The concept of universal suffrage, also known as general suffrage or common suffrage, consists of the right to vote of all adults, subject only to minor exceptions. Many countries make an exception for small numbers of adults that are considered mentally incapable of voting. Other countries also exclude people convicted of serious crimes or people in jail, but this is considered a violation of a basic human right in an increasing number of countries. In some countries, including the United States, it is very difficult and expensive[vague] for convicted criminals to regain this right even after having served their jail sentence, but U.S voting laws are not national, but subject to federalism so some states have more lenient voting laws. In any case, where universal suffrage exists, the right to vote is not restricted by race, sex, belief, wealth, or social status.
Although it took or is taking a long time in many countries before women got or get the right to run for office even after getting the right to vote, there are still no commonly used clear terms to differentiate between these different rights. It is therefore usually best to avoid the little known and ambivalent terms used to make this distinction and to instead clearly say whether one is referring to only men or also women having only the right to vote or also the right to run for office.
The meaning of universal suffrage has changed over time. Originally it was used for the term universal male suffrage and even today the term is often used to refer to historical or contemporary situations in which women had or have the right to vote but not to run for office. It has also been used for situations where there is a universal right to vote in elections but not run for office.
In the United States, the term "suffrage" is often associated specifically with women's suffrage, as the term became widely known during the American Suffragettes movement, which began in the mid-nineteenth century and ultimately peaked during the first three decades of the twentieth century. This movement eventually culminated in the year 1920, when the United States ruled that women were to be given the same rights to vote and run for office as men by passing the Nineteenth Amendment.
In most countries, universal suffrage (the right to vote but not necessarily the right to be a candidate) followed about a generation after universal male suffrage. Notable exceptions in Europe were France, where women could not vote until 1944, Greece (1952), and Switzerland (1971 in federal elections and 1990 in all cantonal elections). It is worth noting that countries that took a long time to adopt women's suffrage had previously often been pioneers in granting universal male suffrage.
In the first modern democracies, governments restricted the vote to those with property and wealth, which almost always meant a minority of the male population. In some jurisdictions, other restrictions existed, such as requiring voters to practice a given religion. In all modern democracies, the number of people who could vote has increased progressively with time. In the 19th century in Europe, Great Britain and North America, there were movements advocating "universal [male] suffrage". The democratic movement of the late 19th century, unifying social democrats, particularly in Western Europe, Australia, and New Zealand used the slogan Equal and Common Suffrage.]</ref>
Many democratic countries, for example the United Kingdom and France, have had colonies with citizens living outside of the mother country and have generally not been entitled to vote for the national legislature. A peculiarly complex case is that of Algeria under the Third French Republic: Algeria was legally an integral part of France, but citizenship was restricted (as in other French colonies proper) by legal status, not by race or ethnicity. Any Muslim Algerian could become a French citizen by choosing to live like one. As this required the person to resign jurisdiction under Islamic law in favour of French civic law, very few did. Among Muslims, such a change was considered apostasy from Islam, which was the dominant religion in Algeria. Colonists in America declared Independence from Great Britain citing "No Taxation Without Representation" as one of their main grievances. However, the newly established country did not extend voting rights in the United States beyond white adult male property owners (about 6% of the population), and did not grant its overseas citizens the right to vote in elections either, until the passage of the Uniformed and Overseas Citizens Absentee Voting Act in 1986.
Citizens of an EU Member State are allowed to vote in EU parliamentary elections, as well as some local elections. For example, a British person living in Graz, Austria, would be entitled to vote for the European Parliament as a resident of the "electoral district" of Austria, and to vote in Graz municipal elections. He would, however, not be entitled to vote in Austrian (federal) elections, or Styrian (state) elections. Similarly, all locally resident EU citizens in the UK are allowed to vote for representatives of the local council, and those resident in Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland may vote for the devolved parliaments or assemblies. But, only British, Irish and Commonwealth citizens are allowed to vote for the British House of Commons. However, not all British citizens are allowed to vote, since non-resident British citizens lose their franchise after 15 years. In fact the British government is planning to reinstate universal suffrage soon.
In the West Bank, Palestinians are not Israeli citizens and therefore cannot vote in Israeli elections. Different areas of the West Bank are under varying levels of Israeli control. Settlers (and their offspring) to Area C retain their citizenship, and can continue to vote.
