University of Wales, Bangor
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University of Wales, Bangor

Bangor University
Welsh: Prifysgol Bangor
Bangor University logo.jpg
Former names
University College of North Wales (1884-1996)
University of Wales, Bangor (1996-2007)
MottoWelsh: Gorau Dawn Deall
Motto in English
"The Best Gift is Knowledge"
TypePublic
Established1884
PresidentDafydd Elis-Thomas
John G Hughes
Administrative staff
2000
Students11,270 (2016/17)[1]
Undergraduates8,615 (2016/17)[1]
Postgraduates2,650 (2016/17)[1]
Location, ,
53°13?44?N 4°07?48?W / 53.2289°N 4.1301°W / 53.2289; -4.1301Coordinates: 53°13?44?N 4°07?48?W / 53.2289°N 4.1301°W / 53.2289; -4.1301
CampusBangor
Colours
NicknameWelsh: Y Coleg ar y Bryn ("The College on the Hill")
AffiliationsEUA
Universities UK
University of Wales
ACU
HEA
EIBFS
Websitebangor.ac.uk

Bangor University (Welsh: Prifysgol Bangor) is a university in Bangor, Gwynedd, Wales. It received its Royal Charter in 1885 and was one of the founding institutions of the federal University of Wales. Officially known as University College of North Wales (UCNW), and later University of Wales, Bangor (UWB) (Welsh: Prifysgol Cymru, Bangor), in 2007 it became Bangor University, independent from the University of Wales.

History

The pre 1926 site of the University College of Wales Bangor

The university was founded as the University College of North Wales (UCNW) on 18 October 1884, with an inaugural address by the Earl of Powis, the College's first President, in Penrhyn Hall.[2] There was then a procession to the college including 3,000 quarrymen (quarrymen from Penrhyn Quarry and other quarries had subscribed more than 1,200 pounds to the university).[3] The foundation was the result of a campaign for better provision of higher education in Wales that had involved some rivalry among towns in North Wales over which was to be the location of the new college.

The college was incorporated by Royal Charter in 1885.[2] Its students received degrees from the University of London until 1893, when UCNW became a founding constituent institution of the federal University of Wales.

During the Second World War paintings from national art galleries were stored in the Prichard-Jones Hall at UCNW to protect them from enemy bombing. They were later moved to slate mines at Blaenau Ffestiniog.[2] Students from University College, London, were evacuated to continue their studies in a safer environment at Bangor.[2]

Post-war

During the 1960s the university shared in the general expansion of higher education in the UK following the Robbins Report, with a number of new departments and new buildings.[2] On 22 November 1965, during construction of an extension to the Department of Electronic Engineering in Dean Street, a crane collapsed on the building. The three-ton counterweight hit the second-floor lecture theatre in the original building about thirty minutes before it would have been occupied by about 80 first-year students. The counterweight went through to the ground floor.[4]

In 1967 the Bangor Normal College, now part of the university, was the venue for lectures on Transcendental Meditation by the Maharishi Mahesh Yogi at which The Beatles heard of the death of their manager, Brian Epstein.[5]

Student protests at UCNW in the 1970s focused mainly on calls to expand the role of the Welsh language.[2] Around this time consideration began of mergers with two colleges of education in Bangor: St Mary's College, a college for women studying to become schoolteachers, and the larger and older Normal College/Coleg Normal. The merger of St Mary's into UCNW was concluded in 1977, but the merger with Coleg Normal fell through in the 1970s and was not completed until 1996.

Name change

The change of name to Bangor University, or Prifysgol Bangor in Welsh, was instigated by the university following the decision of the University of Wales to change from a federal university to a confederal non-membership organisation, and the granting of degree-awarding powers to Bangor University itself. As a result, every student starting after 2009 gained a degree from Bangor University, while any student who started before 2009 had the option to have either Bangor University or University of Wales Bangor on their degree certificate.[6]

Main Arts and other Bangor University buildings from Bangor Mountain

Recent developments

Under John Hughes' leadership as Vice-Chancellor, there have been a number of new developments including the opening of the new St Mary's Student Village,[7] and the first ever collaboration between Wales and China to establish a new College, which involved Bangor University and the Central South University of Forestry and Technology (CSUFT).[8]

In 2014, Hughes attracted £45m of financing from the European Investment Bank,[9][10] to assist the university in developing its estates strategy.

