Verkhoyansk
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Verkhoyansk
Verkhoyansk
(Russian)
 (Yakut)
-  Town[1]  -
Town under district jurisdiction[1]
Werchojansk Kältepoldenkmal II.JPG
Pole of Cold in Verkhoyansk
Map of Russia - Sakha (Yakutia) Republic (2008-03).svg
Location of the Sakha (Yakutia) Republic in Russia
Verkhoyansk is located in Sakha Republic
Verkhoyansk
Verkhoyansk
Location of Verkhoyansk in the Sakha (Yakutia) Republic
Coat of Arms of Verkhoyansk (Yakutia) soviet.png
Coat of arms
Administrative status (as of June 2009)
Country Russia
Federal subject Sakha Republic[1]
Administrative district Verkhoyansky District[1]
Town Verkhoyansk[1]
Administrative center of Town of Verkhoyansk[1]
Municipal status (as of April 2012)
Municipal district Verkhoyansky Municipal District[2]
Urban settlement Verkhoyansk Urban Settlement[2]
Administrative center of Verkhoyansk Urban Settlement[2]
Statistics
Population (2010 Census) 1,311 inhabitants[3]
Time zone VLAT (UTC+10:00)[4]
Founded [5][1]
Town status since 1817[]
Postal code(s)[6] 678530
Dialing code(s) +7 41165[7]
Verkhoyansk on Wikimedia Commons
Verkhoyansk population
2010 Census 1,311[3]
2002 Census 1,434[8]
1989 Census 1,883[9]
1979 Census 1,709[10]

Verkhoyansk (Russian: , IPA: [vrx?'jansk]; Sakha: , Verkhoyanskay) is a town in Verkhoyansky District of the Sakha Republic, Russia, located on the Yana River near the Arctic Circle, 92 kilometers (57 mi) from Batagay, the administrative center of the district, and 675 kilometers (419 mi) north of Yakutsk, the capital of the republic. As of the 2010 Census, its population was 1,311.[3] The town holds the Guinness world record for the greatest temperature range on Earth: 105 °C (189 °F).[11]

History

Cossacks founded an ostrog in 1638,[5] 90 kilometers (56 mi) southwest of the modern town. The ostrog's name "Verkhoyansky", roughly translating from Russian as the town on the Upper Yana, derived from its geographical location on the upper reaches of the Yana River. In 1775, it was moved to the left bank of the Yana River to facilitate tax collection. It was granted town status in 1817.[] Between the 1860s and 1917, the town was a place of political exile, with some of the more prominent exiles including the Polish writer Wac?aw Sieroszewski, as well as Bolshevik revolutionaries Ivan Babushkin and Viktor Nogin.

Administrative and municipal status

As an inhabited locality, Verkhoyansk is classified as a town under district jurisdiction.[1] Within the framework of administrative divisions, it is incorporated within Verkhoyansky District as the Town of Verkhoyansk.[1] As a municipal division, the Town of Verkhoyansk is incorporated within Verkhoyansky Municipal District as Verkhoyansk Urban Settlement.[2]

Economy and infrastructure

There is a river port, an airport, a fur-collecting depot, and the center of a reindeer-raising area. It is also home to the Pole of Cold Museum.

Geography

Climate

Verkhoyansk is notable chiefly for its exceptionally low winter temperatures and some of the greatest temperature differences on Earth between summer and winter. Average monthly temperatures range from -45.4 °C (-49.7 °F) in January to +16.5 °C (61.7 °F) in July. Mean monthly temperatures are below freezing from October through April and exceed +10 °C (50 °F) from June through August, with the intervening months of May and September constituting very short transitional seasons. Verkhoyansk has an extreme subarctic climate (Köppen Dfd) dominated much of the year by high pressure. This has the effect of cutting off the region from warming influences in winter and together with a lack of cloud cover leads to extensive heat losses during the cooler months.

Verkhoyansk is one of the places considered the northern Pole of Cold, the other being Oymyakon, located 629 km (391 miles) away by air. The lowest temperature recorded there, in February 1892, was -67.6 °C (-89.7 °F), recorded on February 5 and 7.[12][13] This was formerly the coldest officially recorded temperature in the Northern Hemisphere. However, on February 6, 1933, the temperature at Oymyakon reached -67.7 °C (-89.9 °F), just barely exceeding Verkhoyansk's record.[12][13] Only Antarctica has recorded lower temperatures than Oymyakon or Verkhoyansk: the lowest directly recorded temperature at ground level is -89.2 °C (-128.6 °F), recorded at the Vostok Station in Antarctica on July 21, 1983.[14][15], and a temperature of -93.2 °C (-135.8 °F) was recorded via satellite observations at the East Antarctic Plateau in Antarctica on August 10, 2010.[16]

