Trenton dates back at least to June 3, 1719, when mention was made of a constable being appointed for Trenton, while the area was still part of Hunterdon County. Boundaries were recorded for Trenton Township as of March 2, 1720, a courthouse and jail were constructed in Trenton around 1720 and the Freeholders of Hunterdon County met annually in Trenton. Trenton became New Jersey's capital as of November 25, 1790, and the City of Trenton was formed within Trenton Township on November 13, 1792. Trenton Township was incorporated as one of New Jersey's initial group of 104 townships by an act of the New Jersey Legislature on February 21, 1798. On February 22, 1834, portions of Trenton Township were taken to form Ewing Township. The remaining portion of Trenton Township was absorbed by the City of Trenton on April 10, 1837. A series of annexations took place over a 50-year period, with the city absorbing South Trenton borough (April 14, 1851), portions of Nottingham Township (April 14, 1856), both the Borough of Chambersburg Township and Millham Township (both on March 30, 1888), as well as Wilbur Borough (February 28, 1898). Portions of Ewing Township and Hamilton Township were annexed to Trenton on March 23, 1900.
The surrender of the Hessians at Trenton, 1776
The Old Barracks in Trenton, New Jersey
The first settlement which would become Trenton was established by Quakers in 1679, in the region then called the Falls of the Delaware, led by Mahlon Stacy from Handsworth, Sheffield, England. Quakers were being persecuted in England at this time and North America provided an opportunity to exercise their religious freedom.
By 1719, the town adopted the name "Trent-towne", after William Trent, one of its leading landholders who purchased much of the surrounding land from Stacy's family. This name later was shortened to "Trenton".
Throughout the 19th century, Trenton grew steadily, as European immigrants came to work in its pottery and wire rope mills. In 1837, with the population now too large for government by council, a new mayoral government was adopted, with by-laws that remain in operation to this day.
The Trenton Six were a group of black men arrested for allegedly murdering a white man with a soda bottle. They were arrested without warrants, denied lawyers, and sentenced to death based on what were described as coerced confessions. With the involvement of the Communist Party and the NAACP, there were several appeals, resulting in a total of four trials. Eventually the accused men (with the exception of one who died in prison) were released. The incident was the subject of the book Jersey Justice: The Story of the Trenton Six, written by Cathy Knepper.
The "Falls of the Delaware" at Trenton
According to the United States Census Bureau, the city had a total area of 8.155 square miles (21.122 km2), including 7.648 square miles (19.809 km2) of land and 0.507 square mile (1.313 km2) of water (6.21%).
Trenton is located near the exact geographic center of the state, which is 5 miles (8.0 km) located southeast of Trenton. The city is sometimes included as part of North Jersey and as the southernmost city of the Tri-State Region, while others consider it a part of South Jersey and thus, the northernmost city of the Delaware Valley.
However, Mercer County constitutes its own metropolitan statistical area, formally known as the Trenton-Ewing MSA. Locals consider Trenton to be a part of an ambiguous area known as Central Jersey, and thus part of neither region. They are generally split as to whether they are within New York or Philadelphia's sphere of influence. While it is geographically closer to Philadelphia, many people who have recently moved to the area commute to New York City, and have moved there to escape the New York region's high housing costs.
The city of Trenton is home to numerous neighborhoods and sub-neighborhoods. The main neighborhoods are taken from the four cardinal directions (North, South, East, and West). Trenton was once home to large Italian, Hungarian, and Jewish communities, but since the 1950s, demographic shifts have changed the city into a relatively segregated urban enclave of middle and lower income African Americans. Italians are scattered throughout the city, but a distinct Italian community is centered in the Chambersburg neighborhood, in South Trenton. This community has been in decline since the 1970s, largely due to economic and social shifts to the suburbs surrounding the city. Today Chambersburg has a large Latino community. Many of the Latino immigrants are from Mexico, Guatemala and Nicaragua. There is also a significant and growing Asian community in the Chambersburg neighborhood primarily made up of Burmese and Bhutanese/Nepali refugees.
The North Ward, once a mecca for the city's middle class, is now one of the most economically distressed, torn apart by race riots following the assassination of Martin Luther King in 1968. Nonetheless, the area still retains many important architectural and historic sites. North Trenton still has a large Polish-American neighborhood that borders Lawrence Township, many of whom attend St Hedwig's Roman Catholic Church on Brunswick Ave. St. Hedwig's church was built in 1904 by Polish immigrants, many of whose families still attend the church. North Trenton is also home to the historic Shiloh Baptist Church--one of the largest houses of worship in Trenton and the oldest African American church in the city, founded in 1888. The church is currently pastored by Rev. Darrell L. Armstrong, who carried the Olympic torch in 2002 for the Winter Olympics in Salt Lake City. Also located just at the southern tip of North Trenton is the city's Battle Monument, also known as "Five Points". It is a 150 ft (46 m) structure that marks the spot where George Washington's Continental Army launched the Battle of Trenton during the American Revolutionary War. It faces downtown Trenton and is a symbol of the city's historic past.
South Ward is a diverse neighborhood, home to many Latin American, Italian-American and African American residents.