In 2016, the university opened Marine Centre Wales,[11] a £5.5m building on the site of the University's Ocean Sciences campus in Menai Bridge, which was financed as part of the £25 million SEACAMS project, part funded through the European Regional Development Fund (ERDF).[12]

Criticisms

During this period the University has also encountered a number of challenges and criticisms. In May 2017 Bangor became the fourth Welsh university to review its cost base with a view to making savings of £8.5m.[13] The university responded and introduced a number of cost saving measures including the introduction of a voluntary severance scheme, and the numbers of jobs at risk was reduced from the initial estimate of 170, to 115, and then to 60.[14] This number is expected to reduce substantially again by mid-2018 and the University has stated that it is committed to do everything it can to avoid compulsory redundancies.[14] In addressing its financial challenges, Bangor University also reorganised some subject areas in 2017, which involved introducing new ways of co-ordinating and delivering adult education and part-time degree programmes,[15] continuing to teach archaeology, but discontinuing the single honours course,[16] and working with Grwp Llandrillo Menai to validate the BA Fine Art degree.[17][18][19][20][21][22][23][24]

Other issues which attracted adverse media comment included the delayed opening of the Pontio Arts and Innovation Centre in 2016,[25][26][27][28][29][27][30][31][32][33] the appointment of Hughes' wife to a newly created senior management position,[34] the purchase and refurbishment of a house by the university (costing the institution £750,000),[35][36][37][38][39] the expenses of some senior staff,[40][29][41][42] and the discrepancy between senior management salaries and remuneration for staff working on zero hour contracts.[43][44]

From Hughes' takeover in 2010, when Bangor University made £4.2m surplus, to 2016, the university's nominal income had risen by 12 percent, but their expenditures by 19 percent.[45] In 2016, Hughes received a 7.5% pay rise and the University confirmed that this was the first increase that the vice-chancellor had received from the university's remuneration committee since his appointment in 2010, although he would still have received an annual pay rise.[46]

Campus and buildings

The university occupies a substantial proportion of Bangor and also has part of its School of Healthcare Sciences in Wrexham.

Arts Building

The quadrangle in the main college building on College Road

The university was originally based in an old coaching inn, the Penrhyn Arms Hotel, which housed its 58 students and its 12 teaching staff. In 1911 it moved to a much larger new building, which is now the old part of the Main Arts Building. This building, designed by Henry Hare, had its foundation stone laid by King Edward VII on 9 July 1907, and was formally opened by King George V in 1911. The iconic building, which occupies a highly visible position overlooking Bangor, gave the college its Welsh nickname Y Coleg ar y Bryn ("The College on the Hill"). It included the large Prichard-Jones Hall, named after Sir John Prichard-Jones a local man who became a partner in the London department store Dickins & Jones, and was a substantial benefactor of the building.[2] The building became a Grade I listed building in 1949.[47]

A modern extension, completing a quadrangle on the College Road side of the building, was completed in 1969. This is now known as the Main Arts Building.

Halls of residence

The redbrick University Hall, built in a Queen Anne style, was the first substantial block. It was opened in 1897.[48] This building was to become the Welsh language hall Neuadd John Morris-Jones in 1974, taking its name in honour of Professor John Morris Jones.[2] It is now called Neuadd Rathbone.

Neuadd Reichel, built on the Ffriddoedd Farm site, was designed in a neo-Georgian style by the architect Percy Thomas and was opened in 1942 as a hostel for male students.[2][48]

Expansion in the 1960s led to the development of Plas Gwyn in 1963-64 and Neuadd Emrys Evans in 1965, both on the Ffriddoedd site, and Neuadd Rathbone at the top of Love Lane in 1965.[2] Neuadd Rathbone, designed by Colwyn Foulkes and named after the second President of the college, was originally for women students only.[48] The names of Neuadd Rathbone and Neuadd John Morris-Jones were later exchanged. The building originally opened as Neuadd Rathbone is now known as Neuadd Garth.

Accommodation is guaranteed for all first-year undergraduate students at Bangor. There are around 3,000 rooms available in halls of residence, and all the accommodation is within walking distance of the university. There are three residential sites in current use; Ffriddoedd Village, St Mary's Village and Neuadd Garth.

