Tyumen Oblast
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Tyumen Oblast
Tyumen Oblast
? (Russian)
--  Oblast  --
Coordinates: 57°50?N 69°00?E / 57.833°N 69.000°E / 57.833; 69.000Coordinates: 57°50?N 69°00?E / 57.833°N 69.000°E / 57.833; 69.000
Political status
Country Russia
Federal district Ural[1]
Economic region West Siberia[2]
Established August 14, 1944
Administrative center Tyumen
Government (as of May 2018)
 o Governor Alexander Moor[3]
 o Legislature Oblast Duma
Area (as of the 2002 Census)[4]
 o Total 1,435,200 km2 (554,100 sq mi)
Area rank 3rd
Population (2010 Census)[5]
 o Total 3,395,755
 o Rank 36th
 o Density[6] 2.37/km2 (6.1/sq mi)
 o Urban 78.1%
 o Rural 21.9%
Population (January 2017 est.)
 o Total 1,474,873 (3,660,000) including KMAO and YNAO[3]
Time zone(s) YEKT (UTC+05:00)[7]
ISO 3166-2 RU-TYU
License plates 72
Official languages Russian[8]
Official website

Tyumen Oblast (Russian: ? , Tyumenskaya oblast) is a federal subject (an oblast) of Russia. It is geographically located in the Western Siberia region of Siberia, and is administratively part of the Urals Federal District. The oblast has administrative jurisdiction over two autonomous okrugs: Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Okrug and Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Okrug. Tyumen Oblast including its autonomous okrugs is the third-largest federal subject by area, and has a population of 3,395,755 (2010)[5]

Tyumen is the largest city and capital of Tyumen Oblast, and the first Russian settlement east of the Ural Mountains.

Tyumen Oblast is the largest producer of oil and natural gas in the country, and has experienced an oil boom since the early 2000s. The rapid growth of the fuel industry has made the oblast by far the richest federal subject of Russia, with an average GDP per capita several times the national average since 2006.[9]


The territory covers 160,100 km2. The Tyumen Oblast was founded in August 14, 1944. It includes two autonomous okrugs of the Khanty-Mansiysk Autonomous Okrug (which is the okrug that border the region) and the Yugra and Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Okrug. The territory is located in the basin of the river. The biggest rivers are the Tura, Tobol, Pyshma, Iset, Tavda, Ishim, Agan, Irtysh, and Noska. The hydro-geographical system is characterized with the prevalence of small rivers as well as the significant bogginess of their catchment areas and numerous lakes.[] It borders Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Okrug in the north, Omsk Oblast and Tomsk Oblast in the East, Kazakhstan (North Kazakhstan Region), Kurgan Oblast and Sverdlovsk Oblast in the west.


The area has the extreme climatic conditions in most parts of the territory - the Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Okrug, Beloyarsky and Berezovsky areas of the Khanty-Mansiysk Autonomous Okrug - Yugra [10] refer to the Far North and other areas and urban districts of the Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Okrug and Uvat area equated to them.

The climate is arctic, sub-arctic and temperate in the north, center and south, respectively. The average January temperature ranges from -17 ° C in Tyumen Oblast to -27 ° C in the north. The duration of the frost period is 130 in Tyumen to 210 days a year or more in the tundra region.


The region takes place more than 70 thousand watercourses length of more than 10 km of the total length of 584,400 km. The largest area of the river - Ob(185 cu km / yr) and Irtysh (36.5 cu km / yr) - are navigable value. In the region there are about 70 thousand lakes. In the north and in the central part of the widespread thermokarst lakes and marsh in the south - salted stagnant ponds in the depressions.


The Red Book of Tyumen Oblast listed 711 rare and endangered species. In the list of specially protected areas of the south region there are 99 sites, including one international and three federal.


Tyumen Oblast is in the Ekaterinburg timezone. Displacement concerning UTC makes +5:00. Concerning Moscow time the time zone has constant displacement +2 hours and is designated in Russia correspondingly as MSK + 2. Ekaterinburg time for most of the Tyumen region is different from the lap time by one hour, to a lesser (western) part, including the city of Tyumen, - for two hours.