According to the Köppen climate classification, Trenton lies in the transition from a humid subtropical (Cfa) to a warmer humid continental climate (Dfa), favoring the former, with four seasons of approximately equal length and precipitation fairly evenly distributed through the year. But regardless of the isotherm, the city currently falls into a humid subtropical climate (Cfa), being the northernmost city in the United States fully in this climate type (40 °N, three degrees further north than in the Great Plains), with the exception of New York due to the immense heat island. It is the result of adiabatic warming of the Appalachians, low altitude and proximity to the coast without being on the immediate edge for moderate temperatures. Winters are cold and damp: the daily average temperature in January is 31.1 °F (-0.5 °C), and temperatures at or below 10 °F (-12 °C) occur on 3.9 nights annually, while there are 16-17 days where the temperature fails to rise above freezing. Summers are hot and humid, with a July daily average of 75.7 °F (24.3 °C); temperatures reaching or exceeding 90 °F (32 °C) occur on 15-16 days. Extremes in temperature have ranged from -14 °F (-26 °C) on February 9, 1934, up to 106 °F (41 °C) as recently as July 22, 2011. However, temperatures reaching 0 °F (-18 °C) or 100 °F (38 °C) are uncommon.
The average precipitation is 46.4 inches (1,180 mm) per year, which is fairly evenly distributed through the year. The driest month on average is February, with 2.31 in (59 mm) of precipitation on average, while the wettest month is July, with 4.95 in (126 mm) of rainfall on average. The all-time single-day rainfall record is 7.25 in (184.2 mm) on September 16, 1999, during the passage of Hurricane Floyd. The all-time monthly rainfall record is 14.55 in (369.6 mm) in August 1955, due to the passage of Hurricane Connie and Hurricane Diane. The wettest year on record was 1996, when 67.90 in (1,725 mm) of precipitation fell. On the flip side, the driest month on record was October 1963, when only 0.05 in (1.3 mm) of rain was recorded. The 28.79 in (731 mm) of precipitation recorded in 1957 were the lowest ever for the city.
Snowfall can vary even more year to year. The average snowfall is 24.9 inches (63.2 cm), but has ranged from as low as 2 in (5.1 cm) in the winter of 1918-19 to as high as 76.5 in (194.3 cm) in 1995-96, which included the greatest single-storm snowfall, the Blizzard of January 7-8, 1996, when 24.2 inches (61.5 cm) of snow fell.
Climate data for Trenton, New Jersey (1981-2010 normals)
There were 28,578 households out of which 32.0% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 25.1% were married couples living together, 28.1% had a female householder with no husband present, and 37.9% were non-families. 30.8% of all households were made up of individuals, and 9.1% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.79 and the average family size was 3.40.
In the city, the population was spread out with 25.1% under the age of 18, 11.0% from 18 to 24, 32.5% from 25 to 44, 22.6% from 45 to 64, and 8.8% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 32.6 years. For every 100 females there were 106.5 males. For every 100 females ages 18 and older there were 107.2 males.
The Census Bureau's 2006-2010 American Community Survey showed that (in 2010 inflation-adjusted dollars) median household income was $36,601 (with a margin of error of +/- $1,485) and the median family income was $41,491 (+/- $2,778). Males had a median income of $29,884 (+/- $1,715) versus $31,319 (+/- $2,398) for females. The per capita income for the city was $17,400 (+/- $571). About 22.4% of families and 24.5% of the population were below the poverty line, including 36.3% of those under age 18 and 17.5% of those age 65 or over.
As of the 2000 United States Census there were 85,403, people, 29,437 households, and 18,692 families residing in the city. The population density was 11,153.6 people per square mile (4,304.7/km²). There were 33,843 housing units at an average density of 4,419.9 per square mile (1,705.9/km²). The racial makeup of the city was 52.06% Black, 32.55% White, 0.35% Native American, 0.84% Asian, 0.23% Pacific Islander, 10.76% from other races, and 3.20% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 21.53% of the population.
There were 29,437 households, 32.4% of which had children under the age of 18 living with them. 29.0% were married couples living together, 27.1% had a female householder with no husband present, and 36.5% were non-families. 29.7% of all households were made up of individuals and 12.0% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.75 and the average family size was 3.38.
In the city the age distribution of the population shows 27.7% under the age of 18, 10.1% from 18 to 24, 31.9% from 25 to 44, 18.9% from 45 to 64, and 11.4% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 32 years. For every 100 females, there were 97.6 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 96.0 males.
The median income for a household in the city was $31,074, and the median income for a family was $36,681. Males had a median income of $29,721 versus $26,943 for females. The per capita income for the city was $14,621. About 17.6% of families and 21.1% of the population were below the poverty line, including 26.8% of those under age 18 and 19.5% of those age 65 or over.
Top 10 ethnicities reported during the 2000 Census by percentage were:
Trenton was a major manufacturing center in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. One relic of that era is the slogan "Trenton Makes, The World Takes", which is displayed on the Lower Free Bridge (just north of the Trenton-Morrisville Toll Bridge). The city adopted the slogan in 1917 to represent Trenton's then-leading role as a major manufacturing center for rubber, wire rope, ceramics and cigars.
Along with many other United States cities in the 1970s, Trenton fell on hard times when manufacturing and industrial jobs declined. Concurrently, state government agencies began leasing office space in the surrounding suburbs. State government leaders (particularly governors William Cahill and Brendan Byrne) attempted to revitalize the downtown area by making it the center of state government. Between 1982 and 1992, more than a dozen office buildings were constructed primarily by the state to house state offices. Today, Trenton's biggest employer is still the state of New Jersey. Each weekday, 20,000 state workers flood into the city from the surrounding suburbs.
