The Township Act of 1798 ("An Act incorporating the Inhabitants of Townships, designating their Powers, and regulating their Meetings", PL 1798, p. 289) is an Act passed by New Jersey Legislature on February 21, 1798 that formally incorporated 104 municipalities in 14 counties in New Jersey. It set standards on format for government of townships. The act was largely replaced by subsequent laws.
|New Jersey municipal government|
|Walsh Act commission|
|1923 municipal manager|
|Faulkner Act forms|
|Changing form of municipal government|
|Charter Study Commission|
The Act explicitly allowed the town meetings to manage the town by improving common land, pass municipal laws and ordinances, and to maintain the roads. The people also elected officials for one year: a clerk, tax collector, at least three "freeholders", and a judge.
In the following list, the 104 original incorporated townships are provided, along with the original 14 counties which they were part of in 1798. 88 of the original townships still survive. Some of the townships are now in different counties. The number in the brackets indicate the year the township was originally founded or of its earliest mention.
Since the act was passed, eight additional counties were created: Atlantic County in 1837, Camden County in 1837, Hudson County in 1840, Mercer County in 1838, Ocean County in 1850, Passaic County 1837, Union County in 1857, and Warren County in 1824, for a total 21 counties.
The Township Act of 1899 provided sweeping changes. The town meeting, a staple of towns for the past 101 years, was eliminated in favor of consolidating in the hands of a greatly strengthened township committee, which were given policy-making power. The only provision left unchanged was regarding money. The people of a town keep the power to determine the direction of the power of the money, albeit through a ballot box instead of through a town meeting.
The original provisions of the Township Act of 1798 have largely been replaced by several acts in the 20th century. Most of the modern New Jersey towns are incorporated under the 1911 Walsh Act, 1923 Municipal Manager Law and the 1950 Faulkner Act.