Victorian Era
Get Victorian Era essential facts below. View Videos or join the Victorian Era discussion. Add Victorian Era to your Like2do.com topic list for future reference or share this resource on social media.
Victorian Era

In the history of the United Kingdom, the Victorian era was the period of Queen Victoria's reign, from 20 June 1837 until her death on 22 January 1901. The era followed the Georgian period and preceded the Edwardian period, and its later half overlaps with the first part of the Belle Époque era of continental Europe. Defined according to sensibilities and political concerns, the period is sometimes considered to begin with the passage of the Reform Act 1832. The period is characterised as one of relative peace among the great powers (as established by the Congress of Vienna), increased economic activity, "refined sensibilities" and national self-confidence for Great Britain.[1]

Ideologically, the Victorian era witnessed resistance to the rationalism that defined the Georgian period and an increasing turn towards romanticism and mysticism with regard to religion, social values, and arts.[2] In international relations, the supremacy of the Royal Navy helped maintain a period of relative peace among the great powers (Pax Britannica) as well as economic, colonial, and industrial consolidation and expansion, a notable exception being the Crimean War (1853-6). Britain embarked on global imperial expansion, particularly in Asia and Africa, which made the British Empire the largest empire in history.

Domestically, the political agenda was increasingly liberal, with a number of shifts in the direction of gradual political reform, industrial reform, and the widening of the voting franchise. There were unprecedented demographic changes: the population of England and Wales almost doubled from 16.8 million in 1851 to 30.5 million in 1901,[3] and Scotland's population also rose rapidly, from 2.8 million in 1851 to 4.4 million in 1901. However, Ireland's population decreased sharply, from 8.2 million in 1841 to less than 4.5 million in 1901, mostly due to the Great Famine.[4] Between 1837 and 1901 about 15 million emigrated from Great Britain, mostly to the United States, Canada, South Africa, New Zealand, and Australia.[5]

The two main political parties during the era remained the Whigs/Liberals and the Conservatives; by its end, the Labour Party had formed as a distinct political entity. These parties were led by such prominent statesmen as Lord Melbourne, Sir Robert Peel, Lord Derby, Lord Palmerston, Benjamin Disraeli, William Gladstone, and Lord Salisbury. The unsolved problems relating to Irish Home Rule played a great part in politics in the later Victorian era, particularly in view of Gladstone's determination to achieve a political settlement in Ireland.

Terminology and periodisation

In the strictest sense, the Victorian era covers the duration of Victoria's reign as Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, from her accession on 20 June 1837--after the death of her uncle, William IV--until her death on 22 January 1901, after which she was succeeded by her eldest son, Edward VII. Her reign lasted for 63 years and seven months, a longer period than any of her predecessors. The term 'Victorian' was in contemporaneous usage to describe the era.[6] The era has also been understood more extensively as a period that possessed sensibilities and characteristics distinct from those adjacent, in which case it is sometimes dated to begin before Victoria's accession--typically from the passage of or agitation for (during the 1830s) the Reform Act 1832, which introduced a wide-ranging change to the electoral system of England and Wales. Definitions according to a distinct sensibility or politics have also created scepticisim about the worth of the label "Victorian", though there have equally been defences of it as a marker of time.[7]

Political and diplomatic history

Early

In 1832, after much political agitation, the Reform Act was passed on the third attempt. The Act abolished many borough seats and created others in their place, as well as expanding the franchise in England and Wales (a Scottish Reform Act and Irish Reform Act were passed separately). Minor reforms followed in 1835 and 1836.

The East India Company steamship Nemesis (right background) destroying Chinese war junks in the Second Battle of Chuenpi on 7 January 1841 during the First Opium War between Britain and the Qing dynasty.

On June 20 1837, Victoria became Queen of the United Kingdom on the death of her uncle, William IV. Being female, Victoria was prevented by Salic law from acceding to the throne of Hanover, as had been the custom for British monarchs since the Hanoverian succession; the kingdom passed instead to her uncle, who became King Ernest Augustus I of Hanover. The government at the time of Victoria's accession was led by the Whig prime minister Lord Melbourne, but within two years he had resigned, and the Tory politician Sir Robert Peel formed a new ministry. In the same year, a seizure of opium exports to China prompted the First Opium War against the Qing dynasty, and British imperial India initiated the First Anglo-Afghan War--one of the first major conflicts of the Great Game between Britain and Russia.[8]

In 1840, Queen Victoria married Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfield and gave birth to her first child, Victoria, who became Princess Royal. In the same year, the Treaty of Waitangi established British sovereignty over New Zealand. The signing of the Treaty of Nanking in 1842 ended the First Opium War and gave Britain control over Hong Kong Island, but a disastrous retreat from Kabul in the same year led to the annihilation of a British army column. In 1845, the Great Famine began to cause mass starvation and disease in Ireland, ultimately initiating widespread emigration;[9] in response, the Peel government repealed the Corn Laws, in the process leading to its downfall and replacement by the Whig ministry of Lord John Russell.[10]

In 1853, Britain fought alongside France in the Crimean War, against Russia. The goal was to ensure that Russia could not benefit from the declining status of the Ottoman Empire,[11] a strategic consideration known as the Eastern Question. The conflict marked a rare breach in the Pax Britannica, the period of relative peace (1815-1914) that existed among the Great Powers of the time (and especially in Britain's interaction with them). On its conclusion in 1856 with the Treaty of Paris, Russia was prohibited from hosting a military presence in the Crimea. In October of the same year, the Second Opium War saw Britain overpower the Qing dynasty in China.

During 1857-8, an uprising by sepoys against the East India Company was suppressed, an event that led to the end of Company rule in India and the transferral of administration to the direct rule by the government. The princely states were not affected and remained under British guidance.[12]

Middle

In 1861, Prince Albert died.[8] In 1867, the second Reform Act was passed, expanding the franchise, and the British North America Act consolidated the country's possessions in that region into a Canadian Confederation.[13]

In 1878, Britain was a plenipotentiary at the Treaty of Berlin, which gave de jure recognition to the independent states of Romania, Serbia, and Montenegro.

Society and culture

Religion

Nonconformist conscience describes the moral sensibility of the Nonconformist churches--those which dissent from the established Church of England--that influenced British politics in the 19th and early 20th centuries.[14][15] In the 1851 census of church attendance, noncomformists who went to chapel comprised half the attendance of Sunday services.[16] Noncomformists were focused in the fast-growing urban middle class.[17] The two categories of this group were in addition to the evangelicals or "Low Church" element in the Church of England: "Old Dissenters," dating from the 16th and 17th centuries, included Baptists, Congregationalists, Quakers, Unitarians, and Presbyterians outside Scotland; "New Dissenters" emerged in the 18th century and were mainly Methodists. The "Nonconformist conscience" of the Old group emphasised religious freedom and equality, the pursuit of justice, and opposition to discrimination, compulsion, and coercion. The New Dissenters (and also the Anglican evangelicals) stressed personal morality issues, including sexuality, temperance, family values, and Sabbath-keeping. Both factions were politically active, but until the mid-19th century, the Old group supported mostly Whigs and Liberals in politics, while the New--like most Anglicans--generally supported Conservatives. In the late 19th century, the New Dissenters mostly switched to the Liberal Party. The result was a merging of the two groups, strengthening their great weight as a political pressure group. They joined together on new issues especially regarding schools and temperance, with the latter of special interest to Methodists.[18][19] By 1914 the linkage was weakening and by the 1920s it was virtually dead.[20]

Parliament had long imposed a series of political disabilities on Nonconformists outside Scotland. They could not hold most public offices, they had to pay local taxes to the Anglican church, be married by Anglican ministers, and be denied attendance at Oxford or degrees at Cambridge. Dissenters demanded the removal of political and civil disabilities that applied to them (especially those in the Test and Corporation Acts). The Anglican establishment strongly resisted until 1828.[21] Disseneters organized into a political pressure group and succeeded in 1828 in repeal of some restrictions. It was a major achievement for an outside group, but the Dissenters were not finished and the early Victorian period saw them even more active and successful in eliminating their grievances.[22] Next on the agenda was the matter of church rates, which were local taxes at the parish level for the support of the parish church building in England and Wales. Only buildings of the established church received the tax money. Civil disobedience was attempted but was met with the seizure of personal property and even imprisonment. The compulsory factor was finally abolished in 1868 by William Ewart Gladstone, and payment was made voluntary.[23] While Gladstone was a moralistic evangelical inside the Church of England, he had strong support in the Nonconformist community.[24][25] The marriage question was settled in 1837, by allowing local government registrars to handle marriages. Nonconformist ministers in their own chapels were allowed to marry couples if a registrar was present. Also in 1836, civil registration of births, deaths, and marriages was taken from the hands of local parish officials and given to local government registrars. Burial of the dead was a more troubling problem, for urban chapels had no graveyards, and sought to use the traditional graveyards controlled by the established church. The Burials Act of 1880 finally allowed that.[26]