Notable businesses of the thousands based in Trenton include Italian People's Bakery, a wholesale and retail bakery established in 1936.
Urban Enterprise Zone
Portions of Trenton are part of an Urban Enterprise Zone. In addition to other benefits to encourage employment within the Zone, shoppers can take advantage of a reduced 3½% sales tax rate at eligible merchants (versus the 7% rate charged statewide).
Trenton has long been part of the Philadelphia television market. However, following the 2000 United States Census, Trenton was shifted from the Philadelphia metropolitan statistical area to the New York metropolitan statistical area. With a similar shift by the New Haven, Connecticut, area to the New York area, they were the first two cases where metropolitan statistical areas differed from their defined Nielsen television markets.
New Jersey State House was originally constructed by Jonathan Doane in 1792, with major additions made in 1845, 1865 and 1871.
New Jersey State Library serves as a central resource for libraries across the state as well as serving the state legislature and government.
Trenton City Museum - Housed in the Italianate style 1848 Ellarslie Mansion since 1978, the museum features artworks and other materials related to the city's history.
Trenton War Memorial - Completed in 1932 as a memorial to the war dead from Mercer County during World War I and owned and operated by the State of New Jersey, the building is home to a theater with 1,800 seats that reopened in 1999 after an extensive, five-year-long renovation project.
Trenton Battle Monument - Located in the heart of the Five Points neighborhood, the monument was built to commemorate the Continental Army's victory in the December 26, 1776, Battle of Trenton. The monument was designed by John H. Duncan and features a statue of George Washington atop a pedestal that stands on a granite column 148 feet (45 m) in height.
Trenton City Hall - The building was constructed based on a 1907 design by architect Spencer Roberts and opened to the public in 1910. The council chambers stand two stories high and features a mural by Everett Shinn that highlights Trenton's industrial history.
The Trenton City Museum located at the Ellarslie Mansion in Cadwalader Park
Because of Trenton's near-equal distance to both New York City and Philadelphia, and because most homes in Mercer County receive network broadcasts from both cities, locals are sharply divided in fan loyalty between both cities. It is common to find Philadelphia's Phillies, Eagles, 76ers, Union and Flyers fans cheering (and arguing) right alongside fans of New York's Yankees, Mets, Nets, Knicks, Rangers, Islanders, Jets, Red Bulls and Giants or the New Jersey Devils.
The City of Trenton is governed within the Faulkner Act, formally known as the Optional Municipal Charter Law, under the Faulkner Act (Mayor-Council) system of municipal government by a mayor and a seven-member city council. Three city council members are elected at-large, and four come from each of four wards. The mayor and council members are elected concurrently on a non-partisan basis to four-year terms of office as part of the May municipal election.
Mayor and Council
As of 2018[update], the Mayor of Trenton is Reed Gusciora, who had previously served in the New Jersey General Assembly until taking office as mayor. Members of the City Council are Council President Kathy McBride (At-Large), Jerell Blakeley (At-Large), Marge Caldwell-Wilson (North Ward), Joseph Harrison (East Ward), George Muschal (South Ward), Santiago Rodriquez (At-Large) and Robin Vaughn (West Ward), all serving terms of office ending June 30, 2022.
Interim mayor 2014
From February 7 to July 1, 2014, the acting mayor was George Muschal who retroactively assumed the office on that date due to the felony conviction of Tony F. Mack, who had taken office on July 1, 2010. Muschal, who was council president, was selected by the city council to serve as the interim mayor to finish the term.
Mayor's conviction and removal from office
On February 7, 2014, Mack and his brother, Raphiel Mack, were convicted by a federal jury of bribery, fraud and extortion, based on the details of their participation in a scheme to take money in exchange for helping get approvals to develop a downtown parking garage as part of a sting operation by law enforcement. Days after the conviction, the office of the New Jersey Attorney General filed motions to have Mack removed from office, as state law requires the removal of elected officials after convictions for corruption. Initially, Mack fought the removal of him from the office but on February 26, a superior court judge ordered his removal and any actions taken by Mack between February 7 and the 26th could have been reversed by Muschal. Previously, Mack's housing director quit after it was learned he had a theft conviction. His chief of staff was arrested trying to buy heroin. His half-brother, whose authority he elevated at the city water plant, was arrested on charges of stealing. His law director resigned after arguing with Mack over complying with open-records laws and potential violations of laws prohibiting city contracts to big campaign donors.
Mercer County is governed by a County Executive who oversees the day-to-day operations of the county and by a seven-member Board of Chosen Freeholders that acts in a legislative capacity, setting policy. All officials are chosen at-large in partisan elections, with the executive serving a four-year term of office while the freeholders serve three-year terms of office on a staggered basis, with either two or three seats up for election each year. As of 2014[update], the County Executive is Brian M. Hughes (D, term ends December 31, 2015; Princeton). Mercer County's Freeholders are
Freeholder Chair Andrew Koontz (D, 2016; Princeton),
Freeholder Vice Chair Samuel T. Frisby, Sr. (2015; Trenton),
Ann M. Cannon (2015; East Windsor Township),
Anthony P. Carabelli (2016; Trenton),
John A. Cimino (2014, Hamilton Township),
Pasquale "Pat" Colavita, Jr. (2015; Lawrence Township) and
Lucylle R. S. Walter (2014; Ewing Township) Mercer County's constitutional officers are County Clerk Paula Sollami-Covello (D, 2015),
Sheriff John A. Kemler (D, 2014) and Surrogate Diane Gerofsky (D, 2016).
