Vietnamese Language
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Vietnamese Language
ti?ng Vi?t
Pronunciation[t vìt] (Northern)
[t jì?k] (Southern)
Native toVietnam
Native speakers
96 million (2017)
Latin (Vietnamese alphabet)
Vietnamese Braille
Ch? nôm
Official status
Official language in
Recognised minority
language in
Language codes
Natively Vietnamese-speaking areas.png
Natively Vietnamese-speaking (non-minority) areas of Vietnam[4]
This article contains IPA phonetic symbols. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Unicode characters. For a guide to IPA symbols, see Help:IPA.
Percentage of Vietnamese people, by province[5]

Vietnamese (ti?ng Vi?t) is an Austroasiatic language that originated in Vietnam, where it is the national and official language. It is the native language of the Vietnamese (Kinh) people, as well as a first or second language for the many ethnic minorities of Vietnam. As a result of Vietnamese emigration and cultural influence, Vietnamese speakers are found throughout the world, notably in East and Southeast Asia, North America, Australia and Western Europe. Vietnamese has also been officially recognized as a minority language in the Czech Republic.

Vietnamese is the Austroasiatic language with by far the most speakers, several times as many as the rest of the family combined.[6] Its vocabulary has borrowings from Chinese, and it formerly used a modified set of Chinese characters called ch? nôm given vernacular pronunciation. The Vietnamese alphabet (ch? qu?c ng?) in use today is a Latin alphabet with additional diacritics for tones and certain letters.

Geographic distribution

As a national language, Vietnamese is the official language used by everyone in Vietnam. It is similar to Yue Yu () spoken by the Gin in southern Guangxi Province in China.[7] However, the language spoken by the Gin is unintelligible to Vietnamese, although they share many similarities. A significant number of native speakers also reside in neighboring Cambodia and Laos.

In the United States, Vietnamese is the fifth most spoken language, with over 1.5 million speakers, who are concentrated in a handful of states. It is the third most spoken language in Texas and Washington; fourth in Georgia, Louisiana, and Virginia; and fifth in Arkansas and California.[8] Vietnamese is the seventh most spoken language in Australia.[9] In France, it is the most spoken Asian language and the eighth most spoken immigrant language at home.[10]

Official status

Vietnamese is the sole official and national language of Vietnam. It is the first language of the majority of the Vietnamese population, as well as a first or second language for the country's ethnic minority groups. [11]

In the Czech Republic, Vietnamese has been recognized as one of 14 minority languages, on the basis of communities that have resided in the country either traditionally or on a long-term basis.[12] This status grants Czech citizens from the Vietnamese community the right to use Vietnamese with public authorities and at courts anywhere in the country. Moreover, it also grants the use of Vietnamese in public signage, election information, cultural institutions, and access to legal information and assistance in municipalities where at least 10% of the population is of the minority group.

As a foreign language

Vietnamese is increasingly being taught in schools and institutions outside of Vietnam. In countries with strongly established Vietnamese-speaking communities such as Australia, Canada, France, and the United States, Vietnamese language education largely serves as a cultural role to link descendants of Vietnamese immigrants to their ancestral culture. Meanwhile, in countries near Vietnam such as Cambodia, Laos, South Korea, and Thailand, the increased role of Vietnamese in foreign language education is largely due to the growth and influence of Vietnam's economy.[13][14]

Since the 1980s, Vietnamese language schools (trng Vi?t ng?) have been established for youth in many Vietnamese-speaking communities around the world, notably in the United States.[15][16]

Historic and stronger trade and diplomatic relations with Vietnam and a growing interest among the French Vietnamese population (one of France's most established non-European ethnic groups) of their ancestral culture have also led to an increasing number of institutions in France, including universities, to offer formal courses in the language.[17]

Since the late 1980s, the Vietnamese German community has enlisted the support of city governments to bring Vietnamese into high school curricula for the purpose of teaching and reminding Vietnamese German students of their mother-tongue. Furthermore, there has also been a number of Germans studying Vietnamese due to increased economic investment in Vietnam.[18][18][19]

Vietnamese is taught in schools in the form of dual immersion to a varying degree in Cambodia,[20] Laos,[21] and the United States.[22][23] Classes teach students subjects in Vietnamese and another language. Furthermore, in Thailand, Vietnamese is one of the most popular foreign languages in schools and colleges.[24]