Oxford University required students seeking admission to submit to the 39 articles of the Church of England. Cambridge required that for a diploma. The two ancient universities opposed giving a charter to the new London University in the 1830s because it had no such restriction. London University, nevertheless, was established in 1837, and by the 1850s Oxford dropped its restrictions. In 1871 Gladstone sponsored legislation that provided full access to degrees and fellowships. The Scottish universities never had restrictions. Nonconformists (especially Unitarians and Presbyterians) played major roles in founding new universities in the late 19th century at Manchester, as well as Birmingham, Liverpool and Leeds.[27]

Education

The era saw a reform and renaissance of public schools, inspired by Thomas Arnold at Rugby. The public school became a model for gentlemen and for public service.[28]

Literature and arts

In prose, the novel rose from a position of relative neglect during the 1830s to become the leading literary genre by the end of the era.[6][29] In the 1830s and 1840s, the social novel (also "Condition-of-England novels") responded to the social, political and economic upheaval associated with industrialisation. Though it remained influential throughout the period, there was a notable resurgence of Gothic fiction in the fin de siecle, such as in Robert Louis Stevenson's novella Strange Case of Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde (1886) and Oscar Wilde's The Picture of Dorian Gray (1891).

Entertainment

Pablo Fanque performing at Astley's Amphitheatre, 1847
The Epsom Derby; painting by James Pollard, c. 1840
Llandudno, 1856. With the arrival of the railway network, seaside towns became popular destinations for Victorian holiday makers

Popular forms of entertainment varied by social class. Victorian Britain, like the periods before it, was interested in literature (see Charles Dickens, Arthur Conan Doyle, Charlotte, Emily and Anne Brontë, Robert Louis Stevenson and William Makepeace Thackeray), theatre and the arts (see Aesthetic movement and Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood), and music, drama, and opera were widely attended. Michael Balfe was the most popular British grand opera composer of the period, while the most popular musical theatre was a series of fourteen comic operas by Gilbert and Sullivan, although there was also musical burlesque and the beginning of Edwardian musical comedy in the 1890s. Drama ranged from low comedy to Shakespeare (see Henry Irving). There were, however, other forms of entertainment. Gentlemen went to dining clubs, like the Beefsteak club or the Savage club. Gambling at cards in establishments popularly called casinos was wildly popular during the period: so much so that evangelical and reform movements specifically targeted such establishments in their efforts to stop gambling, drinking, and prostitution.[30]

Brass bands and 'The Bandstand' became popular in the Victorian era. The band stand was a simple construction that not only created an ornamental focal point, but also served acoustic requirements whilst providing shelter from the changeable British weather. It was common to hear the sound of a brass band whilst strolling through parklands. At this time musical recording was still very much a novelty.[31]

The Victorian era marked the golden age of the British circus.[32]Astley's Amphitheatre in Lambeth, London, featuring equestrian acts in a 42-foot wide circus ring, was the epicentre of the 19th century circus. The permanent structure sustained three fires but as an institution lasted a full century, with Andrew Ducrow and William Batty managing the theatre in the middle part of the century. William Batty would also build his own 14,000-person arena, known commonly as Batty's Hippodrome, in Kensington Gardens and draw crowds from the Crystal Palace Exhibition. Travelling circuses, like Pablo Fanque's, dominated the British provinces, Scotland, and Ireland (Fanque would enjoy fame again in the 20th century when John Lennon would buy an 1843 poster advertising his circus and adapt the lyrics for The Beatles song, Being for the Benefit of Mr. Kite!). Fanque also stands out as a black man who achieved great success and enjoyed great admiration among the British public only a few decades after Britain had abolished slavery.[33][33]

Another form of entertainment involved 'spectacles' where paranormal events, such as mesmerism, communication with the dead (by way of mediumship or channelling), ghost conjuring and the like, were carried out to the delight of crowds and participants. Such activities were more popular at this time than in other periods of recent Western history.[34]

Natural history became increasingly an "amateur" activity. Particularly in Britain and the United States, this grew into specialist hobbies such as the study of birds, butterflies, seashells (malacology/conchology), beetles and wild flowers. Amateur collectors and natural history entrepreneurs played an important role in building the large natural history collections of the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries.[35][36]

Middle-class Victorians used the train services to visit the seaside, helped by the Bank Holiday Act of 1871, which created a number of fixed holidays. Large numbers travelling to quiet fishing villages such as Worthing, Brighton, Morecambe and Scarborough began turning them into major tourist centres, and people like Thomas Cook saw tourism and even overseas travel as viable businesses.[37]

Sport

Rugby football match between England and Scotland, c. 1880

The Victorian Era saw the introduction and development of many modern sports.[38] Often originating in the public schools, they exemplified new ideals of manliness.[39]Cricket,[40]cycling, croquet, horse-riding, and many water activities are examples of some of the popular sports in the Victorian Era. [41]

The modern game of tennis originated in Birmingham, England, between 1859 and 1865. The world's oldest tennis tournament, the Wimbledon championships, were first played in London in 1877. Britain was an active competitor in all the Olympic Games starting in 1896.

Economy, industry and trade

The most obvious and the most distinctive feature of the History of Civilisation, during the last fifty years [1837-87], is the wonderful increase of industrial production by the application of machinery, the improvement of old technical processes and the invention of new ones, accompanied by an even more remarkable development of old and new means of locomotion and intercommunication
--Thomas Henry Huxley[42]

Progress

Historians have characterised the mid-Victorian era (1850-1870) as Britain's "Golden Years".[43] There was prosperity, as the national income per person grew by half. Much of the prosperity was due to the increasing industrialisation, especially in textiles and machinery, as well as to the worldwide network of trade and engineering that produced profits for British merchants, and exports from[clarification needed] across the globe. There was peace abroad (apart from the short Crimean war, 1854-56), and social peace at home. Opposition to the new order melted away, says Porter. The Chartist movement peaked as a democratic movement among the working class in 1848; its leaders moved to other pursuits, such as trade unions and cooperative societies. The working class ignored foreign agitators like Karl Marx in their midst, and joined in celebrating the new prosperity. Employers typically were paternalistic and generally recognised the trade unions.[44] Companies provided their employees with welfare services ranging from housing, schools and churches, to libraries, baths, and gymnasia. Middle-class reformers did their best to assist the working classes' aspirations to middle-class norms of "respectability".

There was a spirit of libertarianism, says Porter, as people felt they were free. Taxes were very low, and government restrictions were minimal. There were still problem areas, such as occasional riots, especially those motivated by anti-Catholicism. Society was still ruled by the aristocracy and the gentry, who controlled high government offices, both houses of Parliament, the church, and the military. Becoming a rich businessman was not as prestigious as inheriting a title and owning a landed estate. Literature was doing well, but the fine arts languished as the Great Exhibition of 1851 showcased Britain's industrial prowess rather than its sculpture, painting or music. The educational system was mediocre; the main universities (outside Scotland) were likewise mediocre.[45] Historian Llewellyn Woodward has concluded:[46]

For leisure or work, for getting or for spending, England was a better country in 1879 than in 1815. The scales were less weighted against the weak, against women and children, and against the poor. There was greater movement, and less of the fatalism of an earlier age. The public conscience was more instructed, and the content of liberty was being widened to include something more than freedom from political constraint ... Yet England in 1871 was by no means an earthly paradise. The housing and conditions of life of the working class in town & country were still a disgrace to an age of plenty.

Technology, science and engineering

The railways changed communications and society dramatically

The Victorians were impressed by science and progress and felt that they could improve society in the same way as they were improving technology. Britain was the leading world centre for advanced engineering and technology. Its engineering firms were in worldwide demand for designing and constructing railways.[47][48]

A central development during the Victorian era was the improvement of communication. The new railways all allowed goods, raw materials, and people to be moved about, rapidly facilitating trade and industry. The financing of railways became an important specialty of London's financiers.[49] The railway system led to a reorganisation of society more generally, with "railway time" being the standard by which clocks were set throughout Britain; the complex railway system setting the standard for technological advances and efficiency. Steam ships such as the SS Great Britain and SS Great Western made international travel more common but also advanced trade, so that in Britain it was not just the luxury goods of earlier times that were imported into the country but essentials and raw materials such as corn and cotton from the United States and meat and wool from Australia. One more important innovation in communications was the Penny Black, the first postage stamp, which standardised postage to a flat price regardless of distance sent.