As of March 23, 2011, there were a total of 37,407 registered voters in Trenton, of which 16,819 (45.0%) were registered as Democrats, 1,328 (3.6%) were registered as Republicans and 19,248 (51.5%) were registered as Unaffiliated. There were 12 voters registered to other parties.
In the 2012 presidential election, Democrat Barack Obama received 93.4% of the vote (23,125 cast), ahead of Republican Mitt Romney with 6.2% (1,528 votes), and other candidates with 0.4% (97 votes), among the 27,831 ballots cast by the city's 40,362 registered voters (3,081 ballots were spoiled), for a turnout of 69.0%. In the 2008 presidential election, Democrat Barack Obama received 89.9% of the vote here (23,577 cast), ahead of Republican John McCain with 8.2% (2,157 votes) and other candidates with 0.5% (141 votes), among the 26,229 ballots cast by the city's 41,005 registered voters, for a turnout of 64.0%. In the 2004 presidential election, Democrat John Kerry received 79.8% of the vote here (18,539 ballots cast), outpolling Republican George W. Bush with 16.3% (3,791 votes) and other candidates with 0.4% (146 votes), among the 23,228 ballots cast by the city's 39,139 registered voters, for a turnout percentage of 59.3.
In the 2013 gubernatorial election, Democrat Barbara Buono received 74.7% of the vote (9,179 cast), ahead of Republican Chris Christie with 24.7% (3,035 votes), and other candidates with 0.6% (77 votes), among the 11,884 ballots cast by the city's 38,452 registered voters (407 ballots were spoiled), for a turnout of 30.9%. In the 2009 gubernatorial election, Democrat Jon Corzine received 81.6% of the vote here (10,235 ballots cast), ahead of Republican Chris Christie with 12.4% (1,560 votes), Independent Chris Daggett with 2.4% (305 votes) and other candidates with 1.1% (135 votes), among the 12,537 ballots cast by the city's 38,345 registered voters, yielding a 32.7% turnout.
The city of Trenton is protected on a full-time basis by the city of Trenton Fire and Emergency Services Department (TFD), which has been a paid department since 1892 after having been originally established in 1747 as a volunteer fire department. The TFD operates out of seven fire stations and operates a fire apparatus fleet of 7 engines, 3 ladders, and one rescue, along with one HAZMAT unit, an air cascade unit, a mobile command unit, a foam unit, one fireboat, and numerous other special, support and reserve units, under the command of a Battalion Chief per shift.
Fire station locations and apparatus
Ladder 1 (Tiller)
Marine 1(Fire Boat)
460 Calhoun Street
720 S. Broad Street
561 N. Clinton Avenue
502 Hamilton Avenue
Battalion Chief 1
698 Stuyvesant Avenue
Foam Unit 1
1464 W. State Street
Tower Ladder 4
Rescue 1, Haz-Mat 1, Mobile Command Unit, Air Cascade Unit
The International Academy of Trenton, owned and monitored by the SABIS school network, became a charter school in 2014. On February 22, 2017, Trenton's mayor, Eric Jackson, visited the school when it opened its doors in the former Trenton Times building on 500 Perry Street, after completion of a $17 million renovation project. After receiving notice from the New Jersey Department of Education that the school's charter would not be renewed due to issues with academic performance and school management, the school closed its doors on June 30, 2018.
Trenton is home to Al-Bayaan Academy, which opened for preschool students in September 2001 and added grades in subsequent years.
Trenton Community Music School is a not-for-profit community school of the arts. The school was founded by executive director Marcia Wood in 1997. The school operates at Blessed Sacrament Catholic Church (on Tuesdays) and the Copeland Center for the Performing Arts (on Saturdays).
In 2005, there were 31 homicides in Trenton, which at that time was the largest number in a single year in the city's history. The city was named the 4th "Most Dangerous" in 2005 out of 129 cities with a population of 75,000 to 99,999 ranked nationwide in the 12th annual Morgan Quitno survey. In the 2006 survey, Trenton was ranked as the 14th most dangerous city overall out of 371 cities included nationwide in the Morgan Quitno survey, and was again named as the fourth most dangerous municipality of 126 cities in the 75,000-99,999 population range. Homicides went down in 2006 to 20, but back up to 25 in 2007.
In September 2011, the city laid off 108 police officers due to budget cuts; this constituted almost one-third of the Trenton Police Department and required 30 senior officers to be sent out on patrols in lieu of supervisory duties.
In 2013, the city set a new record with 37 homicides. In 2014, there were 23 murders through the end of July and the city's homicide rate was on track to break the record set the previous year until an 81-day period when there were no murders in Trenton; the city ended the year with 34 murders. The number of homicides declined to 17 in 2015.
