The Ministry of Commerce, Industry and Tourism is the Colombian ministry in charge of tourism affairs.

Popular times to visit Colombia include the most famous festivals such as the Cali's Fair, the Barranquilla's Carnival, the Bogota Summer Festival, the Ibero-American Theater Festival and the Flower Festival is when the most foreign tourists go to Colombia. Many people visit Colombia during Christmas time and the celebrations surrounding the Independence of Colombia. The Ministry of Tourism considers high seasons the Holy Week, the northern hemisphere summer months (June, July, August, September) and Christmas season. During the Holy Week many travel to the Caribbean Region of Colombia or visit popular landmarks like Las Lajas Cathedral, Salt Cathedral of Zipaquirá, the towns of Santa Cruz de Mompox, Guamal or Popayán where Roman Catholic traditions and rituals are performed, among others.[5][6]

The great variety in geography, flora and fauna across Colombia has also resulted in the development of an ecotourist industry, concentrated in the country's national parks. Popular ecotourist destinations include: along the Caribbean coast, the Tayrona National Natural Park in the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta mountain range and Cabo de la Vela on the tip of the Guajira Peninsula; the Nevado del Ruiz volcano, the Cocora valley and the Tatacoa Desert in the central Andean region, the Farallones de Cali National Natural Park, in the departament of Valle del Cauca; Amacayacu National Park in the Amazon River basin; and the Pacific islands of Malpelo and Gorgona, there other unique landscapes like the river of the seven colors in Meta. As of 2016, there are eight World Heritage Sites in Colombia, including six cultural sites and two natural sites.

Arrivals by country

Most visitors arriving to Colombia on short term basis in 2016 were from the following countries of nationality:[7]

Rank Country Number
1  United States 498,960
2  Venezuela 352,392
3  Brazil 181,852
4  Ecuador 167,121
5  Mexico 158,975
6  Peru 140,055
7  Argentina 135,151
8  Chile 127,271
9  Spain 104,623
10  Panama 103,014

Ecotourism

Colombian Coffee-Growers Axis

Colombian National Coffee Park. Quindío is the second most popular tourist destination in Colombia.

The Colombian coffee-growers axis (Spanish: eje cafetero) is a part the Colombian Paisa region famous for the growing and production of most Colombian coffee, renowned as some of the best coffee in the world. The axis is composed of three departments: Caldas, Quindío and Risaralda. These departments are among the smallest departments in Colombia with a total combined area of 13873 km² (5356 mi²), this amounts to roughly 1.2% of the Colombian territory. The combined population is 2,291,195 (2007 census)

National parks

Colombia has two coastlines; Pacific and Caribbean, three main mountainous chains and the isolated Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta, and many different ecological regions, from páramo to tropical jungle vegetation to desert biomes. The country hosts numerous volcanoes and waterfalls.

Weather

The climate of Colombia is characterized for being tropical and isothermal as a result of its geographical location near the Equator presenting variations within five natural regions and depending on the altitude, temperature, humidity, winds and rainfall. Each region maintains an average temperature throughout the year only presenting variables determined by precipitation during a rainy season caused by the Intertropical Convergence Zone.[8][9]

World Heritage Sites

As of 2016, there are eight World Heritage Sites in Colombia, including six cultural sites and two natural sites.

Site Image Location Criteria Area
ha (acre)
Year Description
Coffee Cultural Landscape of Colombia Chinchiná cafetal.jpg ColCaldas, Quindío and Risaralda Departments
5°28?18?N 75°40?54?W / 5.47167°N 75.68167°W / 5.47167; -75.68167
Cultural:ColCof
(v)(vi)
141,120 (348,700) 2011 [10]
Historic Centre of Santa Cruz de Mompox Santa barbara dia.JPG ColBolívar Department
9°14?00?N 74°26?00?W / 9.23333°N 74.43333°W / 9.23333; -74.43333
Cultural:ColHis
(iv)(v)
0 1995 [11]
Los Katíos National Park Giant anteater (4531346746).jpg ColAntioquia and Chocó Departments
7°40?00?N 77°00?00?W / 7.66667°N 77.00000°W / 7.66667; -77.00000
Natural:ColLos
(ix)(x)
141,120 (348,700) 1994 [12]
Malpelo Fauna and Flora Sanctuary Malpelo island NOAA.jpg ColValle del Cauca Department
3°58?00?N 81°37?00?W / 3.96667°N 81.61667°W / 3.96667; -81.61667
Natural:ColMal
(vii)(ix)
857,500 (2,119,000) 2006 [13]
National Archeological Park of Tierradentro Tombs in Tierra Dentro.jpg ColCauca Department
2°35?00?N 76°02?00?W / 2.58333°N 76.03333°W / 2.58333; -76.03333
Cultural:ColNat
(iii)
0 1995 [14]
Port, Fortresses and Group of Monuments, Cartagena 71 - Carthagène - Décembre 2008.jpg ColBolívar Department
10°25?00?N 75°32?00?W / 10.41667°N 75.53333°W / 10.41667; -75.53333
Cultural:ColPor
(iii)
0 1984 [15]
Qhapaq Ñan, Andean Road System ColVarious, shared with
 Argentina
 Bolivia
 Chile
 Ecuador
 Peru
18°15?00?S 69°35?30?W / 18.25000°S 69.59167°W / -18.25000; -69.59167
Cultural:ColQha
(ii)(iii)(iv)(vi)
11,407 (28,190) 2014 [16]
San Agustín Archaeological Park Parque Arqueológico de San Agustín - Tumb with deity.jpg ColHuila Department
1°55?00?N 76°14?00?W / 1.91667°N 76.23333°W / 1.91667; -76.23333
Cultural:ColSan
(iii)
0 1995 [17]