Even later communication methods such as electric power, telegraph, and telephones, had an impact. Photography was realised in 1839 by Louis Daguerre in France and William Fox Talbot in Britain. By 1889, hand-held cameras were available.[50]

Suspension bridge between two brick-built towers, over a wooded gorge, showing mud and water at the bottom. In the distance are hills.
Brunel's Clifton Suspension Bridge in Bristol

Similar sanitation reforms, prompted by the Public Health Acts 1848 and 1869, were made in the crowded, dirty streets of the existing cities, and soap was the main product shown in the relatively new phenomenon of advertising. A great engineering feat in the Victorian Era was the sewage system in London. It was designed by Joseph Bazalgette in 1858. He proposed to build 82 mi (132 km) of sewer system linked with over 1,000 mi (1,600 km) of street sewers. Many problems were encountered but the sewers were completed. After this, Bazalgette designed the Thames Embankment which housed sewers, water pipes and the London Underground. During the same period, London's water supply network was expanded and improved, and a gas network for lighting and heating was introduced in the 1880s.[51]

The model town of Saltaire was founded, along with others, as a planned environment with good sanitation and many civic, educational and recreational facilities, although it lacked a pub, which was regarded as a focus of dissent. During the Victorian era, science grew into the discipline it is today. In addition to the increasing professionalism of university science, many Victorian gentlemen devoted their time to the study of natural history. This study of natural history was most powerfully advanced by Charles Darwin and his theory of evolution first published in his book On the Origin of Species in 1859.

Glasgow slum in 1871
Crossing the Lagan Canal by the Ulster Railway near Moira, a sensible legacy of the Victorian era.

Although initially developed in the early years of the 19th century, gas lighting became widespread during the Victorian era in industry, homes, public buildings and the streets. The invention of the incandescent gas mantle in the 1890s greatly improved light output and ensured its survival as late as the 1960s. Hundreds of gasworks were constructed in cities and towns across the country. In 1882, incandescent electric lights were introduced to London streets, although it took many years before they were installed everywhere.

Railways

One of the great achievements of the Industrial Revolution in Britain was the introduction and advancement of railway systems, not only in the United Kingdom and the British Empire but across the world. British engineers and financiers designed, built and funded many major systems. They retained an ownership share even while turning over management to locals; that ownership was largely liquidated in 1914-1916 to pay for the World War. Railroads originated in England because industrialists had already discovered the need for inexpensive transportation to haul coal for the new steam engines, to supply parts to specialized factories, and to take products to market. The existing system of canals was inexpensive but was too slow and too limited in geography.[52]

The engineers and businessmen needed to create and finance a railway system were available; they knew how to invent, to build, and to finance a large complex system. The first quarter of the 19th century involved numerous experiments with locomotives and rail technology. By 1825 railways were commercially feasible, as demonstrated by George Stephenson (1791-1848) when he built the Stockton and Darlington. On his first run, his locomotive pulled 38 freight and passenger cars at speeds as high as 12 miles per hour. Stephenson went on to design many more railways and is best known for standardizing designs, such as the "standard gauge" of rail spacing, at 4 feet 8 ½ inches.[53]Thomas Brassey (1805-70) was even more prominent, operating construction crews that at one point in the 1840s totalled 75,000 men throughout Europe, the British Empire, and Latin America.[54] Brassey took thousands of British engineers and mechanics across the globe to build new lines. They invented and improved thousands of mechanical devices, and developed the science of civil engineering to build roadways, tunnels and bridges.[55]

Britain had a superior financial system based in London that funded both the railways in Britain and also in many other parts of the world, including the United States, up until 1914. The boom years were 1836 and 1845-47 when Parliament authorised 8,000 miles of lines at a projected cost of £200 million, which was about the same value as the country's annual Gross Domestic Product (GDP) at that time. A new railway needed a charter, which typically cost over £200,000 (about $1 million) to obtain from Parliament, but opposition could effectively prevent its construction. The canal companies, unable or unwilling to upgrade their facilities to compete with railways, used political power to try to stop them. The railways responded by purchasing about a fourth of the canal system, in part to get the right of way, and in part to buy off critics. Once a charter was obtained, there was little government regulation, as laissez-faire and private ownership had become accepted practices.[56]

The different lines typically had exclusive territory, but given the compact size of Britain, this meant that multiple competing lines could provide service between major cities. George Hudson (1800-1871) became the "railway king" of Britain. He merged various independent lines and set up a "Clearing House" in 1842 which rationalized interconnections by establishing uniform paperwork and standard methods for transferring passengers and freight between lines, and rates when one system used freight cars owned by another. By 1850, rates had fallen to a penny a ton mile for coal, at speeds of up to fifty miles an hour. Britain now had had the model for the world in a well integrated, well-engineered system that allowed fast, cheap movement of freight and people, and which could be replicated in other major nations.

Frith's depiction of Paddington railway station in London.

The railways directly or indirectly employed tens of thousands of engineers, mechanics, repairmen and technicians, as well as statisticians and financial planners. They developed new and more efficient and less expensive techniques. Most important, they created a mindset of how technology could be used in many different forms of business. Railways had a major impact on industrialization. By lowering transportation costs, they reduced costs for all industries moving supplies and finished goods, and they increased demand for the production of all the inputs needed for the railroad system itself. By 1880, there were 13,500 locomotives which each carried 97,800 passengers a year, or 31,500 tons of freight.[57]

India provides an example of the London-based financiers pouring money and expertise into a very well built system designed for military reasons (after the Mutiny of 1857), and with the hope that it would stimulate industry. The system was overbuilt and much too elaborate and expensive for the small amount of freight traffic it carried. However, it did capture the imagination of the Indians, who saw their railways as the symbol of an industrial modernity--but one that was not realized until a century or so later.[58]

Health and medicine

Joseph Thomas Clover demonstrating the Chloroform apparatus he invented in 1862

Medicine progressed during Queen Victoria's reign. Although nitrous oxide, or laughing gas, had been proposed as an anaesthetic as far back as 1799 by Humphry Davy, it wasn't until 1846 when an American dentist named William Morton started using ether on his patients that anaesthetics became common in the medical profession.[59] In 1847 chloroform was introduced as an anaesthetic by James Young Simpson.[60] Chloroform was favoured by doctors and hospital staff because it is much less flammable than ether, but critics complained that it could cause the patient to have a heart attack.[60] Chloroform gained in popularity in England and Germany after John Snow gave Queen Victoria chloroform for the birth of her eighth child (Prince Leopold).[61] By 1920, chloroform was used in 80 to 95% of all narcoses performed in the UK and German-speaking countries.[60]

Anaesthetics made painless dentistry possible. At the same time sugar consumption in the British diet increased, greatly increasing instances of tooth decay .[62] As a result, more and more people were having teeth extracted and needing dentures. This gave rise to "Waterloo Teeth", which were real human teeth set into hand-carved pieces of ivory from hippopotamus or walrus jaws.[62][63] The teeth were obtained from executed criminals, victims of battlefields, from grave-robbers, and were even bought directly from the desperately impoverished.[62]

Medicine also benefited from the introduction of antiseptics by Joseph Lister in 1867 in the form of carbolic acid (phenol).[64] He instructed the hospital staff to wear gloves and wash their hands, instruments, and dressings with a phenol solution and in 1869, he invented a machine that would spray carbolic acid in the operating theatre during surgery.[64]

1880 London magazine ad links prosperity to temperance.

Population

The Victorian era was a time of unprecedented population growth in Britain. The population rose from 13.9 million in 1831 to 32.5 million in 1901. Two major contributary factors were fertility rates and mortality rates. Britain was the first country to undergo the Demographic transition and the Agricultural and Industrial Revolutions.

The Louth-London Royal Mail travelling by train from Peterborough East, 1845

Britain had the lead in rapid economic and population growth. At the time, Thomas Malthus believed this lack of growth outside Britain was due to the 'Malthusian trap'. That is, the tendency of a population to expand geometrically while resources grew more slowly, reaching a crisis (such as famine, war, or epidemic) which would reduce the population to a sustainable size. Britain escaped the 'Malthusian trap' because the Industrial Revolution had a positive impact on living standards.[65] People had more money and could improve their standards; therefore, a population increase was sustainable.

Fertility rates

In the Victorian era, fertility rates increased in every decade until 1901, when the rates started evening out.[66] There were several reasons for this. One is biological: with improving living standards, a higher proportion of women were biologically able to have children. Another possible explanation is social. In the 19th century, the marriage rate increased, and people were getting married at a very young age until the end of the century, when the average age of marriage started to increase again slowly. The reasons why people got married younger and more frequently are uncertain. One theory is that greater prosperity allowed people to finance marriage and new households earlier than previously possible. With more births within marriage, it seems inevitable that marriage rates and birth rates would rise together.