Ffriddoedd Village

Ffriddoedd Halls of Residence village with Bryn Dinas Hall in the background

The largest accommodation site is the Friddoedd Village in Upper Bangor, about ten minutes' walk from Top College, the Science Site and the city centre. This site has eleven en-suite halls completed in 2009, six other en-suite halls built in the 1990s and Neuadd Reichel built in the 1940s, and renovated in 2011.

Two of the en-suite halls, Bryn Dinas and Tegfan, now incorporate the new Neuadd John Morris-Jones, which started its life in 1974 on College Road and has, along with its equivalent Neuadd Pantycelyn in Aberystwyth, became a focal point of Welsh language activities at the university. It is an integral part of UMCB, the Welsh Students' Union, which in turn is part of the main Students' Union.

The halls on "Ffridd" ("Ffridd" [fri:ð] is the Welsh word for mountain pasture or sheep path; "ffriddoedd" ['fr?ð?ið] is its plural form) include Cefn y Coed, Y Glyder, Y Borth, Elidir, J.M.J. Bryn Dinas and J.M.J. Tegfan, all of which were built in the early 1990s; Adda, Alaw, Braint, Crafnant, Enlli, Peris, Glaslyn, Llanddwyn, Ffraw, Idwal and Gwynant, which were all built in the late 2000s; and Neuadd Reichel which was built in the 1940s and renovated in 2011.

St Mary's Village

Bryn Eithin overlooks the centre of Bangor and is close to the Science Departments and the Schools of Computer Science and Electronic Engineering. Demolition of the former St Mary's Site halls, with the exception of the 1902 buildings and the Quadrangle, began in 2014 to make way for new halls which were completed in 2015. The halls on this site are Cybi, Penmon, and Cemlyn which are all self-catered flats, Tudno which is a townhouse complex, and the original St. Mary's building, with studios and flats.[49]

In Welsh "Bryn" means "hill" and "Eithin" means "gorse".

College Road

College Road has one hall, Neuadd Garth (formerly Neuadd John Morris Jones, before that Neuadd Rathbone), which is a self-catering hall. The site is located close to the Main Arts building in Upper Bangor. Neuadd Garth, after undergoing refurbishment in 2012-13, is now home to postgraduate students.

Neuadd Rathbone (formerly Neuadd John Morris Jones, before that University Hall), which is located on the site, was previously a hall of residence.


Private halls

A private hall of residence called Ty Willis House (formerly known as Neuadd Willis) is operated by iQ Student Accommodation; which incorporates the old listed British Hotel with a new extension to the rear, and a further hall on the site of the old Plaza Cinema. Other privately owned halls of residence in Bangor include Neuadd Kyffin, Neuadd Y Castell, Neuadd Llys Y Deon and Neuadd Ty Ni.

Students union

The Former Students' Union Building from Deiniol Road

Undeb Bangor is Bangor University's Students' Union and was relocated to the brand new Arts and Innovation centre, Pontio, in 2016. Pontio includes a theatre, a cinema, a studio theatre and social facilities including the Undeb on the 4th floor.

The former Students' Union building was situated on Deiniol Road at one end of College Park below the Main Arts building. The Refectory and Curved Lounge were built in 1963[50] and the main administrative building was added in 1969. The building was known as Steve Biko House from the 1970s to the early 1990s,[2][51] after Steve Biko. The buildings were renovated in 1997 to create an 1,100-capacity nightclub, Amser/Time, where the previous refectory space was. Demolition of the Union buildings and Theatr Gwynedd began in July 2010.[52]

When the original Students' Union building was demolished, the Students' Union was relocated to Oswalds on Victoria Drive, before moving back to its original location on Deiniol Road in 2016.

Organisation

Bangor University, School of Electronic Engineering and Computer Science

The University is divided into five Colleges and these are then broken down into Schools and Research Institutes. Bangor's Colleges, and their constituent Schools and Research Institutes, are:

College of Arts and Humanities
  • School of Creative Studies and Media
  • School of Education
  • School of English
  • School of History, Philosophy and Social Sciences
  • School of Lifelong Learning
  • School of Linguistics and English Language
  • School of Modern Languages
  • School of Music and Media
  • School of Welsh
  • ESRC Centre for Research on Bilingualism
College of Business, Law, Education and Social Sciences
  • Bangor Business School
  • School of Education
  • School of Law
College of Natural Sciences
  • School of Biological Sciences (includes Treborth Botanic Garden)
  • School of the Environment, Natural Resources and Geography
  • School of Ocean Sciences
  • Welsh Institute of Natural Resources
College of Health and Behavioural Sciences
College of Physical and Applied Sciences
  • School of Chemistry
  • School of Computer Science
  • School of Electronic Engineering