States have granted and revoked universal suffrage at various times. This list can be organised in three ways:
|Universal||Male||Female||Ethnicity||Country or territory||Notes|
|1964-77||1964-77||1964-77||1964-77||Afghanistan||1964 Constitution of Afghanistan transformed Afghanistan into a modern democracy.|
|1952||1853||1952||1853||Argentina||Universal male suffrage was instituted in 1853. Universal, secret and mandatory suffrage for male citizens over 18 years of age was granted by the Sáenz Peña Law (General Election Law) of 1912. It was amended to include female citizens in 1947 but became effective in 1952.|
|1921||1919||1921||1920||Armenia||Became part of the Soviet Union in 1920.|
|1962||1901||1902||1962||Australia||In 1855, the parliament of the self-governing Colony of South Australia enacted legislation providing for universal male suffrage. The parliaments of the Colony of Victoria and the Colony of New South Wales followed suit by enacting legislation providing universal male suffrage in 1857 and 1858, respectively. In 1894 the parliament of the Colony of South Australia enacted legislation providing a full and universal adult franchise; the right of all adults of the age of majority to vote in elections, and for any elector to stand for high office. In 1901, the self-governing colonies of Australia joined together in a federal structure of states. In 1902, the new federal parliament legislated for a universal adult franchise and the right of electors to stand for and occupy any office for which they could directly vote. Indigenous people were explicitly excluded. True universal suffrage was not achieved until 1962 when the Commonwealth Electoral Act extended the right to vote to all Australians regardless of race. However, Australia was first united a federation in 1901[better source needed]. Hence, universal voting rights were not enabled until the nation was united. Voting rights for all men and women were established in 1902.|
|1945||1896||1918||1945||Austria||Universal suffrage 1896, universal and equal suffrage (removing multiple voting) 1907. Before 1907 unmarried landholding women were allowed to vote. After the Central Powers' defeat in World War I universal suffrage including women.|
|1919||1919||1919||1919||Azerbaijan||Became part of the Soviet Union in 1920.|
|1961||1958||1961||1807||Bahamas||Legislation passed in the house in 1961 allowing for Universal adult suffrage in The Bahamas. All men could vote equally in The Bahamas in 1958. In 1807 legislation passed in the house of assembly giving free persons of color the right to vote. |
|1973-75||1973-75||1973-75||1973-75||Bahrain||Universal suffrage in 1973, although parliament was suspended and dissolved in 1975 for approximately 30 years. Non Sunni-Muslims cannot vote.|
|1948||1893||1948||1893||Belgium||Universal census suffrage for all men aged 25 and above since 1893. Depending on education and amount of taxes paid, males could cast between 1 and 3 votes. Widows were also allowed to vote but lost their voting rights after remarrying. Universal single suffrage for males since 1918. Universal suffrage for women was finally introduced in 1948.|
|1956||1956||1956||1956||Bolivia||Universal suffrage granted by decree; first elections in 1956; women's suffrage coincided with abolition of literacy requirements.|
|1988||1988||1988||1988||Brazil||Male suffrage from 1891 excluding the homeless, women, priests, and the military. Women from 1932. Illiterates were still banned until 1988.|
|1945||1945||1945||1945||Bulgaria||Universal suffrage including women and men serving in the Army was instituted by the government of the Fatherland front.|
|1990||1990||1990||1990||Burma/Myanmar||Last free elections held in 1990. New elections held in 2015, which elected 75% of legislators, while 25% remain appointed by the military.|
|1960||1920||1920||1960||Canada||In 1920, Canada enacted suffrage for federal elections for male and female citizens, with exceptions for Chinese Canadians and Aboriginal Canadians; for provincial elections, female suffrage was established between 1916 (Manitoba, Alberta, Saskatchewan) and 1940 (Quebec). Chinese Canadians, regardless of gender, were given suffrage in 1947, while Aboriginal Canadians were not allowed to vote until 1960, regardless of gender. Newfoundland which joined Canada in 1949 had universal male suffrage in 1925.|
|1970||1970||1970||1970||Chile||From 1888 suffrage for men of any race over 21 who can read. From 1925 full suffrage for men aged 21 and above and able to read and write. 1934 women get to vote on Municipal Elections. From 1949 universal suffrage for men and women aged 21 and above and able to read and write. From 1970 suffrage for men and women aged 18 and older whether or not they can read.|