Birth rates were originally measured by the 'Crude birth rate' - births per year divided by total population. This is indeed a crude measure, as key groups and their fertility rates are not clear. It is likely to be affected mainly by changes in the age distribution of the population. The Net Reproduction Rate was then introduced as an alternative measure: it measures the average fertility rate of women of child-bearing ages.

The evening out of fertility rates at the beginning of the 20th century was mainly the result of a few big changes: availability of forms of birth control, and changes in people's attitude towards sex.[67]

Mortality rates

The mortality rates in England changed greatly through the 19th century. There was no catastrophic epidemic or famine in England or Scotland in the 19th century - it was the first century in which a major epidemic did not occur throughout the whole country, and deaths per 1000 of population per year in England and Wales fell from 21.9 from 1848-54 to 17 in 1901 (cf, for instance, 5.4 in 1971).[68] Social class had a significant effect on mortality rates: the upper classes had a lower rate of premature death early in the 19th century than poorer classes did.[69]

Environmental and health standards rose throughout the Victorian era; improvements in nutrition may also have played a role, although the importance of this is debated.[68] Sewage works were improved, as was the quality of drinking water. With a healthier environment, diseases were caught less easily and did not spread as much. Technology improved because the population had more money to spend on medical technology (for example, techniques to prevent death in childbirth, so that more women and children survived), which also led to a greater number of cures for diseases. However, there was a cholera epidemic in London in 1848-49, which killed 14,137 people, and another in 1853 killing 10,738. Reformers rushed to complete a modern London sewerage system.[70]Tuberculosis (spread in congested dwellings), lung diseases from the mines and typhoid remained common.

High culture

A picture of Leadenhall Street, London, c. 1837
The Poultry Cross, Salisbury, painted by Louise Rayner, c. 1870

Gothic Revival architecture became increasingly significant during the period, leading to the Battle of the Styles between Gothic and Classical ideals. Charles Barry's architecture for the new Palace of Westminster, which had been badly damaged in an 1834 fire, was built in the medieval style of Westminster Hall, the surviving part of the building. It constructed a narrative of cultural continuity, set in opposition to the violent disjunctions of Revolutionary France, a comparison common to the period, as expressed in Thomas Carlyle's The French Revolution: A History and Charles Dickens' Great Expectations and A Tale of Two Cities. Gothic was also supported by critic John Ruskin, who argued that it epitomised communal and inclusive social values, as opposed to Classicism, which he considered to epitomise mechanical standardisation.[]

The middle of the 19th century saw The Great Exhibition of 1851, the first World's Fair, which showcased the greatest innovations of the century. At its centre was the Crystal Palace, a modular glass and iron structure - the first of its kind. It was condemned by Ruskin as the very model of mechanical dehumanisation in design but later came to be presented as the prototype of Modern architecture. The emergence of photography, showcased at the Great Exhibition, resulted in significant changes in Victorian art with Queen Victoria being the first British monarch to be photographed. John Everett Millais was influenced by photography (notably in his portrait of Ruskin) as were other Pre-Raphaelite artists. It later became associated with the Impressionistic and Social Realist techniques that would dominate the later years of the period in the work of artists such as Walter Sickert and Frank Holl.

The long-term effect of the reform movements was to tightly link the nonconformist element with the Liberal party. The dissenters gave significant support to moralistic issues, such as temperance and sabbath enforcement. The nonconformist conscience, as it was called, was repeatedly called upon by Gladstone for support for his moralistic foreign policy.[71] In election after election, Protestant ministers rallied their congregations to the Liberal ticket. In Scotland, the Presbyterians played a similar role to the Nonconformist Methodists, Baptists and other groups in England and Wales [72] The political strength of Dissent faded sharply after 1920 with the secularization of British society in the 20th century.

The middle-class

The rise of the middle class during the era had a formative effect on its character; the historian Walter E. Houghton reflects that "once the middle class attained political as well as financial eminence, their social influence became decisive. The Victorian frame of mind is largely composed of their characteristic modes of thought and feeling".[73]

Industrialisation brought with it a rapidly growing middle class whose increase in numbers had a significant effect on the social strata itself: cultural norms, lifestyle, values and morality. Identifiable characteristics came to define the middle class home and lifestyle. Previously, in town and city, residential space was adjacent to or incorporated into the work site, virtually occupying the same geographical space. The difference between private life and commerce was a fluid one distinguished by an informal demarcation of function. In the Victorian era, English family life increasingly became compartmentalised, the home a self-contained structure housing a nuclear family extended according to need and circumstance to include blood relations. The concept of "privacy" became a hallmark of the middle-class life.

The English home closed up and darkened over the decade (1850s), the cult of domesticity matched by a cult of privacy. Bourgeois existence was a world of interior space, heavily curtained off and wary of intrusion, and opened only by invitation for viewing on occasions such as parties or teas. "The essential, unknowability of each individual, and society's collaboration in the maintenance of a façade behind which lurked innumerable mysteries, were the themes which preoccupied many mid-century novelists."[74]

-- Kate Summerscale quoting historian Anthony S. Wohl

Journalism

A wounded British officer reading The Times's report of the end of the Crimean War

There were four major factors that radically transformed newspapers in 19th century Britain. First, by the 1830s the government had ended very high taxes and lifted severe legal restraints. Second, new machines, especially the rotary press, allowed the printing of tens of thousands of copies a day at a low cost. Third, the newspapers reached out to new readers in multiple ways, including features, illustrations, and advertisements that enlarged the audience. Finally, the franchise was expanded from one or two percent of the men to a majority, and newspapers became the primary means of political education.[75]

In 1817 Thomas Barnes became general editor of The Times; he was a political radical, a sharp critic of parliamentary hypocrisy and a champion of freedom of the press.[76] Under Barnes and his successor in 1841, John Thadeus Delane, the influence of The Times rose to great heights, especially in politics and in the financial district (the City of London). It spoke of reform.[77]The Times originated the practice of sending war correspondents to cover particular conflicts. W. H. Russell wrote immensely influential dispatches on the Crimean War of 1853-1856; for the first time, the public could read about the reality of warfare. Russell wrote one dispatch that highlighted the surgeons' "inhumane barbarity" and the lack of ambulance care for wounded troops. Shocked and outraged, the public reacted in a backlash that led to major reforms especially in the provision of nursing, led by Florence Nightingale.[78]

The Manchester Guardian was founded in Manchester in 1821 by a group of non-conformist businessmen. Its most famous editor, Charles Prestwich Scott, made the Guardian into a world-famous newspaper in the 1890s. The Daily Telegraph in 1856 became the first penny newspaper in London. It was funded by advertising revenue based on a large audience.

Leisure

Ramsgate beach in 1899

Opportunities for leisure activities increased dramatically as real wages continued to grow and hours of work continued to decline. In urban areas, the nine-hour workday became increasingly the norm; the 1874 Factory Act limited the workweek to 56.5 hours, encouraging the movement toward an eventual eight-hour workday. Furthermore, a system of routine annual vacations came into play, starting with white-collar workers and moving into the working-class.[79][80] Some 200 seaside resorts emerged thanks to cheap hotels and inexpensive railway fares, widespread banking holidays and the fading of many religious prohibitions against secular activities on Sundays.[81]

By the late Victorian era, the leisure industry had emerged in all cities. It provided scheduled entertainment of suitable length at convenient locales at inexpensive prices. These included sporting events, music halls, and popular theater. By 1880 football was no longer the preserve of the social elite, as it attracted large working-class audiences. Average gate attendance was 5000 in 1905, rising to 23,000 in 1913. That amounted to 6 million paying customers with a weekly turnover of £400,000. Sports by 1900 generated some three percent of the total gross national product. Professional sports were the norm, although some new activities reached an upscale amateur audience, such as lawn tennis and golf. Women were now allowed in some sports, such as archery, tennis, badminton and gymnastics.[82]

Housing

The very rapid growth in population in the 19th century in the cities included the new industrial and manufacturing cities, as well as service centres such as Edinburgh and London. The critical factor was financing, which was handled by building societies that dealt directly with large contracting firms. [83][84] Private renting from housing landlords was the dominant tenure. P. Kemp says this was usually of advantage to tenants.[85] People moved in so rapidly that there was not enough capital to build adequate housing for everyone, so low income newcomers squeezed into increasingly overcrowded slums. Clean water, sanitation, and public health facilities were inadequate; the death rate was high, especially infant mortality, and tuberculosis among young adults. Cholera from polluted water and typhoid were endemic. Unlike rural areas, there were no famines such as the one which devastated Ireland in the 1840s.[86][87][88]