Linguistic classification

Vietnamese was identified more than 150 years ago[25] as part of the Mon-Khmer branch of the Austroasiatic language family (a family that also includes Khmer, spoken in Cambodia, as well as various tribal and regional languages, such as the Munda and Khasi languages spoken in eastern India, and others in southern China). Later, Muong was found to be more closely related to Vietnamese than other Mon-Khmer languages, and a Viet-Muong subgrouping was established, also including Thavung, Chut, Cuoi, etc.[26] The term "Vietic" was proposed by Hayes (1992),[27] who proposed to redefine Viet-Muong as referring to a subbranch of Vietic containing only Vietnamese and Muong. The term "Vietic" is used, among others, by Gérard Diffloth, with a slightly different proposal on subclassification, within which the term "Viet-Muong" refers to a lower subgrouping (within an eastern Vietic branch) consisting of Vietnamese dialects, Muong dialects, and Ngu?n (of Qu?ng Bình Province).[28]


As a result of 1000 years of Chinese rule, much of the Vietnamese lexicon relating to science and politics is derived from Chinese -- see Sino-Vietnamese vocabulary. Some 30% to 60% of the lexical stock has naturalized word borrowings from Chinese, although many compound words are composed of native Vietnamese words combined with naturalized word borrowings (i.e. having Vietnamese pronunciation).[] As a result of French occupation, Vietnamese has since had many words borrowed from the French language, for example cà phê (from French café). Nowadays, many new words are being added to the language's lexicon due to heavy Western cultural influence; these are usually borrowed from English, for example TV (though usually seen in the written form as tivi). Sometimes these borrowings are calques literally translated into Vietnamese (for example, software is calqued into ph?n m?m, which literally means "soft part"). Some borrowings nowadays, usually names, are multi-syllabic, for example, Campuchia (Cambodia).


Vietnamese has two types of similes: Meaning Similes and Rhyming Similes. The following is an example of a Rhyming Simile:

Nghèo nh? con mèo
[w kn mw]
"Poor as a cat"

Compare the above rhyming Vietnamese example to the English phrase "(as) drunk as a skunk", which is also a rhyming simile, and "(as) poor as a church mouse", which is only semantic.[29]



Like other Southeast Asian languages, Vietnamese has a comparatively large number of vowels.

Below is a vowel diagram of Hanoi Vietnamese (including centering diphthongs):

  Front Central Back
Centering ia~iê [i] ?a~ [] ua~uô [u]
Close i/y [i] ? [?] u [u]
ê [e] ? [?:]
â [?]
ô [o]
e [?] a [a:]
? [a]
o [?]

Front and central vowels (i, ê, e, ?, â, ?, ?, a) are unrounded, whereas the back vowels (u, ô, o) are rounded. The vowels â [?] and ? [a] are pronounced very short, much shorter than the other vowels. Thus, ? and â are basically pronounced the same except that ? [?:] is of normal length while â [?] is short - the same applies to the vowels long a [a:] and short ? [a].[30]

The centering diphthongs are formed with only the three high vowels (i, ?, u). They are generally spelled as ia, ?a, ua when they end a word and are spelled , , , respectively, when they are followed by a consonant.

In addition to single vowels (or monophthongs) and centering diphthongs, Vietnamese has closing diphthongs[31] and triphthongs. The closing diphthongs and triphthongs consist of a main vowel component followed by a shorter semivowel offglide /j/ or /w/.[32] There are restrictions on the high offglides: /j/ cannot occur after a front vowel (i, ê, e) nucleus and /w/ cannot occur after a back vowel (u, ô, o) nucleus.[33]

  /w/ offglide /j/ offglide
Front Central Back
Centering iêu [iw] u [w] i [j] uôi [uj]
Close iu [iw] ?u [?w] ?i [?j] ui [uj]
êu [ew] -
âu [?w]
?i [?:j]
ây [?j]
ôi [oj]
eo [?w] ao [a:w]
au [aw]
ai [a:j]
ay [aj]
oi [?j]

The correspondence between the orthography and pronunciation is complicated. For example, the offglide /j/ is usually written as i; however, it may also be represented with y. In addition, in the diphthongs [?j] and [?:j] the letters y and i also indicate the pronunciation of the main vowel: ay = ? + /j/, ai = a + /j/. Thus, tay "hand" is [t?j] while tai "ear" is [t?:j]. Similarly, u and o indicate different pronunciations of the main vowel: au = ? + /w/, ao = a + /w/. Thus, thau "brass" is [tw] while thao "raw silk" is [t:w].


The consonants that occur in Vietnamese are listed below in the Vietnamese orthography with the phonetic pronunciation to the right.

