Germany was represented at the 1956 Summer Olympics by a United Team of Germany of athletes from the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG) (West Germany) and, for the first time at Summer Games, also from the German Democratic Republic (GDR) (East Germany) which had not joined in 1952. Also, the Saarland athletes who had to enter as a separate team in 1952 could now join in even though the accession of their state was not yet in effect. Thus, this was the only Olympic team ever to comprise athletes from three German states.
Most of the Games were held in Melbourne, Australia, but due to Australian quarantine regulations the equestrian events were held five months earlier in Stockholm, Sweden. 158 competitors, 134 men and 24 women, took part in 95 events in 15 sports.
The greatest German heroes of the Games were the miracle horse Halla, carrying injured rider Hans Günter Winkler to two Gold medals, and one more in 1960 for an all-time record.
Heinz Fütterer, who had tied the 100m world record and set some European records, had been a favorite for medals, but was injured before the games in an event held in the GDR.
Compared to 1952, where no Gold had been won, the Germans improved significantly, but still won more than twice as many Silver than Gold, being ranked joint 4th in Total medals.
- Karl-Friedrich Haas -- Athletics, Men's 400 metres
- Klaus Richtzenhain -- Athletics, Men's 1.500 metres
- Christa Stubnick -- Athletics, Women's 100 metres
- Christa Stubnick -- Athletics, Women's 200 metres
- Gisela Köhler -- Athletics, Women's 80m Hurdles
- Harry Kurschat -- Boxing, Men's Lightweight
- Fritz Briel and Theo Kleine -- Canoeing, Men's K2 10.000m Kayak Pairs
- Therese Zenz -- Canoeing, Women's K1 500m Kayak Singles
- August Lütke-Westhues -- Equestrian, Three-Day Event Individual
- August Lütke-Westhues, Otto Rothe, and Klaus Wagner -- Equestrian, Three-Day Event Team
- Liselott Linsenhoff, Anneliese Küppers, and Hannelore Weygand -- Equestrian, Dressage Team
- Karl-Heinrich von Groddeck, Horst Arndt, and Rainer Borkowsky -- Rowing, Men's Coxed Pairs
- Wilfried Dietrich -- Wrestling, Men's Greco-Roman Heavyweight
- Heinz Fütterer, Leonhard Pohl, Lothar Knörzer, and Manfred Germar -- Athletics, Men's 4 × 100 m Relay
- Marianne Werner -- Athletics, Women's Shot Put
- Michael Scheuer -- Canoeing, Men's K1 10.000m Kayak Singles
- Reinhold Pommer, Horst Tüller and Gustav-Adolf Schur -- Cycling, Men's Team Road Race
- Liselott Linsenhoff -- Equestrian, Dressage Individual
- Günther Brennecke Hugo Budinger, Werner Delmes, Hugo Dollheiser, Eberhard Ferstl, Alfred Lücker, Helmut Nonn, Wolfgang Nonn, Heinz Radzikowski, Werner Rosenbaum, and Günther Ullerich -- Field Hockey, Men's Team Competition
- Eva-Maria ten Elsen -- Swimming, Women's 200m Breaststroke
Men's 110m Hurdles
- Heat -- 14.2s
- Semifinals -- 14.4s
- Final -- 14.5s (-> 4th place)
- Heat -- 14.3s
- Semifinals -- 14.5s (-> did not advance)
- Team pursuit
- Team road race
- Individual road race
One fencer represented Germany in 1956.
- Men's foil
- Men's épée
- Men's sabre
Two shooters represented Germany in 1956.
- 50 m rifle, three positions
- 50 m rifle, prone