In this area, temperature inversions consistently form in winter due to the extremely cold and dense air of the Siberian High pooling in deep hollows, so that temperatures increase rather than decrease with higher altitude. In Verkhoyansk it sometimes happens that the average minimum temperatures for January, February, and December are below -50 °C (-58 °F). Oymyakon and Verkhoyansk are the only two permanently populated places in the world that have recorded temperatures below -60.0 °C (-76.0 °F) every day of January.[]

In June, July, and August, daytime temperatures over +30 °C (86 °F) are not uncommon. The warmest month on record is July 2001, at +21.9 °C (71.4 °F).[17] The average annual temperature for Verkhoyansk is -14.5 °C (5.9 °F). On July 25, 1988, Verkhoyansk recorded a temperature of +37.3 °C (99.1 °F), yielding a temperature range of 105 °C (189 °F) based on reliable records, which is the greatest temperature range in the world. Oymyakon and Yakutsk are the only other places in the world with a temperature range higher than 100 °C (180 °F). Verkhoyansk has never recorded a temperature above freezing between November 10 and March 14.[18]

Verkhoyansk has a dry climate with little rainfall or snowfall: the average annual precipitation is 180 millimeters (7.1 in). Although no month can be described as truly wet, there are strong seasonal differences in precipitation, with the summer being much wetter than the winter. Winter precipitation is extremely light, largely because of the dominance of high pressure at this time of year.

Climate data for Verkhoyansk
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) -9.5
(14.9)
-6.2
(20.8)
5.6
(42.1)
14.3
(57.7)
28.1
(82.6)
34.0
(93.2)
37.3
(99.1)
33.7
(92.7)
25.1
(77.2)
14.5
(58.1)
1.1
(34)
-5.3
(22.5)
37.3
(99.1)
Average high °C (°F) -42.4
(-44.3)
-36.7
(-34.1)
-19.3
(-2.7)
-3
(27)
10.0
(50)
20.0
(68)
23.5
(74.3)
18.6
(65.5)
8.5
(47.3)
-9.1
(15.6)
-30.7
(-23.3)
-40.4
(-40.7)
-8.7
(16.3)
Daily mean °C (°F) -45.4
(-49.7)
-41.8
(-43.2)
-29.5
(-21.1)
-12.4
(9.7)
3.8
(38.8)
13.4
(56.1)
16.5
(61.7)
11.5
(52.7)
2.5
(36.5)
-14.5
(5.9)
-34.8
(-30.6)
-43.3
(-45.9)
-14.5
(5.9)
Average low °C (°F) -48.3
(-54.9)
-45.9
(-50.6)
-37.9
(-36.2)
-22.1
(-7.8)
-2.6
(27.3)
6.7
(44.1)
9.7
(49.5)
5.1
(41.2)
-2.3
(27.9)
-18.9
(-2)
-38.2
(-36.8)
-46.4
(-51.5)
-20.1
(-4.2)
Record low °C (°F) -67.8
(-90)
-67.8
(-90)
-60.3
(-76.5)
-57.2
(-71)
-34.2
(-29.6)
-7.9
(17.8)
-3.2
(26.2)
-9.9
(14.2)
-21.7
(-7.1)
-48.7
(-55.7)
-57.2
(-71)
-64.5
(-84.1)
-67.8
(-90)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 6
(0.24)
6
(0.24)
5
(0.2)
5
(0.2)
14
(0.55)
27
(1.06)
34
(1.34)
34
(1.34)
19
(0.75)
11
(0.43)
11
(0.43)
8
(0.31)
180
(7.09)
Average snowfall cm (inches) 20
(7.9)
22
(8.7)
24
(9.4)
18
(7.1)
1
(0.4)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
5
(2)
12
(4.7)
16
(6.3)
118
(46.5)
Average precipitation days 2.3 1.7 1.5 2.2 3.6 5.2 6.5 5.7 4.0 4.8 3.5 3.2 44.2
Average snowy days 17 15 12 8 4 0 0 0 4 17 18 16 111
Average relative humidity (%) 74 74 69 63 58 57 61 69 74 78 77 75 73
Mean monthly sunshine hours 6 84 219 280 309 354 327 219 132 84 26 1 2,041
Source #1: ? [19][self-published source]
Source #2: NOAA (precipitation days and sunshine hours, 1961-1990)[20]