Riots of 1968
The Trenton Riots of 1968 were a major civil disturbance that took place during the week following the assassination of civil rights leader Martin Luther King in Memphis on April 4. Race riots broke out nationwide following the murder of the civil rights activist. More than 200 Trenton businesses, mostly in Downtown, were ransacked and burned. More than 300 people, most of them young black men, were arrested on charges ranging from assault and arson to looting and violating the mayor's emergency curfew. In addition to 16 injured policemen, 15 firefighters were treated at city hospitals for smoke inhalation, burns, sprains and cuts suffered while fighting raging blazes or for injuries inflicted by rioters. Denizens of Trenton's urban core often pulled false alarms and would then throw bricks at firefighters responding to the alarm boxes. This experience, along with similar experiences in other major cities, effectively ended the use of open-cab fire engines. As an interim measure, the Trenton Fire Department fabricated temporary cab enclosures from steel deck plating until new equipment could be obtained. The losses incurred by downtown businesses were initially estimated by the city to be $7 million, but the total of insurance claims and settlements came to $2.5 million.
Trenton's Battle Monument neighborhood was hardest hit. Since the 1950s, North Trenton had witnessed a steady exodus of middle-class residents, and the riots spelled the end for North Trenton. By the 1970s, the region had become one of the most blighted and crime-ridden in the city.
New Jersey State Prison
The New Jersey State Prison (formerly Trenton State Prison) has two maximum security units. It houses some of the state's most dangerous individuals, which included New Jersey's death row population until the state banned capital punishment in 2007.
The following is inscribed over the original entrance to the prison:
Labor, Silence, Penitence.
The Penitentiary House,
Erected By Legislative
Richard Howell, Governor.
In The XXII Year Of
That Those Who Are Feared
For Their Crimes
May Learn To Fear The Laws
And Be Useful
Hic Labor, Hic Opus.
Roads and highways
Route 1 through downtown Trenton, looking north from the East State Street overpass
City highways include the Trenton Freeway, which is part of U.S. Route 1, and the John Fitch Parkway, which is part of Route 29. Canal Boulevard, more commonly known as Route 129, connects US 1 and Route 29 in South Trenton. U.S. Route 206, Route 31, and Route 33 also pass through the city via regular city streets (Broad Street/Brunswick Avenue/Princeton Avenue, Pennington Avenue, and Greenwood Avenue, respectively).
NJ 29 through downtown Trenton, with the Delaware River on the left
Long-distance transportation is provided by Amtrak train service along the Northeast Corridor.
The closest commercial airport is Trenton-Mercer Airport in Ewing Township, about 8 miles (13 km) from the center of Trenton, which has been served by Frontier Airlines offering service to and from points nationwide. In January 2015, Frontier cited low demand as the reason behind its decision to cut service to five cities in the Midwest, leaving 13 destinations available to passengers.
Trenton is served by two daily newspapers: The Times and The Trentonian, as well as a monthly advertising magazine: "The City" Trenton N.E.W.S.. Radio station WKXW is also licensed to Trenton. Defunct periodicals include the Trenton True American. A local television station, WPHY-CD TV-25, serves the Trenton area.'
Trenton is officially part of the Philadelphia television market but some local pay TV operators also carry stations serving the New York market. While it is its own radio market, many Philadelphia and New York stations are easily receivable.
People who were born in, residents of, or otherwise closely associated with Trenton include:
^Kuperinsky, Amy. "'The Jewel of the Meadowlands'?: N.J.'s best, worst and weirdest town slogans", NJ Advance Media for NJ.com, January 22, 2015. Accessed July 12, 2016. "Trenton. There are scant few unfamiliar with the huge neon sign installed in 1935 that sits on the Lower Trenton Bridge, declaring 'Trenton Makes, The World Takes.' Lumber company owner S. Roy Heath came up with the slogan, originally 'The World Takes, Trenton Makes,' for a chamber of commerce contest in 1910."
^Krystal, Becky. "Trenton, N.J.: One for the history buffs", The Washington Post, February 10, 2011. Accessed January 10, 2012. "Back in the early 18th century, at least, the area was remote enough for Trent, a wealthy Philadelphia merchant, to build his summer home there near the banks of the Delaware River. And though it's dwarfed by its modern-day neighbors, at the time the home reflected its owner's 'ostentatious nature,' Nedoresow said. Further stroking his ego, he named the settlement he laid out 'Trent-towne,' which eventually evolved into the current moniker."
^Messler, Mary J. "Chapter IV: Some Notable Events of Post-Revolutionary Times" from A History of Trenton: 1679-1929, Trenton Historical Society. Accessed May 5, 2016. "The question now resolved itself into a quarrel between the North and the South. New England favored Trenton, whereas the Southern States felt that in the selection of any site north of Mason and Dixon's line their claims for recognition were being slighted, and their interests sacrificed to New England's commercialism."
^Schlegel, Sharon. "Harrowing case of the 'Trenton Six'", The Times (Trenton), January 28, 2012. Accessed June 4, 2018. "The recently published story of the 'Trenton Six,' dramatically told in Cathy Knepper's newest book, Jersey Justice: The Story of the Trenton Six, is so filled with proven instances of injustice that it is almost hard to believe.... Reading how the men were arrested randomly and haphazardly (despite a partial witness claiming they were not the perpetrators) is horrifying. Equally upsetting is that they were held incommunicado for days without warrants, abused and drugged into confessing."
^Di Ionno, Mark. "Chambersburg", The Star-Ledger, July 17, 2007. Accessed March 16, 2012. "The difference between Chambersburg, the traditional Italian section of Trenton, and other city neighborhoods that have undergone 'natural progression' is that Chambersburg hung on so long."