Fauna and flora

There are variety of fauna and flora in this oblast. In the northern part can be found ptarmigan, walrus and Arctic fox.[11]Polar bears also occur in the extreme north; the genetic make-up of this Polar bear sub-population is genetically distinct from other circumpolar regions.[12]


Tyumen Oblast Administration building

During the Soviet period, the high authority in the oblast was shared between three persons: The first secretary of the Tyumen CPSU Committee (who in reality had the biggest authority), the chairman of the oblast Soviet (legislative power), and the Chairman of the oblast Executive Committee (executive power). Since 1991, CPSU lost all the power, and the head of the Oblast administration, and eventually the governor was appointed/elected alongside elected regional parliament.[]

Tyumen Oblast Duma

The politics in the oblast is governed by the Charter of Tyumen Oblast. The laws within the authority of the oblast are passed by the Legislative Assembly of Tymen Oblast which is the legislative (representative) body. The highest executive body is the Tyumen Oblast Administration. It also includes the executive bodies of the subdivisions such as districts, and is responsible for the daily administration. The Oblast administration supports the activities of the Governor who is the head of the oblast and acts as guarantor of the observance of the Charter in accordance with the Constitution of Russia.[]

Natural resources

The autonomous regions are concentrated the bulk of the country's oil and gas. The total volume of exploration drilling has exceeded 45 million meters. Oil production is concentrated in the Middle Ob. Gas is produced mainly in the northern areas. Large oil fields are located in the Khanty-Ugra: Samotlor, Ob, Fyodorovskoye, Mamontovskoye, Krasnoleninskoye; gas - in the Yamalo-Nenets District: Urengoi, Bear, Yamburg. The depth from 700 m to 4 km. Produced peat, sapropel, quartz sand, limestone. Explored about 400 deposits of raw materials for the production of building materials [source not specified 252 days].

Ore minerals and precious stones discovered on the eastern slope of the Subpolar and Polar Urals (in particular, the deposits of Lead, copper, chromite).

The area is rich in fresh water resources, which are represented by large rivers - the Ob, Irtysh, Tobol, lakes (650 ths.) - Black (224 km²), Big Uvat (179 km²), etc., groundwater, that contain more than half of Russian stocks. iodine (30 mlg / l) and bromine (40-50 mlg / l)

Over 44% of the land reserves in the south of the region are covered with forests. 43 million hectares are covered by forests. The forest resources area is the third largest in the Russian Federation after the Krasnoyarsk Territory and the Irkutsk Region. The main forest forming species are pine, birch, spruce, fir, aspen and larch. The total timber reserves are estimated at 5.4 billion cubic meters.

In the south of the Tyumen region are about ten hot (37-50°C) geothermal sources, having balneological properties. Sources are popular not only among residents of Tyumen, but in neighboring regions as well: the Sverdlovsk, Kurgan and Chelyabinsk regions.

The region has large peat reserves. Large deposits of vivianite (ferric phosphate) (approximately 20% of world reserves) have been discovered in particular peat deposits, the usage of which may meet the phosphate fertilizers demand of the agriculture.

There are deposits of quartz sands, brick and expanded clays, sapropels and limestone. The region has large fresh and mineral water reserves. There are great prospects for oil fields development.


As of 2016, the Nominal GDP in Tyumen Oblast(including Khanty-Mansi and Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous regions) reached ?5,9 trillion[13][14]$104 billion($28,000 per capita).

Tyumen is a service center for gas and oil industries: the Oblast has the highest level of oil and gas production of any region in Russia. Gazprom, LUKoil and Gazpromneft, TNK-BP, Shell, Salym Petroleum Development N.V.[15] have representative offices in Tyumen. It has been suggested that the importance of these industries has caused the high levels of economic inequality observed in the region.[16]


The center park of the city

The Tyumen region produces milk, meat, eggs, potatoes and vegetables.