|1954||1853-1886, 1936||1954||1853-1886, 1936||Colombia||Universal male suffrage starting in 1853, restricted in 1886. Electorate defined on the basis of adult franchise and joint electorate.|
|1918||1896||1918||1896||First Czechoslovak Republic||Within Austria, universal suffrage 1896, universal and equal suffrage (removing multiple voting) 1907. After the Central Powers' defeat in World War I, universal suffrage including women.|
|1915||1849||1915||1849||Denmark||The King granted limited voting rights in 1834 but only to property owners and with limited power. First proper voting rights came in 1849 to "men over 30 of good reputation" but in the subsequent years the rules were changed a number of times, and it was not until the change of the constitution in 1915 that all men and women living within the kingdom had influence on all chambers. Danish law does not operate with any notion of "ethnicity,". Non-resident citizens are still excluded from voting after two years abroad.|
|1918||1917||1918||1917||Estonia||Two tiered elections were held, with 62 representatives from rural communities and towns elected in May-June and July-August, respectively.|
|1979||1979||1979||1979||European Union||Elections to the European Parliament have taken place since 1979.|
|1945||1792-1795, 1848||1944||1916||France||In 1792, the Convention assembly was elected by all males 25 and over. Over the subsequent years, France experienced profound political upheaval, with republican, monarchist and bonapartist government governing at various times. Through these changes, suffrage increased and decreased based on the introduction, repeal and reintroduction of various degrees of universal, property and census-based suffrage. Universal male suffrage was given in 1848, with the exception of the military who obtained the right to vote in 1945. This was supplemented in 1944 by full universal suffrage, including women as voters.|
|1906||1906||1906||1906||Finland||As an autonomous Grand Principality in the Russian Empire, Finland achieved universal suffrage in 1906, becoming the second country in the world to adopt universal suffrage. The Finnish parliamentary election of 1907 was the first time when women were elected (19 of 200 MPs). After becoming independent in 1917, Finland continued its universal suffrage.|
|1919||1867/1871||1919||1919||Germany||The German Empire from 1871 until 1918 (and the North German Confederation before it from 1867) had universal male suffrage, one of the more progressive election franchises at the time. After the German Revolution of 1918-19, the Weimar Constitution established universal suffrage in 1919 with a minimum voting age of 20.|
|?||1919||?||?||Georgia||Became part of the Soviet Union in 1921.|
|1951||1951||1951||1951||Ghana||Universal suffrage granted for the 1951 legislative election. This was the first election to be held in Africa under universal suffrage.|
|1952||1864||1952||1864||Greece||After the deposition of King Otto of Greece in 1862, the Greek Constitution of 1864 introduced universal male suffrage with secret ballot. Women were given the right to vote in local elections in 1930 and in parliamentary elections since 1952.|
|1991||1991||1991||1991||Hong Kong||Held its first legislative elections in 1991, elected part of the legislators. Until now Hong Kong still only can elect half of the legislators. All registered voters can eligible to vote.|
|1918||1918||1918||1918||Hungary||After the Central Powers' defeat in World War I.|
|1950||1950||1950||1950||India||All adult citizens as recognized by the Constitution of India, irrespective of race or gender or religion on the founding of the Republic of India.|
|1963||1906||1963||1906||Iran||Under "Constitutional Revolution". The White Revolution gave women the right to vote in 1963.|
|1923||1918||1923||1829||Ireland||When Ireland was a part of the United Kingdom, the removal of a voting ban based on religion occurred in 1793 and 1829. Then known as the Irish Free State, the country changed previous British law to enfranchise women equally with men in 1923.|
|1948||1948||1948||1948||Israel||Universal suffrage since the founding of the State of Israel.|
|1945||1912||1945||1912||Italy||1912, introduction of the first universal male suffrage, extended to all citizens aged 30 and older, with no restrictions. It was applied in the elections of 1913. In 1918 the electorate was expanded with all male citizens aged 21 and older or who had served in the army. Universal adult suffrage, including women, introduced in 1945, and applied for the first time in the referendum of 1946. Suffrage for men and women aged 18 granted in 1975.|
|1944||1944||1944||1944||Jamaica||Universal adult suffrage introduced.|