^City of Trenton, New Jersey Natural Hazard Mitigation Plan, City of Trenton, adopted June 19, 2008. Accessed June 12, 2018. "The average snowfall is 24.9 inches, but has ranged from as low as 2 inches (in the winter of 1918-19) to as high as 76.5 inches (in 1995-96). The heaviest snowstorm on record was the Blizzard of 1996 on January 7-8, 1996, when 24.2 inches buried the city."
^Raum, John O. The History of New Jersey: From Its Earliest Settlement to the Present Time, Volume 1, pp. 276-7. J. E. Potter and company, 1877. Accessed July 15, 2013. "Trenton the capitol of the State, as well as the seat of justice of the county of Mercer, is beautifully located on the east bank of the Delaware, at the head of tide navigation. Here is located the State Capitol, built in 1793, enlarged in 1845 and 1865, and again in 1871. The State Prison, State Arsenal, State Normal and Model schools are also located here. The city has 7 wards. Its population in 1850, was 6,461; in 1860, 17,228; and in 1870, 22,874"
^Bruder, Jessica. "Jerseyana; Trenton's Fighting Words", The New York Times, May 2, 2004. Accessed March 16, 2012. "Trenton Makes, the World Takes, reads the famous red neon sign that spans a bridge between the state Capitol and Morrisville, Pa., affectionately known by locals as the Trenton Makes bridge.... In its heyday, Trenton was a world-class producer of rubber, steel, wire rope, and pottery. The cables for three famous suspension bridges - the Brooklyn, George Washington and Golden Gate - were produced here at John A. Roebling's factory."
^Raboteau, Albert. "Diversifying city's economy a major goal for Trenton", The Times (Trenton), January 30, 2003. Accessed October 28, 2014. "Another large goal is to lure private companies whose employees, officials say, are likely to work later in the evening and have more money to spend than the 20,000 or so state workers who swell downtown during business hours, then commute home to other municipalities."
^History, Italian People's Bakery. Accessed May 13, 2016. "The origin of Italian Peoples Bakery goes back to 1936 when Pasquale Gervasio, the patriarch of the family, opened a bakery on Hamilton Avenue in Trenton, New Jersey."
^Huneke, Bill. "Trenton Speedway lives on at Pocono", The Times (Trenton), July 6, 2013. Accessed October 12, 2015. "As Indy Car racing returns to Pocono this weekend after a 24-year absence, only a few of the drivers competing were even alive when Trenton's last event was run in 1979."
^History of State Fairgrounds, Grounds for Sculpture. Accessed March 16, 2012. As horses were replaced by automobiles for transportation, cars became the main attraction on the fairground's racetrack. 'Lucky' Teter and his Hell Drivers made the headlines in the 1930s; in the sixties it was midget car races and a 200-mile race for Indianapolis cars and drivers."
^McGeehan, Patrick. "Private Sector; A Wall St. Son at Nasdaq's Table ", The New York Times, December 17, 2000. Accessed January 5, 2015. "Mr. Plumeri, who owns a minor league team affiliated with the Red Sox, the Trenton Thunder, has even drawn Mr. Simmons to the team's stadium, Samuel J. Plumeri Field, to watch his beloved team play exhibition games."
^Arm & Hammer Park Trenton, New Jersey, Ball Parks of the Minor Leagues. Accessed January 5, 2015. "The playing field was named in 1999 in honor of Samuel Plumeri Sr., one of the driving forces in bring baseball back to New Jersey's state capital."
^Foster, David. "Sacked: Trenton Freedom indoor football team folds", The Trentonian, August 26, 2015. Accessed October 12, 2015. "The Trenton Freedom is the latest professional sports team to shutter operations in the capital city, following the same doomed path of several other organizations at the Sun National Bank Center.... The Trenton Freedom, a member of the Professional Indoor Football League (PIFL), became the third indoor football team to fail at the Sun National Bank Center, lasting one year longer than the previous two. The Trenton Steel called the 8,000-seat arena home for six games in 2011. A decade earlier, the Trenton Lightning lasted just one season."
^Trenton Society of Friends Meeting House, Destination Trenton. Accessed May 13, 2016. "In the burying-ground adjoining the Meeting House are buried many citizens who played prominent parts in the early history of the city."
^"NJ calls for convicted Trenton mayor Tony Mack to be removed", WPVI-TV, February 10, 2014. Accessed February 12, 2014. "The state Attorney General's Office filed a request Monday with a state Superior Court judge, asking that Tony Mack be kicked out of office, stripped of his pension and be barred from holding elected office again.... Under state law, people convicted of corruption cannot continue to hold public office. But since Mack has not resigned, the state is asking a judge to enforce the law."
^Curran, Phillip Sean. "Assemblywoman Muoio resigns, creating vacancy in legislature", CentralJersey.com, January 17, 2018. "State Assemblywoman Liz Muoio, a Democrat who represented parts of Mercer and Hunterdon counties since 2015, resigned her seat to join the Murphy administration, thus creating a vacancy that many Democrats want to fill.... But she submitted her resignation to the Assembly clerk on Friday to become acting state Treasurer until she gets confirmed by the Democrat-controlled state Senate. Her resignation took effect at the end of business Monday, according to an aide. She also left her job as the Mercer County director of economic development."
^Historic Rider, Rider University. Accessed February 12, 2014. "Gradually growing in size and scope through the first half of the 20th century, Rider began its move to a more spacious, suburban campus in 1959, when the first offices and classes moved to a 280-acre tract of land on Route 206 in Lawrence Township, N.J."