Transport infrastructure

Abalakskoe pole

Transport is presented by the motor, railway, aviation and river communication system. The railway takes the leading position in freight traffic .

The river port is also a cargo center and a link between rail, road and air transport .

Roshchino International Airport is undergoing construction as of 2017, with development of a new terminal .

Administrative divisions


Population: ;[5];[17].[18]

Ethnic groups

There were thirty-six recognized ethnic groups of more than two thousand persons each in Tyumen Oblast, making this one of the most multicultural oblasts in Russia. The national composition at the time of the 2010 Census was:[5]

Vital Statistics for 2011:[20]

  • Births: 55,118
  • Deaths: 29,261
  • Birth Rate: 16.25 per 1000
  • Death Rate: 8.62 per 1000
  • NGR: +7.63
Vital statistics for 2012
  • Births: 59 668 (17.2 per 1000)
  • Deaths: 29 297 (8.4 per 1000) [21]
  • Total fertility rate:[22]
  • 2009 -- 1.78
  • 2010 -- 1.81
  • 2011 -- 1.83
  • 2012 -- 1.99
  • 2013 -- 2.00
  • 2014 -- 2.07
  • 2015 -- 2.07
  • 2016 -- 2.01 (estimate)


Religion in Tyumen Oblast as of 2012 (Sreda Arena Atlas)[23][24]
Russian Orthodoxy
Other Orthodox
Other Christians
Rodnovery and other native faiths
Spiritual but not religious
Atheism and irreligion
Other and undeclared

According to a 2012 official survey[23] 28.9% of the population of Tyumen Oblast adheres to the Russian Orthodox Church, 9% is an Orthodox Christian believer without belonging to any church or is a member of other (non-Russian) Orthodox Churches, 4% are unaffiliated generic Christians, 1% are members of Protestant churches. 6% of the population is composed of Muslims, 2% are adherents of the Slavic native faith (Rodnovery), and 0.4% to forms of Hinduism (Vedism, Krishnaism or Tantrism). In addition, 34% of the population declares to be "spiritual but not religious", 11% is atheist, and 3.7% follows other religions or did not give an answer to the question.[23]


A minor planet 2120 Tyumenia discovered in 1967 by Soviet astronomer Tamara Mikhailovna Smirnova is named after Tyumen Oblast.[25]