|1947||1925||1947||1925||Japan||Universal adult male suffrage for those over 25 was introduced in 1925. Universal adult suffrage for both sexes over 20 introduced in 1946, ratified by the new Constitution which adopted on May 3, 1947.|
|2005||1962||2005||1962||Kuwait||Universal adult male suffrage since 1962, for citizens who are 21 or older, with the exception of those who, at the time of elections, serve in the armed forces. As of 2005, women who satisfy the age and citizenship requirements are allowed to vote.|
|1919||1919||1919||1919||Latvia||Universal suffrage introduced in Law of elections to the Constituent assembly.|
|1943||1943||1943||1943||Lebanon||Universal suffrage for all adult males and females since the independence of Lebanon (The Chamber of Deputies is shared equally between Christians and Muslims, rather than elected by universal suffrage that would have provided a Muslim majority).|
|1947||1947||1947||1947||Malta||The 1947 election was the first election without property qualifications for voters, and women were also allowed to vote for the first time.|
|1953||1917||1953||1917||Mexico||Universal suffrage given to men in 1917 after the Mexican Revolution; suffrage given to women in municipal elections in 1947 and national elections in 1953. In 1996, Mexicans living in the United States were given the right to vote in Mexican elections.|
|1919||1917||1919||1917||Netherlands||From 1917 full suffrage for men aged 23 and above. From 1919 universal suffrage for men and women aged 23. From 1971 suffrage for men and women aged 18 and older.|
|1893||1879||1893||1879||New Zealand||With the extension of voting rights to women in 1893, the self-governing British colony became one of the first permanently constituted jurisdictions in the world to grant universal adult suffrage, suffrage previously having been universal for M?ori men over 21 from 1867, and for white men from 1879. Plural voting (impacting men) was abolished in 1889.|
|1913||1898||1913||1821||Norway||Full male suffrage in 1898, with women included in 1913. Sami men were granted suffrage in a revision of the constitution in 1821.|
|1979||1979||1979||1979||Peru||Suffrage was granted for women in 1955 but suffrage for the illiterate was only granted with the 1979 Constitution.|
|1946||1935||1937||1946||Philippines||Males who were over 25 years old and could speak English or Spanish, with property and tax restrictions, were previously allowed to vote as early as 1907; universal male suffrage became a constitutional right in 1935. Women's suffrage was approved in a plebiscite in 1937.|
|1918||1918||1918||1918||Poland||Prior to the Partition of Poland in 1795, only nobility (men) were allowed to take part in political life. The first parliamentary elections were held on 26 January 1919 (Polish legislative election, 1919), according to the decree introducing universal suffrage, signed by Jozef Pilsudski on 28 November 1918, immediately after restoring independent Polish state. Universal suffrage for men and women over 21.|
|1974||1974||1974||1974||Portugal||By 1878, 72% of the male adult population had access to vote; this number was restricted by the policies of the last years of the monarchy and first years of the republic (transition in 1910 with the 5 October 1910 revolution), being reinstalled only in the 1920s. Restricted female suffrage was firstly allowed in 1931; it was further extended in 1933, 1946, and finally 1968. Due to the 1933-74 dictatorship of Estado Novo, universal suffrage was only fully attained after the 1974 Carnation revolution.|
|?||2013||?||?||Qatar||Municipal elections since 1999.|
|1917||1917||1917||1917||Russia||Universal suffrage established by Declaration of the Provisional Government of 15 March 1917 and Statue on Elections of the Constituent Assembly of 2 August 1917.|
|1994||1910||1931||1994||South Africa||White women's suffrage granted in 1930 and suffrage for all white adults regardless of property in 1931. Universal suffrage not regarding race or colour of skin; Blacks and Coloureds were denied the right to vote before and during the apartheid era (1948-1994).|
|1945||1888||1945||1888||Serbia||Suffrage for male voters who paid taxes was granted in the Constitution of 1869, and in the Constitution of 1888 the right to vote was given to all males of age 21. Women were allowed to vote with the Communist constitution of Yugoslavia.|
|1948||1948||1948||1948||South Korea||Universal suffrage since the founding of the Republic of Korea. However, voting was initially limited to landowners and taxpayers in the larger towns, elders voting for everyone at the village level.|