Labial Dental/
Retroflex Palatal Velar Glottal
Nasal m [m] n [n] nh [?] ng/ngh [?]
Stop tenuis p [p] t [t] tr [?] ch [c] c/k/q [k]
aspirated th [t?]
glottalized b [?] ? [?]
Fricative voiceless ph [f] x [s] s [?] kh [x] h [h]
voiced v [v] d/gi [z~j] g/gh [?]
Approximant l [l] y/i [j] u/o [w]
Rhotic r [r]

Some consonant sounds are written with only one letter (like "p"), other consonant sounds are written with a digraph (like "ph"), and others are written with more than one letter or digraph (the velar stop is written variously as "c", "k", or "q").

Not all dialects of Vietnamese have the same consonant in a given word (although all dialects use the same spelling in the written language). See the language variation section for further elaboration.

The analysis of syllable-final orthographic ch and nh in Hanoi Vietnamese has had different analyses. One analysis has final ch, nh as being phonemes /c/, /?/ contrasting with syllable-final t, c /t/, /k/ and n, ng /n/, /?/ and identifies final ch with the syllable-initial ch /c/. The other analysis has final ch and nh as predictable allophonic variants of the velar phonemes /k/ and /?/ that occur after the upper front vowels i /i/ and ê /e/; although they also occur after a, but in such cases are believed to have resulted from an earlier e /?/ which diphthongized to ai (cf. ach from aic, anh from aing). (See Vietnamese phonology: Analysis of final ch, nh for further details.)


Pitch contours and duration of the six Northern Vietnamese tones as spoken by a male speaker (not from Hanoi). Fundamental frequency is plotted over time. From Nguy?n & Edmondson (1998).

Each Vietnamese syllable is pronounced with an inherent tone,[34] centered on the main vowel or group of vowels. Tones differ in:

Tone is indicated by diacritics written above or below the vowel (most of the tone diacritics appear above the vowel; however, the n?ng tone dot diacritic goes below the vowel).[35] The six tones in the northern varieties (including Hanoi), with their self-referential Vietnamese names, are:

Name Description Diacritic Example Sample vowel
ngang   'level' mid level (no mark) ma  'ghost' About this sounda 
huy?n   'hanging' low falling (often breathy) ` (grave accent)  'but' About this soundà 
s?c   'sharp' high rising ´ (acute accent)  'cheek, mother (southern)' About this soundá 
h?i   'asking' mid dipping-rising  ? (hook above) m?  'tomb, grave' About this sound? 
ngã   'tumbling' high breaking-rising ~ (tilde)  'horse (Sino-Vietnamese), code' About this soundã 
n?ng   'heavy' low falling constricted (short length)  ? (dot below) m?  'rice seedling' About this sound? 

Other dialects of Vietnamese have fewer tones (typically only five).

In Vietnamese poetry, tones are classed into two groups:

Tone group Tones within tone group
b?ng "level, flat" ngang and huy?n
tr?c "oblique, sharp" s?c, h?i, ngã, and n?ng

Words with tones belonging to a particular tone group must occur in certain positions within the poetic verse.

Vietnamese Catholics practice a distinctive style of prayer recitation called c kinh, in which each tone is assigned a specific note or sequence of notes.

Language variation

The Vietnamese language has several mutually intelligible regional varieties (or dialects). The five main dialects are as follows:[36]

Dialect region Localities Names under French colonization
Northern Vietnamese Hanoi, Haiphong, Red River Delta, Northwest and Northeast Tonkinese
North-central (or Area IV) Vietnamese Thanh Hoá, Ngh? An, Hà T?nh Annamese
Mid-Central Vietnamese Qu?ng Bình, Qu?ng Tr?, Hu?, Th?a Thiên Annamese
South-Central Vietnamese (or Area V) ?à N?ng, Qu?ng Nam, Qu?ng Ngãi, Bình nh, Phú Yên, Nha Trang Annamese
Southern Vietnamese Bà R?a-V?ng Tàu, Ho Chi Minh City, Lâm ng, Mekong Delta Cochinchinese

Vietnamese has traditionally been divided into three dialect regions: North, Central, and South. However, Michel Ferlus and Nguy?n Tài C?n offer evidence for considering a North-Central region separate from Central. The term Haut-Annam refers to dialects spoken from northern Ngh? An Province to southern (former) Th?a Thiên Province that preserve archaic features (like consonant clusters and undiphthongized vowels) that have been lost in other modern dialects.