Representative List of the Intangible Cultural Heritage of Humanity

  • Marimba music, traditional chants and dances from the Colombia South Pacific region[23]
  • Traditional knowledge of the jaguar shamans of Yuruparí[25]

Music genres

Colombia is known as "the land of a thousand rhythms". Colombia has more than 1,025 folk rhythms.

Some of the main genres are:

  • Chandé (from Colombian Atlantic Coast). It is a cheerful and partying rhythm that is part of the coastal idiosyncrasies and carnivals. It comes from the fusion of indigenous rhythms with African black music
  • Alabaos (Funeral dirge in dialogue, Afro-Colombian culture)
  • Bambuco (from Colombian Andean region, European rithm)
  • Bullerengue (from Caribbean Region, Afro-Colombian music)
  • Bunde chocoano (from Chocó Region, Afro-Colombians learned from the Native Americans when as black slaves during colonial escaped and took refuge in remote areas and were received with hospitality by Native Americans of the Pacific coast)
  • Bunde tolimense (Euro-Colombian music)
  • Cumbia (most representative from the Atlantic Coast, indigenous and African rhythm, of great expressive richness, it has variations by region)
  • Currulao (from Pacific Region, Afro-Colombian culture)
  • Danza Colombia (from Colombian Andes, from European origin with Indigenous elements)
  • Guabina (from Andes Region, Indigenous rithm)
  • Joropo (from Los Llanos Venezuelan-Colombian Region, its lyrics are messages that express the values of the llaneran people, European origin music genre)
  • Mapalé (from Atlantic coast, Afro-Colombian rithm)
  • Merecumbé (mix between Colombian merengue and cumbia of Atlantic coast, created by Pacho Galán in 1950´s)
  • Colombian Pasillo (European origin)
  • Carranga The carranga , carranguera music or peasant music , is a genre of folk music originated in the Colombian Andean region , more exactly in the department of Boyacá in the years 70 , of the hand of the composer Jorge Velosa and the Carrangueros de Ráquira .In the execution of the carranguera music the guitar, the tiple, requinto-tiple, the guacharaca and the voice are used.
  • Porro
  • Sanjuanero (bambuco and joropo fussion)
  • Champeta (The classical conception of champetuísmo has four important aspects: musical expression, its distinctive jargon, the "picós" and perreos -fiestas and verbenas-. Some give the same importance to other aspects, such as dancing, political activism, designing clothing, audiovisual aspect of its videos, and other cultural elements, of Afro-Colombian music)
  • Torbellino (representative songs of the departments of Boyacá, Cundinamarca and Santander, It tune of religious and family fiestas)
  • Vallenato (from Atlantic Coast Region, it is important to the narrative nature of love's stories or descriptions of people, it was declared Intangible Cultural Heritage of the Nation).

Other urban music genres are salsa, pop, rock, and others.

Tourism Police, a unit of the Colombian National Police deployed to tourist areas to improve security. Here in the town of Villa de Leyva.