Poverty

Part of Charles Booth's poverty map showing the Old Nichol, a slum in the East End of London. Published 1889 in Life and Labour of the People in London. The red areas are "middle class, well-to-do", light blue areas are "poor, 18s to 21s a week for a moderate family", dark blue areas are "very poor, casual, chronic want", and black areas are the "lowest class...occasional labourers, street sellers, loafers, criminals and semi-criminals".
Working class life in Victorian Wetherby, West Yorkshire

19th century Britain saw a huge population increase accompanied by rapid urbanisation stimulated by the Industrial Revolution. Wage rates improved steadily; real wages (after taking inflation into account) were 65 percent higher in 1901, compared to 1871. Much of the money was saved, as the number of depositors in savings banks rose from 430,000 in 1831, to 5.2 million in 1887, and their deposits from £14 million to over £90 million.[89] People flooded into industrial areas and commercial cities faster than housing could be built, resulting in overcrowding and lagging sanitation facilities such as fresh water and sewage. These problems were magnified in London, where the population grew at record rates. Large houses were turned into flats and tenements, and as landlords failed to maintain these dwellings, slum housing developed. Kellow Chesney described the situation as follows: "Hideous slums, some of them acres wide, some no more than crannies of obscure misery, make up a substantial part of the metropolis... In big, once handsome houses, thirty or more people of all ages may inhabit a single room."[90] Significant changes happened in the British Poor Law system in England and Wales, Scotland, and Ireland. These included a large expansion in workhouses (or poorhouses in Scotland), although with changing populations during the era.

Child labour

Girl pulling a coal tub in mine. From official report of the parliamentary commission in the mid 19th century.[91]

The early Victorian era before the reforms of the 1840s became notorious for the employment of young children in factories and mines and as chimney sweeps.[92][93] Child labour played an important role in the Industrial Revolution from its outset: novelist Charles Dickens, for example, worked at the age of 12 in a blacking factory, with his family in a debtors' prison. Reformers wanted the children in school: in 1840 only about 20 percent of the children in London had any schooling. By 1860 about half of the children between 5 and 15 were in school (including Sunday school).[94]

The children of the poor were expected to help towards the family budget, often working long hours in dangerous jobs for low wages.[90] Agile boys were employed by the chimney sweeps; small children were employed to scramble under machinery to retrieve cotton bobbins; and children were also employed to work in coal mines, crawling through tunnels too narrow and low for adults. Children also worked as errand boys, crossing sweepers, shoe blacks, or sold matches, flowers, and other cheap goods.[90] Some children undertook work as apprentices to respectable trades, such as building, or as domestic servants (there were over 120,000 domestic servants in London in the mid 19th century). Working hours were long: builders might work 64 hours a week in summer and 52 in winter, while domestic servants were theoretically on duty 80-hours a week.

"Mother bides at home, she is troubled with bad breath, and is sair weak in her body from early labour. I am wrought with sister and brother, it is very sore work; cannot say how many rakes or journeys I make from pit's bottom to wall face and back, thinks about 30 or 25 on the average; the distance varies from 100 to 250 fathom. I carry about 1 cwt. and a quarter on my back; have to stoop much and creep through water, which is frequently up to the calves of my legs." (Isabella Read, 12 years old, coal-bearer, testimony gathered by Ashley's Mines Commission 1842)[91]

As early as 1802 and 1819, Factory Acts were passed to limit the working hours of workhouse children in factories and cotton mills to 12 hours per day. These acts were largely ineffective and after radical agitation, by for example the "Short Time Committees" in 1831, a Royal Commission recommended in 1833 that children aged 11-18 should work a maximum of 12 hours per day, children aged 9-11 a maximum of eight hours, and children under the age of nine should no longer be permitted to work. This act, however, only applied to the textile industry, and further agitation led to another act in 1847 limiting both adults and children to 10-hour working days.[94]

Morality

The Victorian era is famous for the Victorian standards of personal morality. Historians generally agree that the middle classes held high personal moral standards (and usually followed them), but have debated whether the working classes followed suit. Moralists in the late 19th century such as Henry Mayhew decried the slums for their supposed high levels of cohabitation without marriage and illegitimate births. However new research using computerized matching of data files shows that the rates of cohabitation were quite low--under 5%--for the working class and the poor. By contrast in 21st century Britain, nearly half of all children are born outside marriage, and nine in ten newlyweds have been cohabitating.[95]

Prostitution

A victim of Jack the Ripper

Prostitution had been a factor in city life for centuries. The reformers started mobilizing in the late 1840s, major news organisations, clergymen, and single women became increasingly concerned about prostitution, which came to be known as "The Great Social Evil".[96] Estimates of the number of prostitutes in London in the 1850s vary widely (in his landmark study, Prostitution, William Acton reported that the police estimated there were 8,600 in London alone in 1857).

While the Magdalene Asylums had been reforming prostitutes since the mid-18th century, the years between 1848 and 1870 saw a veritable explosion in the number of institutions working to "reclaim" these "fallen women" from the streets and retrain them for entry into respectable society -- usually for work as domestic servants. The theme of prostitution and the "fallen woman" (any woman who has had sexual intercourse out of marriage) became a staple feature of mid-Victorian literature and politics. In the writings of Henry Mayhew, Charles Booth, Charles Dickens and others, prostitution began to be seen as a social problem.

When Parliament passed the first of the Contagious Diseases Acts in 1864 (which allowed the local constabulary to force any woman suspected of venereal disease to submit to its inspection), Josephine Butler's crusade to repeal the CD Acts yoked the anti-prostitution cause with the emergent feminist movement. Butler attacked the long-established double standard of sexual morality.[97]

Prostitutes were often presented as victims in sentimental literature such as Thomas Hood's poem The Bridge of Sighs, Elizabeth Gaskell's novel Mary Barton, and Dickens' novel Oliver Twist. The emphasis on the purity of women found in such works as Coventry Patmore's The Angel in the House led to the portrayal of the prostitute and fallen woman as soiled, corrupted, and in need of cleansing.[98]

This emphasis on female purity was allied to the stress on the homemaking role of women, who helped to create a space free from the pollution and corruption of the city. In this respect, the prostitute came to have symbolic significance as the embodiment of the violation of that divide. The double standard remained in force. Divorce legislation introduced in 1857 allowed for a man to divorce his wife for adultery, but a woman could only divorce if adultery were accompanied by cruelty. The anonymity of the city led to a large increase in prostitution and unsanctioned sexual relationships. Dickens and other writers associated prostitution with the mechanisation and industrialisation of modern life, portraying prostitutes as human commodities consumed and thrown away like refuse when they were used up. Moral reform movements attempted to close down brothels, something that has sometimes been argued to have been a factor in the concentration of street-prostitution.[99]

