Transliteration is a type of conversion of a text from one script to another that involves swapping letters (thus trans- + liter-) in predictable ways (such as ? -> a, ? -> d, ? -> ch, ? -> n or æ -> e).
For instance, for the Modern Greek term " ?", which is usually translated as "Hellenic Republic", the usual transliteration to Latin script is "Ell?nik? D?mokratía", and the name for Russia in Cyrillic script, "", is usually transliterated as "Rossiya".
Transliteration is not primarily concerned with representing the sounds of the original but rather with representing the characters, ideally accurately and unambiguously. Thus, in the above example, is transliterated as 'll', but pronounced /l/; ? is transliterated as 'D', but pronounced /ð/; and ? is transliterated as '?', though it is pronounced /i/ (exactly like ?) and is not long.
Conversely, transcription notes the sounds but not necessarily the spelling. So " ?" could be transcribed as "elinikí ðimokratía", which does not specify which of the /i/ sounds are written as ? and which as ?.
Systematic transliteration is a mapping from one system of writing into another, typically grapheme to grapheme. Most transliteration systems are one-to-one, so a reader who knows the system can reconstruct the original spelling.
Transliteration is opposed to transcription, which maps the sounds of one language into a writing system. Still, most systems of transliteration map the letters of the source script to letters pronounced similarly in the target script, for some specific pair of source and target language. If the relations between letters and sounds are similar in both languages, a transliteration may be very close to a transcription. In practice, there are some mixed transliteration/transcription systems that transliterate a part of the original script and transcribe the rest.
For many script pairs, there is one or more standard transliteration systems. However, unsystematic transliteration is common.
In Modern Greek (and since the Roman Imperial period), the letters <?> <?> <?> and the letter combinations <> <o?> <> are pronounced [i] (except when pronounced as semivowels), and a modern transcription renders them all as <i>; but a transliteration distinguishes them, for example by transliterating to <?> <i> <y> and <ei> <oi> <yi>. (As the ancient pronunciation of <?> was [?:], it is often transliterated as an <e> with a macron, even for modern texts.) On the other hand, <> is sometimes pronounced [ev] and sometimes [ef], depending on the following sound. A transcription distinguishes them, but this is no requirement for a transliteration. The initial letter 'h' reflecting the historical rough breathing in words such as Ell?nik? should logically be omitted in transcription from Koine Greek on, and from transliteration from 1982 on, but it is nonetheless frequently encountered.
|Greek word||Transliteration||Transcription||English translation|
|?||Ell?nik? D?mokratia||Elinikí Dhimokratía||Hellenic Republic|
|?||t?n ui?n||ton ion||of the sons|
A simple example of difficulties in transliteration is the voiceless uvular plosive used in Arabic and other languages. It is pronounced approximately like English [k], except that the tongue makes contact not on the soft palate but on the uvula. Pronunciation varies between different languages, and different dialects of the same language. The consonant is sometimes transliterated into "g", sometimes "k", and sometimes "q" in English. Another example is the Russian letter "?" (kha). It is pronounced as the voiceless velar fricative /x/, like the Scottish pronunciation of ⟨ch⟩ in "loch". This sound is not present in most forms of English, and is often transliterated as "kh", as in Nikita Khrushchev. Many languages have phonemic sounds, such as click consonants, which are quite unlike any phoneme in the language into which they are being transliterated.
Some languages and scripts present particular difficulties to transcribers. These are discussed on separate pages.