Safety

For many years serious internal armed conflict deterred tourists from visiting Colombia, with official travel advisories warning against travel to the country. However, in recent years numbers have risen sharply, thanks to improvements in security resulting from former President Álvaro Uribe's "democratic security" strategy, which has included significant increases in military strength and police presence throughout the country and pushed rebel groups further away from the major cities, highways and tourist sites likely to attract international visitors. Foreign tourist visits were predicted to have risen from 0.6 million in 2007 to 3.3 million in 2016.[26][27]

Travel guide Lonely Planet ranked Colombia second in its list of best countries to visit in 2017. Colombia has been celebrated for its forward-thinking vibrant culture and hospitality.[28]

Transportation

Railways

Railroads of Colombia

Colombia has 3,034 kilometers (1,885 mi) of rail lines, 150 kilometers (93 mi) of which are gauge and 3,154 kilometers (1,960 mi) of which are gauge. However, only 2,611 kilometers (1,622 mi) of lines are still in use. The national railroad system, once the country's main mode of transport for freight, has been neglected in favor of road development and now accounts for only about a quarter of freight transport. Passenger-rail use was suspended in 1992 and resumed at the end of the 1990s. However, fewer than 165,000 passenger journeys were made in 1999, as compared with more than 5 million in 1972, and the figure was only 160,130 in 2005. Short sections of railroad, mainly the Bogotá-Atlantic rim, are used to haul goods, mostly coal, to the Caribbean and Pacific ports. In 2005 a total of 27.5 million metric tons of cargo were transported by rail. The nation's rail network links seven of the country's 10 major cities. During 2004-6, approximately 2,000 kilometers of the country's rail lines underwent refurbishment. This upgrade involved two main projects: the 1,484-kilometer line linking Bogotá to the Caribbean Coast and the 499-kilometer Pacific coastal network that links the industrial city of Cali and the surrounding coffee-growing region to the port of Buenaventura.[29]

Roads

Main roads in Colombia

The three main north-south highways are the Caribbean, Eastern, and Central Trunk Highways (troncales). Estimates of the length of Colombia's road system in 2004 ranged from 115,000 kilometers to 145,000 kilometers. However, according to 2005 data reported by the Colombian government, the road network totaled 163,000 kilometers, 68 percent of which were paved and in good condition. The increase may reflect some newly built roads. President Uribe has vowed to pave more than 2,500 kilometers of roads during his administration, and about 5,000 kilometers of new secondary roads were being built in the 2003-6 period. Despite serious terrain obstacles, almost three-quarters of all cross-border dry cargo is now transported by road, 105,251 metric tons in 2005.[29]

Highways are managed by the Colombian Ministry of Transport through the National Roads Institute. The security of the highways in Colombia is managed by the Highway Police unit of the Colombian National Police. Colombia is crossed by the Panamerican Highway.

Ports, waterways, and merchant marine

Rivers of Colombia

Seaports handle around 80 percent of international cargo. In 2005 a total of 105,251 metric tons of cargo were transported by water. Colombia's most important ocean terminals are Barranquilla, Cartagena, and Santa Marta on the Caribbean Coast and Buenaventura and Tumaco on the Pacific Coast. Exports mostly pass through the Caribbean ports of Cartagena and Santa Marta, while 65 percent of imports arrive at the port of Buenaventura. Other important ports and harbors are Bahía de Portete, Leticia, Puerto Bolívar, San Andrés, Santa Marta, and Turbo. Since privatization was implemented in 1993, the efficiency of port handling has increased greatly.[29]

The main inland waterways total about 18,200 kilometers, 11,000 kilometers of which are navigable by riverboats. A well-developed and important form of transport for both cargo and passengers, inland waterways transport approximately 3.8 million metric tons of freight and more than 5.5 million passengers annually. Main inland waterways are the Magdalena-Cauca River system, which is navigable for 1,500 kilometers; the Atrato, which is navigable for 687 kilometers; the Orinoco system of more than five navigable rivers, which total more than 4,000 kilometers of potential navigation (mainly through Venezuela); and the Amazonas system, which has four main rivers totaling 3,000 navigable kilometers (mainly through Brazil). The government is planning an ambitious program to more fully utilize the main rivers for transport. In addition, the navy's riverine brigade has been patrolling waterways more aggressively in order to establish safer river transport in the more remote areas in the south and east of the country.[29]

The merchant marine totals 17 ships (1,000 gross registered tons or more), including four bulk, 13 cargo, one container, one liquefied gas, and three petroleum tanker ships. Colombia also has seven ships registered in other countries (Antigua and Barbuda, two; Panama, five).[29]

Aviation

All public airports in Colombia are managed and controlled by the Special Administrative Unit of Civil Aeronautics.