References

Notes

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i Registry of the Administrative-Territorial Divisions of the Sakha Republic
  2. ^ a b c d Law #173-Z #353-III
  3. ^ a b c Russian Federal State Statistics Service (2011). "? 2010 ?.  1" [2010 All-Russian Population Census, vol. 1]. ? 2010 ? (2010 All-Russia Population Census) (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service. Retrieved 2012. 
  4. ^ ? ? .   No107-  3 ? 2011 ?. « ? ?», ? . No271-  03 ? 2016 ?. «? ? " ? ?"». ? ? ?  ? ? (6 ? 2011 ?.). : "? ", No120, 6 ? 2011 ?. (Government of the Russian Federation. Federal Law #107-FZ of June 31, 2011 On Calculating Time, as amended by the Federal Law #271-FZ of July 03, 2016 On Amending Federal Law "On Calculating Time". Effective as of after sixty days following the day of the official publication.).
  5. ^ a b . Moscow ? . 2003. p. 69. ISBN 5-7107-7399-9. 
  6. ^ . ?- ? . (Russian Post). (Postal Objects Search) (in Russian)
  7. ^ http://www.pogodaiklimat.ru/climate/24266.htm
  8. ^ Russian Federal State Statistics Service (May 21, 2004). " , ? ? ? ?, ?, , ? ? - ? ? ? ? ? ? 3  ? ?" [Population of Russia, Its Federal Districts, Federal Subjects, Districts, Urban Localities, Rural Localities--Administrative Centers, and Rural Localities with Population of Over 3,000] (XLS). ? 2002 ? [All-Russia Population Census of 2002] (in Russian). Retrieved 2014. 
  9. ^ Demoscope Weekly (1989). "? 1989 ?. ? ? ? , ? ? ?, , , ?, ? -?" [All Union Population Census of 1989: Present Population of Union and Autonomous Republics, Autonomous Oblasts and Okrugs, Krais, Oblasts, Districts, Urban Settlements, and Villages Serving as District Administrative Centers]. ? 1989 ? [All-Union Population Census of 1989] (in Russian). ? ? : [Institute of Demography at the National Research University: Higher School of Economics]. Retrieved 2014. 
  10. ^ "? 1979 ?. . (All Union Population Census of 1979. Ethnic composition of the population by regions of Russia.)". ? 1979 ? (All-Union Population Census of 1979) (in Russian). Demoscope Weekly (website of the Institute of Demographics of the State University--Higher School of Economics. 1979. Retrieved . 
  11. ^ http://www.guinnessworldrecords.com/world-records/greatest-temperature-range-on-earth/
  12. ^ a b N. A. Stepanova. "On the Lowest Temperatures on Earth" (PDF). 
  13. ^ a b Weather Underground - The Coldest Places on Earth https://www.wunderground.com/blog/weatherhistorian/the-coldest-places-on-earth
  14. ^ "Global Weather & Climate Extremes". World Meteorological Organization. Retrieved 2015. 
  15. ^ "World: Lowest Temperature". World Meteorological Organization. Archived from the original on June 16, 2010. Retrieved 2015. 
  16. ^ "The Coldest Place in the World". NASA. Retrieved 2017. 
  17. ^ GHCN monthly climate data; Goddard Institute of Space Studies record for Verhojansk 1885-2010
  18. ^ "Weather and Climate - Climate Monitor: The weather in Verkhoyansk" (in Russian). www.pogodaiklimat.ru. Retrieved 2013.  Daily records on the right of the page; December-March records can be accessed via buttons at the bottom of the page.
  19. ^ -- ? . Retrieved January 1, 2013.
  20. ^ "Verhojansk Climate Normals 1961-1990". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved 2015. 

Sources

  • Official website of the Sakha Republic. Registry of the Administrative-Territorial Divisions of the Sakha Republic. Verkhoyansky District. (in Russian)
  • ( ) ? ? ().  No173-? No353-III  30 2004 ?. « ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ()», ? . No1058-? No1007-IV  25 2012 ?. «? ? ? ? () " ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ()"». ? ? ?  ?. : "", No245, 31 ? 2004 ?. (State Assembly (Il Tumen) of the Sakha (Yakutia) Republic. Law #173-Z No. 353-III of November 30, 2004 On Establishing the Borders and on Granting the Urban and Rural Settlement Status to the Municipal Formations of the Sakha (Yakutia) Republic, as amended by the Law #1058-Z No. 1007-IV of April 25, 2012 On Amending the Law of the Sakha (Yakutia) Republic "On Establishing the Borders and on Granting the Urban and Rural Settlement Status to the Municipal Formations of the Sakha (Yakutia) Republic". Effective as of the day of the official publication.).


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Verkhoyansk
 



 

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