|1977||1869-1923, 1931-36, 1977||1933-39, 1977||1869-1923, 1931-36, 1977||Spain||Suffrage for men practiced from 1869 to 1923 and in the Second Spanish Republic (1931-36). On November 19, 1933 women were granted the right to vote. Revoked during Franco era (1939-75) and recovered since 1977 in the new Spanish Constitution.|
|1931||1931||1931||1931||Sri Lanka||Universal suffrage for all irrespective of race, ethnicity, language, or gender. Sri Lanka is the oldest democracy in Asia.|
|1945||1909||1919||1873||Sweden||During the years 1718-72 burgher men and women of age and with income were able to elect members of parliament, but women's suffrage was abolished in 1772. Jews were given the right to vote in 1838, but not given the right to stand for election until 1870. Catholics were given the right to vote in 1873, but not given the right to be eligible as cabinet minister until 1951. Full[Incorrect - discuss] male suffrage 1909 for those aged 25 and above, but only to one of two equally weighed houses of parliament. Universal suffrage for men and women aged 23 enacted in 1919, and the first election took place in 1921. Until 1924 men who refused to do military service were excepted from universal suffrage. Until 1937 courts were able to punish crimes by revoking a convict's right to vote. Until 1945 persons living on benefits were excepted from universal suffrage. Voting age changed to 21 in 1945, to 20 in 1965, to 19 in 1969 and to 18 in 1975.|
|1990||1848||1971 or 1990||1848||Switzerland||At the formation of the federal state and with the Constitution of 1848, Switzerland became the first modern state to introduce universal male suffrage; this has continued unbroken since its adoption. Women's suffrage was introduced, by (male) referendum, for federal elections in 1971, but for cantonal elections, the last canton to introduce women's suffrage (Appenzell Innerrhoden) had to do so by supreme court order in 1990.|
|1996||1947||1947||1996||Taiwan||Universal suffrage under the Constitution of the Republic of China. First National Assembly elections held in 1991, first legislative elections held in 1992. First presidential direct elections held in 1996.|
|1933||1933||1933||1933||Thailand||Universal suffrage for all since the first general election in 1933.|
|1959||?||?||?||Tunisia||Universal suffrage for all since the first post-independence constitution.|
|1928||1918||1928||1829||United Kingdom||In the United Kingdom the removal of voting rights based on religion occurred with the Roman Catholic Relief Act 1791 and Roman Catholic Relief Act 1829. The right to vote has never since been based on race or religion.[nb 1] All adult men were enfranchised by the Representation of the People Act 1918. This Act granted some women the right to vote in national elections,[nb 2] but about 60% of women (those under 30 or not meeting property qualifications) were excluded until the Equal Franchise Act 1928, when women were granted the vote on the same terms as men. The Representation of the People Act 1948 removed plural voting rights held by about 7% of the electorate.[nb 3] The Representation of the People Act 1969 reduced the voting age from 21 to 18.|
|1948||1948||1948||1948||United Nations||Provision of "universal and equal suffrage" in Universal Declaration of Human Rights [Article 21(3)]|
|2015||?||?||?||Dominican Republic||Jorge Radhamés Zorrilla Ozuna proposed the inclusion of the military vote in the constitutional reform of Dominican Republic, to be effective in the elections of 2016.|
|1965[nb 4]||1965[nb 5]||1965[nb 6]||1965[nb 7]||United States||In the colonial era, there had been various restrictions on suffrage in what is today the United States. Property restrictions on voting disenfranchised more than half of the white male population in most states.
After the American Revolution, the Constitution did not originally define who was eligible to vote, allowing each state to determine who was eligible. In the early history of the U.S., most states allowed only white male adult property owners to vote (about 6% of the population). Over subsequent decades, voting rights expanded to include more of the population. Vermont, Pennsylvania, and Kentucky were the three states to have full adult suffrage for white males before 1800. New Jersey allowed women's suffrage for landowners until the early 1800s.
In the 1820 election, there were 108,359 ballots cast. In the 1840 election, 2,412,694 ballots were cast, an increase that far outstripped natural population growth. Poor voters became a huge part of the electorate. There were few nations in the world that had a similar level of suffrage for white males at this time. By 1856, after the period of Jacksonian democracy, all states had almost universal white adult male suffrage regardless of property ownership, although tax-paying requirements remained in five states, and two into the 20th century.