Colombia has well-developed air routes and an estimated total of 984 airports, 100 of which have paved runways, plus two heliports. Of the 74 main airports, 20 can accommodate jet aircraft. Two airports are more than 3,047 meters in length, nine are 2,438-3,047 meters, 39 are 1,524-2,437 meters, 38 are 914-1,523 meters, 12 are shorter than 914 meters, and 880 have unpaved runways. The government has been selling its stake in local airports in order to allow their privatization. The country has 40 regional airports, and the cities of Bogotá, Medellín, Cali, Barranquilla, Bucaramanga, Cartagena, Cúcuta, Leticia, Pereira, San Andrés, and Santa Marta have international airports. Bogotá's El Dorado International Airport handles 550 million metric tons of cargo and 22 million passengers a year, making it the largest airport in Latin America in terms of cargo and the third largest in passenger numbers.[29]

Urban transport

Urban transport systems have been developed in Bogotá, Medellín, Cali and Barranquilla. Traffic congestion in Bogotá has been greatly exacerbated by the lack of rail transport. However, this problem has been alleviated somewhat by the development of one of the world's largest and highest capacity Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) Systems, known as the TransMilenio (opened 2000), and the restriction of vehicles through a daily, rotating ban on private cars depending on plate numbers. Bogotá's system consists of bus and minibus services managed by both private- and public-sector enterprises. Since 1995 Medellín has had a modern urban railway referred to as the Metro de Medellín, which also connects with the cities of Itagüí, Envigado, and Bello. A BRT line called Transmetro began operating in 2011, with a second line added in 2013. Other cities have also installed BRT systems such as Cali with a six line system (opened 2008), Barranquilla with two lines (opened 2010), Bucaramanga with one line (opened 2010) and Pereira with three lines (opened 2006).[30][29]

Gallery

References

  1. ^ "The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Report 2017" (PDF). World Economic Forum. p. 130. 
  2. ^ "UNWTO Tourism Highlights, 2017 Edition". unwto.org. 
  3. ^ "La OMT destaca crecimiento del turismo en Colombia en los últimos diez años" (in Spanish). lainformacion.com. 25 June 2014. 
  4. ^ a b c Roberto Steiner and Hernán Vallejo. "Tourism". In Colombia: A Country Study (Rex A. Hudson, ed.). Library of Congress Federal Research Division (2010).  This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
  5. ^ "gosouthamerica.com Holy week in Colombia and Venezuela". Gosouthamerica.about.com. 18 August 2011. Retrieved 2011. 
  6. ^ "Holy week in Colombia". Colombia.com. Retrieved 2011. 
  7. ^ Informes de turismo
  8. ^ (in Spanish) International Universia: Climate of Colombia International Universia Accessed 23 August 2007.
  9. ^ "Climate of Colombia" Encyclopædia Britannica Accessed 23 August 2007
  10. ^ "Coffee Cultural Landscape of Colombia". UNESCO. Retrieved 2016. 
  11. ^ "Historic Centre of Santa Cruz de Mompox". UNESCO. Retrieved 2016. 
  12. ^ "Los Katíos National Park". UNESCO. Retrieved 2016. 
  13. ^ "Malpelo Fauna and Flora Sanctuary". UNESCO. Retrieved 2016. 
  14. ^ "National Archeological Park of Tierradentro". UNESCO. Retrieved 2016. 
  15. ^ "Port, Fortresses and Group of Monuments, Cartagena". UNESCO. Retrieved 2016. 
  16. ^ "Qhapaq Ñan, Andean Road System". UNESCO. Retrieved 2016. 
  17. ^ "San Agustín Archaeological Park". UNESCO. Retrieved 2016. 
  18. ^ "Carnival of Barranquilla". unesco.org. Retrieved . 
  19. ^ "Carnaval de Negros y Blancos". unesco.org. Retrieved . 
  20. ^ "Holy Week processions in Popayán". unesco.org. Retrieved . 
  21. ^ "Cultural space of Palenque de San Basilio". unesco.org. Retrieved . 
  22. ^ "Festival of Saint Francis of Assisi, Quibdó". unesco.org. Retrieved . 
  23. ^ "Marimba music, traditional chants and dances from the Colombia South Pacific region and Esmeraldas Province of Ecuador". unesco.org. Retrieved . 
  24. ^ "Wayuu normative system, applied by the Pütchipü'üi (palabrero)". unesco.org. Retrieved . 
  25. ^ "Traditional knowledge of the jaguar shamans of Yuruparí". unesco.org. Retrieved . 
  26. ^ "UNWTO Tourism Highlights, 2017 Edition". unwto.org. 
  27. ^ "La OMT destaca crecimiento del turismo en Colombia en los últimos diez años" (in Spanish). lainformacion.com. 25 June 2014. 
  28. ^ "Top Countries. Ten destinations you cannot afford to miss". Lonely Planet. 
  29. ^ a b c d e f g Colombia country profile. Library of Congress Federal Research Division (February 2007). This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
  30. ^ "Global BRT Data". Retrieved 2014. 

See also

External links


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