^Foster, David. "Trenton charter school officially announces closure as 9th Grade Academy readies move-in", The Trentonian, June 1, 2018. Accessed July 11, 2018. "In a statement sent to The Trentonian on Friday, International Academy of Trenton (IAT) Charter School Board President Larry Chenault 'regretfully' accepted the doomed fate of the school, which spent $17 million to renovate the former Times of Trenton building into a state-of-the-art learning center.... IAT was informed in January by the New Jersey Department of Education (DOE) that the school, which educated 650 students, would be losing its charter at the end of this month for poor student performance and classroom mismanagement."
^Zdan, Alex. "Trenton police layoff plan to go into effect today", The Times (Trenton), September 16, 2011. Accessed January 10, 2012. "The 108 police officers slated to be terminated represent one-third of the force. Demotions affecting nearly 30 members will send current lieutenants and sergeants back to the street, depleting supervisor levels and the detective bureaus in an effort to keep patrols close to their current strength."
^McEvoy, James. "Authorities ID Trenton homicide victim, investigate separate shooting", The Times (Trenton), October 19, 2014. Accessed May 16, 2016. "Sutphin's slaying was the first homicide in Trenton since July 30 when Tyshawn Goodman, 25, of Trenton, and George Jamison, 44, of Pennington, were shot to death in what police believed were separate robberies. The nearly three months of relative peace followed a bloody start in which the city saw 23 homicides in the first seven months of the year."
^McAuliff, Michael. "Alito Bit of GOP Love", New York Daily News, January 10, 2006. Accessed January 25, 2011. "With two rows of his family sitting behind him, Alito recounted his Trenton upbringing, the lives of his immigrant parents, and the culture clash he felt when he went to Princeton University in the late '60s."
^Phillips, Rashad. "MellowHype: Chordaroy Life", HipHopDX, July 15, 2011. Accessed March 30, 2012. "DX: Now as far as the L.A. scene, I read that you are actually from out East. Hodgy Beats: Yeah, I was born in East Lawrence, New Jersey and raised in Trenton until I was eight."
^Fox, Margalit. "Helen Boehm, the Princess of Porcelain, Dies at 89", The New York Times, November 19, 2010. Accessed January 5, 2015. "In 1944, she married Edward Marshall Boehm. An experienced livestock breeder, he made realistic clay sculptures of animals as a pastime. Mrs. Boehm encouraged him to pursue his art professionally, and eventually, with a loan from one of her eyeglass clients, they started a porcelain studio in a Trenton basement."
^Caldwell, Dave. "Sprinter Turned Driver Is a Quick Study in Acceleration", The New York Times, August 30, 2009. Accessed November 26, 2013. "Brown, a 33-year-old native of Chesterfield, N.J., could become the first African-American to win a major N.H.R.A. championship.... Brown lived in Trenton until he was 6. When his grandfather died, his family moved to his grandmother's 10-acre farm in Chesterfield, in the rural part of Burlington County."
^Saxon, Wolfgang. "Robert J. Burkhardt, 83, Leader Of New Jersey Democrats in 60's", The New York Times, January 5, 2000. Accessed January 5, 2015. "Robert James Burkhardt, a onetime power in the New Jersey Democratic Party who helped organize the Soviet-American summit meeting at Glassboro, N.J., but stumbled in a bribery scandal, died on Dec. 30 at Arden Hill Hospital in Goshen, N.Y. A former resident of Trenton and Central Valley, N.Y., he was 83."
^Bio, TeamChopra.org. Accessed January 8, 2015. "Born the son of immigrants in Trenton, New Jersey, Aneesh Chopra has spent his life focusing on education and innovation."
^Maidenburg, Micah. "Investor aims to buy 3,000 foreclosed Chicago homes", Chicago Real Estate Daily, October 19, 2012. Accessed January 8, 2015. "A native New Yorker, Mr. Cogsville, 47, grew up in Trenton, N.J., before moving south to attend the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, where he was a soccer star, scoring 29 goals over four years, according to an article in the Daily Tar Heel, a student newspaper."
^Provizer, Norman. "Richie Cole Brings Sax Appeal To Vartan", Rocky Mountain News, April 4, 1996. Accessed March 25, 2012. "On his current CD, Kush: The Music of Dizzy Gillespie, alto saxophonist Richie Cole spends most of his time in the company of a large brass section.... Instead, the Trenton, N.J. native will be in a quartet setting for a live recording on the Vartan Jazz label."
^Staff. "ECWA Interview with WWE Hall of Famer JJ Dillon", ECWA Pro Wrestling, December 20, 2013. Accessed January 9, 2015. "JJ Dillon: I started as a fan. I was born and raised in Trenton, New Jersey. As a young teenager I discovered wrestling on... I'm giving my age away (laughs)... on a black and white television. It was on one night a week for an hour and a half. And eventually a live event came to my hometown to the armory in Trenton. And when I went to the show and saw all these larger than life characters in action I was hooked."
^Bohlen, Celestine. "The Nation: David N. Dinkins; An Even Temper In the Tempest of Mayoral Politics", The New York Times, September 17, 1989. Accessed March 16, 2012. "From his childhood, which he spent divided between New York City and Trenton, David Dinkins has kept steady control of his emotions, friends and family members say. When he was 6 years old, his mother left his father in Trenton and moved to New York, taking her two children with her. Mr. Dinkins later returned to Trenton, where he attended elementary and high school."