Academic profile

Research

The university's research expertise in the areas of materials science and predictive modelling was enhanced during 2017 through a collaboration with Imperial College London and the formation of the Nuclear Futures Institute at Bangor with the award of £6.5m in funding under the Welsh Government's Ser Cymru programme.[53]

The university-owned £20m Science Park on Anglesey, M-Sparc was completed in March 2018, which will support the development of the region's low carbon energy sector.[54][55][56][57][58][59]

Rankings

Rankings
Global rankings
ARWU (2018)[60]501-600
CWTS Leiden (2018)[61]252
QS (2019)[62]
435=
THE (2019)[63]401-500
National rankings
Complete (2019)[64]62
Guardian (2019)[65]63
Times / Sunday Times (2019)[66]63=
British Government assessment
Teaching Excellence Framework[67]Gold

The 2014 Research Excellence Framework recognised that more than three-quarters of Bangor's research is either world-leading or internationally excellent. Based on the University submission of 14 Units of Assessment, 77% of the research was rated in the top two tiers of research quality, ahead of the average for all UK universities.[68]

In 2017, Bangor University became the only University in Wales to be rated 'Gold' by the new Teaching Excellence Framework (TEF) which means that the university is deemed to be of the highest quality found in the UK, providing "consistently outstanding teaching, learning and outcomes for its students." [69][70]

In recent years, Bangor has been rated highly by its students in two independent surveys of student opinion. In the National Student Survey, the university has been consistently ranked highly both within Wales and in the UK higher education sector.[71] In 2017, Bangor University's students placed the University eighth among the UK's non-specialist universities and second among Welsh Universities.[72][third-party source needed]

For the second year in a row Bangor was awarded Best University in the UK for Clubs and Societies at the 2018 WhatUni Student Choice Awards. It also regained the award for best Student Accommodation which they originally won in 2016. The university was also placed second overall for 'Courses and Lecturers' and retained third place in the category 'University of the Year'. WhatUni award nominations are based on the reviews and opinions of the University's own students. This is the fourth year in a row that Bangor University has won a national WhatUni Award.[73][74][third-party source needed]

Student life

Students' Union

The Students' Union provides services, support, activities and entertainment for students. All Bangor University students automatically become members of the Students' Union unless they choose to opt out. As with most if not all Students' Unions, a yearly election takes place in which a number of sabbatical officers are elected. These sabbatical officers are held accountable for the actions and decisions of the union, and often work closely with members of the Student Representative Council and other boards.

In January 2016 Bangor Students' Union moved into the new Pontio Arts and Innovation Centre, Deiniol Road, Bangor. The New Student Centre provides students with free Sports and Societies, as well as the chance to become a Course Rep.

Volunteering

The Students' Union offers more than 600 volunteering opportunities in 35 community-based projects, contributing a total of 600 hours to volunteering each week.

There is a long tradition of student volunteering in Bangor. The oldest records available detail the organisation of a tea party for local elderly residents in 1952. The Tea Party project continues to run to this day and is SVB's oldest project.

In October 2012 Student Volunteering Bangor was awarded the Queen's Award for Voluntary Service.

Bangor RAG (Raising and Giving) is a Student Volunteering Bangor project. The committee is made up of two coordinators and a number of committee members, plus several hundred "raggies". RAG collects money for two local and two national charities, which change every academic year and are chosen by the students. RAG members also regularly attend "raids" across the country and assist charities with one-off events throughout the year. Their mascot is a tiger named Rhodri RAG. In 1968, raggies surepticiously carved a panda (then the RAG mascot) and the letters 'UCNW' into a chalk hillside in Wiltshire, causing considerable puzzlement in England.

Clubs and societies

There are more than 90 societies and over 50 sports clubs, ranging from academic societies to almost every sport imaginable. Notable sports include football (Bangor University F.C.), rowing (Bangor University Rowing Club) and fencing (Bangor University Fencing Club).