In 1868, the 14th Amendment altered the way each state is represented in the House of Representatives. It counted all residents for apportionment including former slaves, overriding the three-fifths compromise, and reduced a state's apportionment if it wrongfully denied men aged 21 and above the right to vote. However, this was not enforced in practice. In 1870, the 15th Amendment granted suffrage to all males of any race, skin color, and ethnicity, including former slaves (freedmen), meaning that male African Americans in theory had the right to vote throughout the United States.
Starting in 1888, former Confederate states passed Jim Crow laws and amendments to effectively disfranchise black and poor white voters through poll taxes, literacy tests, grandfather clauses and other restrictions, applied in a discriminatory manner. During this period, the Supreme Court generally upheld state efforts to discriminate against racial minorities; only later in the 20th century were these laws ruled unconstitutional. Black males in the Northern states could vote, but the majority of African Americans lived in the South.
Wyoming was the first territory to enfranchise all women in 1869. From then until 1916, all Western states legalized women suffrage, but few Eastern states followed suit. However, in 1920 the 19th Amendment extended the franchise to women in all states. In 1924 the Indian Citizenship Act gave suffrage to all Native Americans, nearly two-thirds of whom already had citizenship and the right to vote.
In 1964, the 24th Amendment, which abolished the use of poll taxes as a requirement for voting in federal elections, was passed. Full enfranchisement was revived in 1965, with the passage of the Voting Rights Act of 1965, which provided for federal enforcement of rights. For state elections, it was not until the U.S. Supreme Court ruled 6-3 in Harper v. Virginia Board of Elections (1966) that all state poll taxes were unconstitutional as violating the Equal Protection Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment. This removed a burden on the poor.
In 1971, the 26th Amendment ratified, which granted suffrage for men and women aged 18.
|1918||?||?||?||Uruguay||With the 1918 Uruguayan Constitution.|
|1987||?||1978||1987||Zimbabwe||Universal suffrage was introduced in the 1978 Internal Settlement between Ian Smith and Abel Muzorewa. The 1979 Lancaster House constitution agreed to accommodate the nationalists and also affirmed universal suffrage but with a special role for whites. Universal suffrage with no special consideration for race came in 1987. Before 1978, Rhodesia (the name for the region that would become Zimbabwe in 1980) had a merit qualification in order to vote. This was controversial because it excluded the vast majority of native Africans.|
Women's suffrage (with the same property qualifications as for men) was granted in New Jersey in 1776 (the word "inhabitants" was used instead of "men" in the 1776 Constitution) and rescinded in 1807.
The Pitcairn Islands granted restricted women's suffrage in 1838. Various other countries and states granted restricted women's suffrage in the later half of the nineteenth century, starting with South Australia in 1861.
The first unrestricted women's suffrage in a major country was granted in New Zealand in 1893. The women's suffrage bill was adopted mere weeks before the general election of 1893. M?ori men had been granted suffrage in 1867, white men in 1879. The Freedom in the World index lists New Zealand as the only free country in the world in 1893.
South Australia first granted women suffrage and allowed them to stand for parliament in 1894.
The autonomous Grand Principality of Finland, a decade before becoming the republic of Finland, was the first country in the world to implement full universal suffrage, by giving women full political rights, i.e. both the right to vote and to run for office, and was the second in the world and the first in Europe to give women the right to vote. The world's first female members of parliament were elected in Finland the following year.
During a discussion on extending women's right to active suffrage, the Radical Socialist Victoria Kent confronted the Radical Clara Campoamor. Kent argued that Spanish women were not yet prepared to vote and, since they were too influenced by the Catholic Church, they would vote for right-wing candidates. Campoamor however pleaded for women's rights regardless of political orientation. Her point finally prevailed and, in the election of 1933, the political right won with the vote of citizens of any sex over 23. Both Campoamor and Kent lost their seats.
Democratic schools practice and support universal suffrage in school, which allows a vote to every member of the school, including students and staff. Such schools hold that this feature is essential for students to be ready to move into society at large.
danish-expat-votewas invoked but never defined (see the help page).
By 1840, only three states retained a property qualification, North Carolina (for some state-wide offices only), Rhode Island, and Virginia. In 1856 North Carolina was the last state to end the practice. Tax-paying qualifications were also gone in all but a few states by the Civil War, but they survived into the 20th century in Pennsylvania and Rhode Island.
eduskunta.fiwas invoked but never defined (see the help page).
web.archive.orgwas invoked but never defined (see the help page).