^Blau, Eleanor. "Ruth Donnelly, Comedienne And Character Actor In Films", The New York Times, November 19, 1982. Accessed January 9, 2015. "Born in Trenton, Miss Donnelly, whose father was a newspaper editor, music critic and columnist, began her career at the age of 17 as a chorus girl and shortly afterward began appearing in stage plays, including several productions of George M. Cohan."
^Armstrong, Samuel S. "Trenton in the Mexican, Civil, and Spanish-American Wars", Trenton Historical Society. Accessed May 9, 2007. "Samuel Gibbs French was a native of Trenton and graduated from West Point in 1843 with the brevet rank of Second Lieutenant and assigned to the Third U.S. Artillery, July 1, 1843."
^Fremon, Suzanne S. "State Has 13 on Olympic Team", The New York Times, August 13, 1972. Accessed November 22, 2017. "Other New Jerseyans on the various Olympic teams are Phillip Grippaldo of Belle ville and Frank Capsouras of River Edge, weight lifters; Robert Sparks of Clark and Thomas Hardiman of Trenton, team-handball players, and Reginald Jones of Newark a light-middleweight boxer."
^Strausbaugh, John. "Street Art That's Finding A New Address", The New York Times, March 7, 2010. Accessed July 2, 2018. "Mr. LeVine came to the movement the same way his artists did. He grew up in Trenton and earned a degree in sculpture, but he was less attracted to fine art than he was to underground comics, punk and hip-hop, 'anything subculture and edgy.' With a loan from his parents, he opened his first small art gallery in New Hope, Pa., in 2001."
^Joe Holley, "Former Diplomat Sol Linowitz, 91, Dies", The Washington Post, March 18, 2005. Accessed March 20, 2012. "Sol Myron Linowitz was the eldest of four sons born to Joseph and Rose Oglenskye Linowitz, immigrants from a region of Poland under Russian rule. He was born in Trenton, N.J., in a multicultural neighborhood of Jews, Protestants and Catholics, as well as one African American family."
^Manufacturers' Association Bulletin. Manufacturers' Association of New Jersey. 1922. p. 6. Of the original partners John Astbury and Richard Millington formed in 1873 a partnership with Thomas Maddock, and with this co-partnership was born the sanitary pottery business in this country.
^Hein, Leonard W. "J. Lee Nicholson: pioneer cost accountant", Accounting Review (1959): 106-111. Accessed January 8, 2015. "Major Nicholson was born in Trenton, New Jersey, in 1863, but spent his early years in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania."
^Marsh, Steven P. "Kung Fu Panda director takes on The Little Prince", The Journal News, February 29, 2016. Accessed July 2, 2018. "The two-time Academy Award nominee's journey toward making a big-screen version of The Little Prince -- based on Antoine de Saint-Exupéry's beloved 1943 illustrated novella -- began more than two decades ago, as the result of a young woman's romantic gesture toward the Trenton, New Jersey, native."
^Bianco, Anthony. "Joe Plumeri: The Apostle of Life Insurance", Business Week, March 30, 1998. Accessed February 12, 2014. "That would be the blue-collar precincts of North Trenton, N.J., just 15 miles from here. The cool-walking demonstration ended, Plumeri explains how he stumbled into a career on Wall Street by taking a menial job at a brokerage house that he had mistaken for a law firm."
^Johnson, Brent. "Meet N.J.'s newest Assembly member", NJ Advance Media for NJ.com, February 15, 2018. Accessed February 15, 2018. "A two-term Trenton councilwoman is now the newest lawmaker serving in the Statehouse across town.... Reynolds-Jackson is a graduate of Trenton Central High School and has a bachelor's degree in sociology from Trenton State College -- now the College of New Jersey -- and a master's degree in administration from Central Michigan University."
^Sherman, Steve. "Soccer: Popularity aside, a new skill is mastered in Bristol", Bucks Local News, August 22, 2012. Accessed November 2, 2017. "'You can't just stand there flat-footed,' said Robinson, a former Trenton resident and three-time All-American at Adelphi University (1990) who graduated from Notre Dame High School in 1986."
^"Ntozake Shange", Illustrated Women in History. Accessed October 3, 2017. "Shange was born Paulette L. Williams in 1948 in Trenton, New Jersey, where as a child she attended poetry readings with her sister."
^Smith, Lanny; and Capps, Linnea. "An interview with Dr. Vic Sidel", Social Medicine, Volume 7, Number 3, October 2013. Accessed February 1, 2018. "Graduates went on to Trenton Central High School, which had a class size of 3000. My main recollection of high school was graduation.... In my speech I talked about a $10,000 home, which in 1949 was an impossible dream."
^Fitzgerald's Legislative Manual, 1984, p. 262. J.A. Fitzgerald, 1986. Accessed November 9, 2017. "Karl Weidel, Rep., Clinton - Assemblyman Weidel was born Sept. 27, 1923, in Trenton. He lives at One Charles Way, Clinton."
^"Former All-American Cager, Werkman, Is Now Coaching", Asbury Park Press, July 22, 1973. Accessed November 9, 2017. "Nick Werkman, Seton Hall University's last All-America basketball player, is now the varsity baseball and basketball coach at Stockton State College. He was born in Trenton, where he started playing CYO basketball when he was 10 years old."