Student radio

Storm FM is the official student radio station for Bangor University and is one of only three student radio stations in the UK with a long-term FM licence. The station is broadcast on 87.7FM from a low-powered FM transmitter based on the Ffriddoedd Site. The FM licence allows for broadcast to a very small area of Bangor, namely the Ffriddoed Road Halls of Residence. Storm FM went online in 2009.[75]

Notable people associated with Bangor

Presidents

Vice Chancellors

The University has had seven Principals/Vice-Chancellors:

Notable academics

Notable alumni

Fictional alumni

See also

References

  1. ^ a b c "2016/17 Students by HE provider, level, mode and domicile" (CSV). Higher Education Statistics Agency. Retrieved 2018.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m David Roberts (2009) Bangor University 1884-2009, University of Wales Press ISBN 978-0-7083-2226-0
  3. ^ The Times, Monday, 20 October 1884; pg. 7; Issue 31269; col F
  4. ^ The Guardian, 23 November 1965, p. 6.
  5. ^ "Higher Browsing: The Third Degree". The Guardian. 27 August 2002.
  6. ^ University, Bangor. "Welcome - Student Administration - Bangor University". www.bangor.ac.uk.
  7. ^ University, Bangor. "St Mary's Village | Bangor University Accommodation". www.bangor.ac.uk. Retrieved .
  8. ^ University, Bangor. "Partners sign agreement for first Wales-China College collaboration - News and Events, Bangor University". www.bangor.ac.uk. Retrieved .
  9. ^ Barry, Sion (2 April 2014). "Bangor University lands a £45m funding boost from the European Investment Bank".
  10. ^ "University upgrade wins £45m funding". 2 April 2014 – via www.bbc.com.
  11. ^ Roberts, Joanne (2016-07-13). "Prince Charles opens Bangor University's Marine Centre Wales". northwales. Retrieved .
  12. ^ University, Bangor. "HRH The Prince of Wales opens Marine Centre Wales at Bangor University - News and Events, Bangor University". www.bangor.ac.uk. Retrieved .
  13. ^ Wightwick, Abbie (2017-05-14). "Bangor Uni is reviewing spending which could lead to job losses". walesonline. Retrieved .
  14. ^ a b Hughes, Owen (2017-10-21). "Bangor University cuts the number of jobs under threat in restructure plans". northwales. Retrieved .
  15. ^ University, Bangor. "Part-time courses at Bangor University". www.bangor.ac.uk. Retrieved .
  16. ^ University, Bangor. "BA (Hons) History and Archaeology degree course". www.bangor.ac.uk. Retrieved .
  17. ^ Menai, Grwp Llandrillo. "BA (Hons) Fine Art - Grwp Llandrillo Menai". Grwp Llandrillo Menai - Coleg Llandrillo, Menai and Meirion-Dwyfor. Retrieved .
  18. ^ Brennan, Shane (10 December 2016). "Bangor University plans to axe night classes for adults".
  19. ^ "Bangor University: threat to Archaeology, Fine Art, and Lifelong Learning". 10 January 2017.
  20. ^ "Anger at "Ludicrous" Decision To Cut Archaeology BA At Bangor University Without Consultation - thePipeLine". thepipeline.info.
  21. ^ "Calls for fine arts course to continue". 14 October 2018 – via www.bbc.com.
  22. ^ "Arfon AM's concerns for future of Bangor University's School of Life Long Learning".
  23. ^ "University to leave Archaeology in the past". 11 December 2016.
  24. ^ "Call for Participation: Prevent Closure of MA Women's Studies at Bangor - FWSA Blog". fwsablog.org.uk.
  25. ^ Thomas, Huw (9 April 2015). "'Chaotic' £49m arts centre delays" – via www.bbc.com.
  26. ^ Crump, Eryl (3 November 2014). "Spiralling costs of Bangor University's Pontio centre could lead to job cuts".
  27. ^ a b "Arts centre delay cost university £1m". 14 October 2018 – via www.bbc.com.
  28. ^ "Uni warned over £49m centre delays". 3 November 2014 – via www.bbc.com.
  29. ^ a b "University boss ran up £45,000 bill including £10k trip to New York".
  30. ^ Crump, Eryl (14 January 2016). "'Monstrosity' or challenging work of art? Have your say on Pontio work of art".
  31. ^ Ratcliffe, Rebecca (22 September 2015). "Sleepless students pay the price for university construction boom". the Guardian.
  32. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 21 August 2016. Retrieved 2017.