See also


  1. ^ ? . ? No849  13 2000 ?. «? ? ? ? ? ». ? ? ? 13 2000 ?. : " ? ", No20, . 2112, 15 2000 ?. (President of the Russian Federation. Decree #849 of May 13, 2000 On the Plenipotentiary Representative of the President of the Russian Federation in a Federal District. Effective as of May 13, 2000.).
  2. ^ ? . No 024-95 27 ? 1995 ?. « ? ? . 2. ? », ? . No5/2001 ?. (Gosstandart of the Russian Federation. #OK 024-95 December 27, 1995 Russian Classification of Economic Regions. 2. Economic Regions, as amended by the Amendment #5/2001 OKER. ).
  3. ^ Official website of Tyumen Oblast. Vladimir Vladimirovich Yakushev, Governor of Tyumen Oblast (in Russian)
  4. ^ ? (Federal State Statistics Service) (2004-05-21). "?, ?, ? ? ? ? ? (Territory, Number of Districts, Inhabited Localities, and Rural Administration by Federal Subjects of the Russian Federation)". ? 2002 ? (All-Russia Population Census of 2002) (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service. Retrieved .
  5. ^ a b c d Russian Federal State Statistics Service (2011). "? 2010 ?.  1" [2010 All-Russian Population Census, vol. 1]. ? 2010 ? (2010 All-Russia Population Census) (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service. Retrieved 2012. (The rank is given without the autonomous okrugs' populations; the population and percentages are given for the territory of the oblast with the autonomous okrugs) Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; name "2010Census" defined multiple times with different content (see the help page).
  6. ^ The density value was calculated by dividing the population reported by the 2010 Census by the area shown in the "Area" field. Please note that this value may not be accurate as the area specified in the infobox is not necessarily reported for the same year as the population.
  7. ^ ? ? .   No107-  3 ? 2011 ?. « ? ?», ? . No271-  03 ? 2016 ?. «? ? " ? ?"». ? ? ?  ? ? (6 ? 2011 ?.). : "? ", No120, 6 ? 2011 ?. (Government of the Russian Federation. Federal Law #107-FZ of June 31, 2011 On Calculating Time, as amended by the Federal Law #271-FZ of July 03, 2016 On Amending Federal Law "On Calculating Time". Effective as of after sixty days following the day of the official publication.).
  8. ^ Official throughout the Russian Federation according to Article 68.1 of the Constitution of Russia.
  9. ^ "? ? ? ". www.gks.ru. Retrieved 2018.
  10. ^ ? ? 03.03.2012 N 170 « ? ? - -- ? ? ? » ? ? - -- ? ? 01.01.2013 ?. ? ? .
  11. ^ Bruce Forbes, The End of the Earth: Threats to the Yamal Region's Cultural and Biological Diversity [1]
  12. ^ C. Michael Hogan (2008) Polar Bear: Ursus maritimus, globalTwitcher.com, ed. Nicklas Stromberg Archived March 8, 2012, at the Wayback Machine.
  13. ^ "? ?::". Mrd.gks.ru. Retrieved 2017.
  14. ^ "o EUR RUB average annual exchange rate 1999-2016 | Statistic". Statista.com. Retrieved 2017.
  15. ^ " « ?.?.» () -- ? , ? 1996 ? ? ? . ? ? «? ?.?.» ? «? »". www.spdnv.ru. Retrieved 2018.
  16. ^ Buccellato, T; T. Mickiewicz (2009). "Oil and Gas: A Blessing for the Few. Hydrocarbons and Inequality in Russia" (PDF). Europe-Asia Studies. 61 (3): 385-407. doi:10.1080/09668130902753275.
  17. ^ Russian Federal State Statistics Service (May 21, 2004). " , ? ? ? ?, ?, , ? ? - ? ? ? ? ? ? 3  ? ?" [Population of Russia, Its Federal Districts, Federal Subjects, Districts, Urban Localities, Rural Localities--Administrative Centers, and Rural Localities with Population of Over 3,000] (XLS). ? 2002 ? [All-Russia Population Census of 2002] (in Russian). Retrieved 2014.
  18. ^ Demoscope Weekly (1989). "? 1989 ?. ? ? ? , ? ? ?, , , ?, ? -?" [All Union Population Census of 1989: Present Population of Union and Autonomous Republics, Autonomous Oblasts and Okrugs, Krais, Oblasts, Districts, Urban Settlements, and Villages Serving as District Administrative Centers]. ? 1989 ? [All-Union Population Census of 1989] (in Russian). ? ? : [Institute of Demography at the National Research University: Higher School of Economics]. Retrieved 2014.
  19. ^ -2010 ? . Perepis-2010.ru (2011-12-19). Retrieved on 2013-08-20.
  20. ^ [2] Archived March 26, 2012, at the Wayback Machine.
  21. ^ ? ? ? . Gks.ru. Retrieved on 2013-08-20.
  22. ^ ? ?:: ?. Gks.ru (2010-05-08). Retrieved on 2013-08-20.
  23. ^ a b c "Arena: Atlas of Religions and Nationalities in Russia". Sreda, 2012.
  24. ^ 2012 Arena Atlas Religion Maps. "Ogonek", No 34 (5243), 27/08/2012. Retrieved 21/04/2017. Archived.
  25. ^ Schmadel, Lutz D. (2003). Dictionary of Minor Planet Names (5th ed.). New York: Springer Verlag. p. 172. ISBN 3-540-00238-3.

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