Events

1832
Passage of the first Reform Act.[100]
The 1843 launch of the Great Britain, the revolutionary ship of Isambard Kingdom Brunel
1837
Ascension of Queen Victoria to the throne.[100]
1838
Treaty of Balta Liman (Great Britain trade alliance with the Ottoman Empire)
1839
First Opium War (1839-42) fought between Britain and China.
1840
Queen Victoria marries Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfield. He had been naturalised and granted the British style of Royal Highness beforehand. For the next 17 years, he was known as HRH Prince Albert.
1840
Birth of the Queen's first child The Princess Victoria. Within months she was granted the title Princess Royal.
1840
New Zealand becomes a British colony, through the Treaty of Waitangi. No longer part of New South Wales
First Opium War: British ships approaching Canton in May 1841
1841
Birth of the Queen's heir-apparent The Prince Albert Edward, Duke of Cornwall (Duke of Rothesay). He was swiftly made Prince of Wales. Sir James Brooke founds the White Rajah dynasty of Sarawak.[101]
The last stand of the survivors of Her Majesty's 44th Foot at Gandamak, Afghanistan
1842
Treaty of Nanking. The Massacre of Elphinstone's Army by the Afghans in Afghanistan results in the death or incarceration of 16,500 soldiers and civilians.[102] The Mines Act of 1842 banned women/children from working in coal, iron, lead and tin mining.[100]The Illustrated London News was first published.[103]
1843
Birth of The Princess Alice
1844
Birth of The Prince Alfred
1845
The Irish famine begins. Within 5 years it would become the UK's worst human disaster, with starvation and emigration reducing the population of Ireland itself by over 50%. The famine permanently changed Ireland's and Scotland's demographics and became a rallying point for nationalist sentiment that pervaded British politics for much of the following century.
1846
Repeal of the Corn Laws.[100]
1846
Birth of The Princess Helena
1848
Death of around 2,000 people a week in a cholera epidemic.
1848
Birth of The Princess Louise
The last of the mail coaches at Newcastle upon Tyne, 1848
1850
Restoration of the Roman Catholic hierarchy in England and Wales. (Scotland did not follow until 1878.)
1850
Birth of The Prince Arthur
1851
The Great Exhibition (the first World's Fair) is held at the Crystal Palace,[100] with great success and international attention. The Victorian gold rush. In ten years the Australian population nearly tripled.[104]
The Great Exhibition in London. The United Kingdom was the first country in the world to industrialise.
1853
Birth of The Prince Leopold
1854
Crimean War: The United Kingdom declares war on Russia.
1857
The Indian Mutiny, a widespread revolt in India against the rule of the British East India Company, is sparked by sepoys (native Indian soldiers) in the Company's army. The rebellion, involving not just sepoys but many sectors of the Indian population as well, is largely quashed within a year. In response to the mutiny, the East India Company is abolished in August 1858 and India comes under the direct rule of the British crown, beginning the period of the British Raj. Prince Albert is given the title The Prince Consort
1857
Birth of The Princess Beatrice
1858
The Prime Minister, Lord Palmerston, responds to the Orsini plot against French emperor Napoleon III, the bombs for which were purchased in Birmingham, by attempting to make such acts a felony; the resulting uproar forces him to resign.
1859
Charles Darwin publishes On the Origin of Species, which leads to various reactions.[100] Victoria and Albert's first grandchild, Prince Wilhelm of Prussia, is born -- he later became William II, German Emperor. John Stuart Mill publishes On Liberty, a defence of the famous harm principle.
Governor-General of India Lord Canning meets Maharaja Ranbir Singh of Jammu and Kashmir, 1860
1861
Death of Prince Albert;[100] Queen Victoria refuses to go out in public for many years, and when she did she wore a widow's bonnet instead of the crown.
1863
The Prince of Wales marries Princess Alexandra of Denmark at Windsor.
1865
Lewis Carroll's Alice's Adventures in Wonderland is published.
1866
An angry crowd in London, protesting against John Russell's resignation as Prime Minister, is barred from Hyde Park by the police; they tear down iron railings and trample on flower beds. Disturbances like this convince Derby and Disraeli of the need for further parliamentary reform.
1867
The Constitution Act, 1867 passes and British North America becomes Dominion of Canada.
The defence of Rorke's Drift during the Anglo-Zulu War of 1879
1875
Britain purchased Egypt's shares in the Suez Canal[100] as the African nation was forced to raise money to pay off its debts.
1876
Scottish-born inventor Alexander Graham Bell patents the telephone.
1877
The Princess Alice becomes Grand Duchess of Hesse when her husband succeeds as Louis IV, Grand Duke of Hesse
1878
Treaty of Berlin (1878). Cyprus becomes a Crown colony. The Princess Alice dies. Princess Louise's husband The Marquis of Lorne is appointed Governor-General of Canada. First incandescent light bulb by Joseph Wilson Swan.
1879
The Battle of Isandlwana is the first major encounter in the Anglo-Zulu War. Victoria and Albert's first great-grandchild, Princess Feodora of Saxe-Meiningen, is born.
Following the Fourth Anglo-Ashanti War in 1896, the British proclaimed a protectorate over the Ashanti Kingdom.
1881
The British suffer defeat at the Battle of Majuba Hill, leading to the signing of a peace treaty and later the Pretoria Convention, between the British and the reinstated South African Republic, ending the First Boer War. Sometimes claimed to mark the beginning of the decline of the British Empire.[105]
1882
British troops begin the occupation of Egypt by taking the Suez Canal, to secure the vital trade route and passage to India, and the country becomes a protectorate.
1883
Princess Louise and Lord Lorne return from Canada
1884
The Fabian Society is founded in London by a group of middle class intellectuals, including Quaker Edward R. Pease, Havelock Ellis, and E. Nesbit, to promote socialism.[106]Prince Leopold, Duke of Albany dies.
1885
Blackpool Electric Tramway Company starts the first electric tram service in the United Kingdom.
1886
Prime Minister William Ewart Gladstone and the Liberal Party tries passing the First Irish Home Rule Bill, but the House of Commons rejects it.
Daimler Wagonette, Ireland, c. 1899
1888
The serial killer known as Jack the Ripper murders and mutilates five (and possibly more) prostitutes on the streets of London.[100] Victoria's eldest daughter, the Princess Royal, becomes German Empress when her husband succeeds as Frederick III, German Emperor. Within months, Frederick dies, and their son becomes William II, German Emperor. The widowed Vicky becomes the Dowager Empress as is known as "Empress Frederick".
1889
Emily Williamson founds the Royal Society for the Protection of Birds
British and Australian officers in South Africa during the Second Boer War
1870 - 1891
Under the Elementary Education Act 1870, basic State Education becomes free for every child under the age of 10.[107]
1891
Victoria and Albert's last grandchild, Prince Maurice of Battenberg, is born.
1892
The Prince of Wales' eldest son Prince Albert Victor, Duke of Clarence dies of influenza.
Workmen leaving Platt's Works, Oldham, 1900
1893
The Prince Alfred, Duke of Edinburgh succeeds as Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha when his uncle dies. The Duchy skips over The Prince of Wales due to his renunciation of his succession rights to that Duchy.
1898
British and Egyptian troops led by Horatio Kitchener defeat the Mahdist forces at the battle of Omdurman, thus establishing British dominance in the Sudan. Winston Churchill takes part in the British cavalry charge at Omdurman.
1899
The Second Boer War is fought between the British Empire and the two independent Boer republics. The Boers finally surrendered and the British annexed the Boer republics.
1900
Alfred, Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha dies. His nephew Prince Charles Edward, Duke of Albany succeeds him, because his brother Prince Arthur, Duke of Connaught and nephew Prince Arthur of Connaught had renounced their rights.
1901
The death of Victoria sees the end of this era. The ascension of her eldest son, Edward, begins the Edwardian era; albeit considerably shorter, this was another time of great change.