  33. ^ Crump, Eryl (14 January 2016). "This cost more than £100k to built - can you tell what it is?".
  34. ^ Shipton, Martin (18 October 2010). "Union criticises job for university head's wife".
  35. ^ "College buys new head £475k house". BBC News. 2010-09-15. Retrieved .
  36. ^ Wyn-Williams, Gareth (27 May 2016). "Students' outrage at £250,000 makeover of uni boss's luxury pad".
  37. ^ "Uni pays for £168,000 home upgrade". 27 May 2016 – via www.bbc.com.
  38. ^ "Staff face axe at university where vice-chancellor got £260k home perk".
  39. ^ Bennett, Rosemary (7 August 2017). "University chief living in luxury as staff face the axe" – via www.thetimes.co.uk.
  40. ^ Evans, Gareth (17 March 2015). "Bangor University criticised over director's £50k expenses".
  41. ^ "Bangor University Director in expenses scandal". 20 March 2015.
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  44. ^ Evans, Gareth (9 April 2014). "Outrage as universities in Wales told: 'Justify six-figure vice-chancellor pay'".
  45. ^ University, Bangor. "Bangor University Annual Accounts - Finance Office - Bangor University". www.bangor.ac.uk.
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  47. ^ Bangor Civic Society. "Main Arts Building". Retrieved 2010.
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  51. ^ "'Seren' Published at Steve Biko House" (PDF). Seren. Archived from the original (PDF) on 8 October 2011. Retrieved 2009.
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  54. ^ "Parc gwyddoniaeth i agor ar 1 Mawrth". BBC Cymru Fyw. 2018-02-20. Retrieved .
  55. ^ "Place North West | GALLERY I M-SParc brings science space to Wales". Place North West. 2018-02-27. Retrieved .
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  65. ^ "University league tables 2019". The Guardian. 29 May 2018.
  66. ^ "The Times and Sunday Times University Good University Guide 2019". Times Newspapers.
  67. ^ "Teaching Excellence Framework outcomes". Higher Education Funding Council for England.
  68. ^ University, Bangor. "Research at Bangor University". www.bangor.ac.uk. Retrieved .
  69. ^ "One Welsh university rated 'gold'". BBC News. 2017-06-22. Retrieved .
  70. ^ Roberts, Joanne (2017-06-27). "Bangor University rated gold for teaching". northwales. Retrieved .
  71. ^ England, Higher Education Funding Council for. "National Student Survey results - Higher Education Funding Council for England". www.hefce.ac.uk. Retrieved .
  72. ^ University, Bangor. "Satisfied students place Bangor University among top UK universities - News and Events, Bangor University". www.bangor.ac.uk. Retrieved .
  73. ^ University, Bangor. "WhatUni Awards Success for Bangor University". www.bangor.ac.uk. Retrieved .
  74. ^ Roberts, Joanne (2018-04-24). "Bangor University rated best in UK for clubs and accommodation". northwales. Retrieved .
  75. ^ "Storm 87.7FM: Bangor's Student Sound". Stormfm.com. Retrieved 2013.
  76. ^ "Mauritius: Into the Vacuum". 15 June 1970 – via content.time.com.
  77. ^ "Police chief announces retirement". BBC News. 1 May 2009.
  78. ^ Harries-Rees, Karen (2006). "A man for change". Chemistry World. 3 (2): 42-44.
  79. ^ "The 2010 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine - Press Release". Nobelprize.org. 2010-10-04. Archived from the original on 5 October 2010. Retrieved 2010.
  80. ^ Howel Harris Hughes on the Dictionary of Welsh Biography
  81. ^ "Curriculum Vitae of Stefan Rahmstorf". www.pik-potsdam.de.

Further reading

  • Clarke, M. L. (1966) Architectural History & Guide (University College of North Wales, Bangor); Online (Bangor Civic Society)
  • Roberts, David (2009) Bangor University, 1884-2009. Cardiff: University of Wales Press ISBN 0-7083-2226-3
  • Williams, J. Gwynn (1985) The University College of North Wales - Foundations 1884-1927. Cardiff: University of Wales Press ISBN 0-7083-0893-7

External links


  This article uses material from the Wikipedia page available here. It is released under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0.

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