See also

Citations

  1. ^ John Wolffe (1997). Religion in Victorian Britain: Culture and empire. Volume V. Manchester University Press. pp. 129-30. 
  2. ^ Dixon, Nicholas (2010). "From Georgian to Victorian". History Review. 2010 (68): 34-38. 
  3. ^ The UK and future, statistics.gov.uk
  4. ^ "Ireland - Population Summary". Homepage.tinet.ie. Retrieved 2010. 
  5. ^ Exiles and Emigrants. National Museum of Australia
  6. ^ a b Plunkett, John; et al., eds. (2012). Victorian Literature: A Sourcebook. Houndmills, Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan. p. 2. 
  7. ^ Hewitt, Martin (Spring 2006). "Why the Notion of Victorian Britain Does Make Sense". Victorian Studies. 48 (3): 395-438. Retrieved 2017. 
  8. ^ a b Swisher, ed., Victorian England, pp. 248-50.
  9. ^ Kinealy, Christine (1994), This Great Calamity, Gill & Macmillan, p. xv 
  10. ^ Lusztig, Michael (July 1995). "Solving Peel's Puzzle: Repeal of the Corn Laws and Institutional Preservation". Comparative Politics. 27 (4): 393-408. doi:10.2307/422226. 
  11. ^ Taylor, A. J. P. (1954). The Struggle for Mastery in Europe: 1848-1918. pp. 60-61. 
  12. ^ Jill C. Bender, The 1857 Indian Uprising and the British Empire (2016), 205pp.
  13. ^ Dijkink, Gertjan; Knippenberg, Hans (2001). The Territorial Factor: Political Geography in a Globalising World. Amsterdam University Press. p. 226. ISBN 978-90-5629-188-4. 
  14. ^ John Ramsden (ed.), The Oxford Companion to Twentieth-Century British Politics (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2005), p. 474.
  15. ^ D. W. Bebbington, The Nonconformist Conscience. Chapel and Politics, 1870-1914 (1982).
  16. ^ Sally Mitchell, Victorian Britain An Encyclopedia (2011), p 547
  17. ^ Michael R. Watts (2015). The Dissenters: The crisis and conscience of nonconformity. Clarendon Press. p. 105. 
  18. ^ Timothy Larsen, "A Nonconformist Conscience? Free Churchmen in Parliament in Nineteenth-Century England." Parliamentary History 24#1 (2005): 107-119.
  19. ^ Richard Helmstadter, "The Nonconformist Conscience" in Peter Marsh, ed., The Conscience of the Victorian State (1979) pp 135-72.
  20. ^ John F. Glaser, "English Nonconformity and the Decline of Liberalism." American Historical Review 63.2 (1958): 352-363. in JSTOR
  21. ^ G. I. T. Machin, "Resistance to Repeal of the Test and Corporation Acts, 1828." Historical Journal 22#1 (1979): 115-139.
  22. ^ Richard W. Davis, "The Strategy of 'Dissent' in the Repeal Campaign, 1820-1828." Journal of Modern History 38.4 (1966): 374-393 in JSTOR.
  23. ^ Olive Anderson, "Gladstone's Abolition of Compulsory Church Rates: a Minor Political Myth and its Historiographical Career." Journal of Ecclesiastical History 25#2 (1974): 185-198.
  24. ^ G. I. T. Machin, "Gladstone and Nonconformity in the 1860s: The Formation of an Alliance'." Historical Journal 17 (1974): 347-64.
  25. ^ Jacob P. Ellens, Religious Routes to Gladstonian Liberalism: The Church Rate Conflict in England and Wales 1852-1868 (2010).
  26. ^ Richard Helmstadter, "The Nonconformist Conscience" in Peter Marsh, ed., The Conscience of the Victorian State (1979) pp 144-47.
  27. ^ Helmstadter, "The Nonconformist Conscience" p 147.
  28. ^ Edward C. Mack, Public Schools and British Opinion since 1860 (1941) online.
  29. ^ John, Juliet, ed. (2016). The Oxford Handbook of Victorian Literary Culture. Oxford: Oxford University Press. pp. 1-2. 
  30. ^ Peter Bailey, Leisure and class in Victorian England: Rational recreation and the contest for control, 1830-1885 (Routledge, 2014)
  31. ^ Hazel Conway, People's parks: the design and development of Victorian parks in Britain (Cambridge University Press, 1991)
  32. ^ Brenda Assael, The circus and Victorian society (U of Virginia Press, 2005)
  33. ^ a b "19th century Circus Peep behind the scenes". Fairsarefun.net. 6 January 1990. Archived from the original on 11 March 2012. Retrieved 2011. 
  34. ^ Alison Winter, Mesmerized: powers of mind in Victorian Britain (U of Chicago Press, 2000)
  35. ^ Lynn L. Merrill, The romance of Victorian natural history (Oxford University Press, 1989)
  36. ^ Simon Naylor, "The field, the museum and the lecture hall: the spaces of natural history in Victorian Cornwall." Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers (2002) 27#4 pp: 494-513. online
  37. ^ John K. Walton, The English seaside resort. A social history 1750-1914 (Leicester University Press, 1983)
  38. ^ William J. Baker, "The state of British sport history." Journal of Sport History 10.1 (1983): 53-66. online
  39. ^ Joe Maguire, "Images of manliness and competing ways of living in late Victorian and Edwardian Britain." International Journal of the History of Sport 3.3 (1986): 265-287.
  40. ^ Keith Sandiford, Cricket and the Victorians (Routledge Press, 1994).
  41. ^ "Victorian Games & Sports, Tennis, Cricket, Football, Croquet, Cycling" in Victorian-Era.org Online
  42. ^ Houghton, The Victorian Frame of Mind, p. 5
  43. ^ Bernard Porter, Britannia's Burden: The Political Evolution of Modern Britain 1851-1890 (1994) ch 3
  44. ^ F. M. L. Thompson, Rise of Respectable Society: A Social History of Victorian Britain, 1830-1900 (1988) pP 211-14
  45. ^ Porter, ch 1-3; K Theodore Hoppen, The Mid-Victorian Generation: 1846-1886 (1998), ch 1 to 3, 9-11
  46. ^ Llewellyn Woodward, The Age of Reform, 1815-1870 (2nd ed. 1962) p 629
  47. ^ Lionel Thomas Caswell Rolt, Victorian engineering (Penguin, 1974).
  48. ^ Herbert L. Sussman, Victorian technology: invention, innovation, and the rise of the machine (ABC-CLIO, 2009)
  49. ^ John R. Kellett, The impact of railways on Victorian cities (Routledge, 2007).
  50. ^ Tom Standage, The Victorian Internet: The remarkable story of the telegraph and the nineteenth century's online pioneers (Weidenfeld & Nicolson, 1998).
  51. ^ Anthony S. Wohl, Endangered lives: public health in Victorian Britain (JM Dent and Sons, 1983)
  52. ^ Jack Simmons and Gordon Biddle, eds., The Oxford Companion to British Railway History: From 1603 to the 1990s (2nd ed. 1999)
  53. ^ L.T.C. Rolt, George & Robert Stephenson: The Railway Revolution (1960).
  54. ^ For example see John H. Jensen and Gerhard Rosegger. "British Railway Builders along the Lower Danube, 1856-1869." Slavonic and East European Review 46#106 (1968): 105-128; H. R. Stones, British railways in Argentina 1860-1948 (1993)
  55. ^ Charles Walker, Thomas Brassey: railway builder (1969).
  56. ^ Mark Casson, The World's First Railway System: Enterprise, Competition, and Regulation on the Railway Network in Victorian Britain (2009).
  57. ^ R. S Joby, The Railway Builders: Lives and Works of the Victorian Railway Contractors (1983)
  58. ^ Ian J. Kerr, Building the Railways of the Raj, 1850-1900 (1995).
  59. ^ "Dr William Green Morton (1819-68)". General-anaesthesia.com. Retrieved 2010. 
  60. ^ a b c "History of chloroform anaesthesia". General-anaesthesia.com. Retrieved 2010. 
  61. ^ Ralph R. Frerichs. "Anesthesia and Queen Victoria". Ph.ucla.edu. Retrieved 2010. 
  62. ^ a b c "h2g2 - Waterloo Teeth: A History of Dentures". BBC. 24 August 2005. Retrieved 2010. 
  63. ^ "Waterloo Teeth". Historyhome.co.uk. Retrieved 2010. 
  64. ^ a b "Joseph Lister". Web.ukonline.co.uk. 10 February 1912. Retrieved 2010. 
  65. ^ "Malthus, An Essay on the Principle of Population: Library of Economics"
  66. ^ Simon Szreter, Fertility, class and gender in Britain, 1860-1940 (Cambridge University Press, 2002).
  67. ^ Bradlaw and Besant published 'Fruits of Philosophy', which is a publication about birth control.
  68. ^ a b Szreter, Simon (1988). "The importance of social intervention in Britain's mortality decline c.1850-1914: A re-interpretation of the role of public health". Social History of Medicine. 1: 1-37. doi:10.1093/shm/1.1.1.  (subscription required)
  69. ^ Robert W. Fogel, The Escape from Hunger and Premature Death, 1700-2100: Europe, America, and the Third World (Cambridge Studies in Population, Economy and Society in Past Time) (2004) p 40
  70. ^ Peter Vinten-Johansen et al. Cholera, Chloroform, and the Science of Medicine: A Life of John Snow (2003) p. 355
  71. ^ D. W. Bebbington, The Nonconformist Conscience: Chapel and Politics, 1870-1914 (George Allen & Unwin, 1982)
  72. ^ David L. Wykes, "Introduction: Parliament and Dissent from the Restoration to the Twentieth Century," Parliamentary History (2005) 24#1 pp 1-26
  73. ^ Houghton, The Victorian Frame of Mind, p. 1
  74. ^ Wohl, Anthony S. (1978). The Victorian family: structure and stresses. London: Croom Helm. ISBN 9780856644382. 
    Cited in: Summerscale, Kate (2008). The suspicions of Mr. Whicher or the murder at Road Hill House. London: Bloomsbury. pp. 109-110. ISBN 9780747596486.  (novel)
  75. ^ Andrew Marr, My trade: a short history of British journalism (2004) p. 13
  76. ^ Reginald Watters, "Thomas Barnes and 'The Times' 1817-1841," History Today (1979) 29#9 pp 561-68
  77. ^ Trowbridge H. Ford, "Political Coverage in 'The Times,' 1811-41: The Role of Barnes and Brougham," Bulletin of the Institute of Historical Research (1986) 59#139, pp 91-107.
  78. ^ Alan Hankinson, Man of Wars: William Howard Russell of 'The Times' (1982)
  79. ^ G. R. Searle, A New England?: Peace and War, 1886-1918 (Oxford University Press, 2004), 529-70.
  80. ^ Hugh Cunningham, Time, work and leisure: Life changes in England since 1700 (2014)
  81. ^ John K. Walton, The English seaside resort. A social history 1750-1914 (1983).
  82. ^ Searle, A New England? pp 547-53
  83. ^ H.J. Dyos, "The speculative builders and developers of Victorian London." Victorian Studies 11 (1968): 641-690. in JSTOR
  84. ^ Christopher Powell, The British building industry since 1800: An economic history (Taylor & Francis, 1996).
  85. ^ P. Kemp, "Housing landlordism in late nineteenth-century Britain." Environment and Planning A 14.11 (1982): 1437-1447.
  86. ^ H.J. Dyos, "The Slums of Victorian London." Victorian Studies 11.1 (1967): 5-40. in JSTOR
  87. ^ Anthony S. Wohl, The eternal slum: housing and social policy in Victorian London (1977).
  88. ^ Martin J. Daunton, House and home in the Victorian city: working class housing, 1850-1914 (1983).
  89. ^ J. A. R. Marriott, Modern England: 1885-1945 (4th ed., 1948) p 166.
  90. ^ a b c Barbara Daniels, Poverty and Families in the Victorian Era
  91. ^ a b Testimony Gathered by Ashley's Mines Commission Laura Del Col, West Virginia University
  92. ^ Jane Humphries, Childhood & Child Labour in The British Industrial Revolution (Cambridge UP, 2016).
  93. ^ Del Col, Laura (1988). "The Life of the Industrial Worker in Ninteenth-Century [sic] England". The Victorian Web. Retrieved 2015. 
  94. ^ a b Child Labor David Cody, Hartwick College
  95. ^ Rebecca Probert, "Living in Sin," BBC History Magazine (September 2012); G. Frost, Living in Sin: Cohabiting as Husband and Wife in Nineteenth-Century England (Manchester U.P. 2008)
  96. ^ Judith R. Walkowitz, Prostitution and Victorian society: Women, class, and the state (1982).
  97. ^ Nancy Boyd, Three Victorian Women Who Changed Their World: Josephine Butler, Octavia Hill, Florence Nightingale (1982)
  98. ^ George Watt, The fallen woman in the nineteenth-century English novel (1984)
  99. ^ Judith R. Walkowitz, "Male vice and feminist virtue: feminism and the politics of prostitution in nineteenth-century Britain." History Workshop (1982) 13:79-93. in JSTOR
  100. ^ a b c d e f g h i Swisher, Clarice, ed. Victorian England. San Diego: Greenhaven Press, 2000. pp. 248-250
  101. ^ "Anthony Brooke". The Daily Telegraph. 8 July 2012. 
  102. ^ Vallely, Paul (25 April 2006). "1841: A window on Victorian Britain". London: Independent.co.uk. Retrieved 2010. 
  103. ^ "Illustrated London News". Iln.org.uk. Retrieved 2010. 
  104. ^ California Gold Rush Archived 24 November 2011 at the Wayback Machine.. Robert Whaples, Wake Forest University.
  105. ^ Farwell, Byron (2009). Queen Victoria's Little Wars. Pen & Sword Books. ISBN 9781848840157. 
  106. ^ "Is this what Labour's next Clause four should say?". Fabians.org.uk. Retrieved 2010. 
  107. ^ "1870 Education Act". Retrieved 2009. 

References

  • Hobsbawm, Eric (1997). The Age of Capital, 1848-1875. London: Abacus. 
  • Houghton, Walter E. (1957). The Victorian frame of mind, 1830-1870 (16. printing. ed.). New Haven: Yale Univ. Press for Wesley College. ISBN 0-300-00122-3. 
  • Clarice Swisher, ed. (2000). Victorian England. San Diego: Greenhaven Press. 

Further reading

  • Adams, James, ed. Encyclopedia of the Victorian Era (4 Vol. 2004), short essays on a wide range of topics by experts
  • Altick, Richard Daniel. Victorian People and Ideas: A Companion for the Modern Reader of Victorian Literature. W.W. Norton & Company: 1974. ISBN 0-393-09376-X.
  • Bailey, Peter. Leisure and class in Victorian England: Rational recreation and the contest for control, 1830-1885 (Routledge, 2014).
  • Bourne, Kenneth. The foreign policy of Victorian England, 1830-1902 (Oxford UP, 1970.) pp 195-504 are 147 "Selected documents"
  • Boyd, Kelly and Rohan McWilliam, eds. The Victorian Studies Reader (2007) 467pp; articles and excerpts by scholars excepts and text search
  • Bright, J. Franck. A History Of England. Period 4: Growth Of Democracy: Victoria 1837-1880 (1902)online 608pp; highly detailed political narrative
  • Burton, Antoinette, ed. Politics and Empire in Victorian Britain: A Reader. Palgrave Macmillan: 2001. ISBN 0-312-29335-6.
  • Clark, G. Kitson The making of Victorian England (1963).
  • Ensor, R. C. K. England, 1870-1914 (1936) online
  • Flanders, Judith. Inside the Victorian Home: A Portrait of Domestic Life in Victorian England. W.W. Norton & Company: 2004. ISBN 0-393-05209-5.
  • Harrison, J.F.C. Late Victorian Britain 1875-1901 (Routledge, 2013).
  • Heffer, Simon. High Minds: The Victorians and the Birth of Modern Britain (2014), survey to 1880.
  • Heffer, Simon. The Age of Decadence: Britain 1880 to 1914 (2017), wide-ranging scholarly survey.
  • Heilmann, Ann, and Mark Llewellyn, eds. Neo-Victorianism: The Victorians in the Twenty-First Century, 1999-2009 (Palgrave Macmillan; 2011) 323 pages; looks at recent literary & cinematic, interest in the Victorian era, including magic, sexuality, theme parks, and the postcolonial
  • Hoppen, K. Theodore. The Mid-Victorian Generation 1846-1886 (New Oxford History of England) (2000), comprehensive scholarly history excerpt and text search
  • McCord, Norman and Bill Purdue. British History, 1815-1914 (2nd ed. 2007), 612 pp online, university textbook
  • Marriott, J. A. R. England Since Waterloo (1913) online
  • Martin, Howard.Britain in the 19th Century (Challenging History series, 2000) 409pp; textbook; emphasizing politics, diplomacy and use of primary sources
  • Mitchell, Sally. Daily Life in Victorian England. Greenwood Press: 1996. ISBN 0-313-29467-4.
  • Paul, Herbert. History of Modern England, 1904-6 (5 vols) vol 2 online 1855-1865
  • Roberts, Clayton and David F. Roberts. A History of England, Volume 2: 1688 to the present (2013) university textbook; 1985 edition online
  • Steinbach, Susie L. Understanding the Victorians: Politics, Culture and Society in Nineteenth-Century Britain (2012) excerpt and text search
  • Walpole, Spencer. A History of England from the Conclusion of the Great War in 1815 (6 vol. 1878-86), very well written political narrative to 1855; online
    • Walpole, Spencer. History of Twenty-Five Years (4 vol. 1904-1908) covers 1856-1880; online
  • Weiler, Peter. The New Liberalism: Liberal Social Theory in Great Britain, 1889-1914 (Routledge, 2016).
  • Wilson, A. N. The Victorians. Arrow Books: 2002. ISBN 0-09-945186-7
  • Woodward, E. L. The Age of Reform: 1815-1870 (1954) comprehensive survey online

Historiography

  • Burton, Antoinette. "Victorian History: Some Experiments with Syllabi." Victorian Studies 54.2 (2012): 305-311.
  • Elton, G.R. Modern Historians on British History 1485-1945: A Critical Bibliography 1945-1969 (1969), annotated guide to 1000 history books on every major topic, plus book reviews and major scholarly articles. online
  • Goodlad, Lauren ME. "'A Middle Class Cut into Two': Historiography and Victorian National Character." ELH 67.1 (2000): 143-178.
  • Homans, Margaret, and Adrienne Munich, eds. Remaking Queen Victoria (Cambridge University Press, 1997)
  • Kent, Christopher. "Victorian social history: post-Thompson, post-Foucault, postmodern." Victorian Studies (1996): 97-133. [ in JSTOR]
  • Mays, Kelly J. "Looking backward, looking forward: the Victorians in the rear-view mirror of future history." Victorian Studies 53.3 (2011): 445-456.
  • Moore, D. C. "In Search of a New Past: 1820 - 1870," in Richard Schlatter, ed., Recent Views on British History: Essays on Historical Writing since 1966 (Rutgers UP, 1984), pp 255 - 298
  • Parry, J. P. "The State of Victorian Political History." Historical Journal (1983) 26#2 pp. 469-484 online
  • Sandiford, Keith AP. "The Victorians at play: Problems in historiographical methodology." Journal of Social History (1981): 271-288. in JSTOR
  • Stansky, Peter. "British History: 1870 - 1914," in Richard Schlatter, ed., Recent Views on British History: Essays on Historical Writing since 1966 (Rutgers UP, 1984), pp 299 - 326
  • Vernon, James. "Historians and the Victorian Studies Question." Victorian Studies 47.2 (2005): 272-79
  • Webb, R.K. Modern England: from the 18th century to the present (1968) online widely recommended university textbook

Primary sources

  • Black, E.C. ed. British politics in the nineteenth century (1969) online

External links


  This article uses material from the Wikipedia page available here. It is released under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0.


Victorian_era
 



 

Top US Cities