These dialect regions differ mostly in their sound systems (see below), but also in vocabulary (including basic vocabulary, non-basic vocabulary, and grammatical words) and grammar.[37] The North-central and Central regional varieties, which have a significant amount of vocabulary differences, are generally less mutually intelligible to Northern and Southern speakers. There is less internal variation within the Southern region than the other regions due to its relatively late settlement by Vietnamese speakers (in around the end of the 15th century). The North-central region is particularly conservative; its pronunciation has diverged less from Vietnamese orthography than the other varieties, which tend to merge certain sounds. Along the coastal areas, regional variation has been neutralized to a certain extent, while more mountainous regions preserve more variation. As for sociolinguistic attitudes, the North-central varieties are often felt to be "peculiar" or "difficult to understand" by speakers of other dialects, despite the fact that their pronunciation fits the written language the most closely; this is typically because of various words in their vocabulary which are unfamiliar to other speakers (see the example vocabulary table below).

The large movements of people between North and South beginning in the mid-20th century and continuing to this day have resulted in a sizeable number of Southern residents speaking in the Northern accent/dialect and, to a greater extent, Northern residents speaking in the Southern accent/dialect. Following the Geneva Accords of 1954 that called for the temporary division of the country, about a million northerners (mainly from Hanoi, Haiphong and the surrounding Red River Delta areas) moved south (mainly to Saigon and heavily to Biên Hòa and V?ng Tàu, and the surrounding areas) as part of Operation Passage to Freedom. About 3% (~30,000) of that number of people made the move in the reverse direction (T?p k?t ra B?c, literally "go to the North.)

Following the reunification of Vietnam in 1975-76, Northern and North-Central speakers from the densely populated Red River Delta and the traditionally poorer provinces of Ngh? An, Hà T?nh and Qu?ng Bình have continued to move South to look for better economic opportunities, beginning with the Hanoi government's "New Economic Zones program" which lasted from 1975-85.[38] The first half of the program (1975-80), resulted in 1.3 million people sent to the New Economic Zones (NEZs), majority of which were relocated in the southern half of the country in previously uninhabited areas, of which 550,000 were Northerners.[38] The second half (1981-85) saw almost 1 million Northerners relocated to the NEZs.[38] As well, government and military personnel, many from Northern and north-central Vietnam, are posted to various locations throughout the country, often away from their home regions. More recently, the growth of the free market system has resulted in business people and tourists traveling to distant parts of Vietnam. These movements have resulted in some small blending of the dialects, but more significantly, have made the Northern dialect more easily understood in the South and vice versa. Most Southerners, when singing modern/old popular Vietnamese songs, do so in the Northern accent. This is true in Vietnam as well as in the overseas Vietnamese communities.

Regional variation in vocabulary[39]
Northern Northern Central Southern English gloss
này ni, này "this"
th? này nh? ri nh? v?y "thus, this way"
y n?, "that"
th?, th? ?y r?a, r?a tê v?y, v?y ?ó "thus, so, that way"
kia, kìa , t? "that yonder"
?âu ?âu "where"
nào m? nào "which"
t?i sao r?ng t?i sao "why"
th? nào, nh? nào r?ng, làm r?ng làm sao "how"
tôi tui tui "I, me (polite)"
tao tau tao "I, me (arrogant, familiar)"
chúng tao choa, b?n choa t?i tao, t?i tui "we, us (but not you, colloquial, familiar)"
mày mi mày "you (thou) (arrogant, familiar)"
chúng mày bây, b?n bây t?i m?y, t?i bây "you guys, y'all (arrogant, familiar)"
chúng nó b?n n? t?i nó "they/them (arrogant, familiar)"
ông ?y ông n? ?ng "he/him, that gentleman, sir"
bà ?y bà n? b? "she/her, that lady, madam"
anh ?y anh n? ?nh "he/him, that young man (of equal status)"
ru?ng nng ru?ng,r?y "field"
bát i chén "rice bowl"
b?n nh?p d? "dirty"
muôi môi "ladle"
u tr?c u "head"
li nhác làm bi?ng "lazy"
ô tô ô tô xe h?i "car"
thìa thìa mu?ng "spoon"

The syllable-initial ch and tr digraphs are pronounced distinctly in North-central, Central, and Southern varieties, but are merged in Northern varieties (i.e. they are both pronounced the same way). The North-central varieties preserve three distinct pronunciations for d, gi, and r whereas the North has a three-way merger and the Central and South have a merger of d and gi while keeping r distinct. At the end of syllables, palatals ch and nh have merged with alveolars t and n, which, in turn, have also partially merged with velars c and ng in Central and Southern varieties.

Regional consonant correspondences
Syllable position Orthography Northern North-central Central Southern
syllable-initial x [s] [s]
s [?] [s, ?][40]
ch [c] [c]
tr [?] [c, ?][40]
r [z] [r]
d [?] [j] [j]
gi [z]
v [v] [v, j][41]
syllable-final t [t] [k]
c [k]
after i, ê
[t] [t]
ch [k?]
after u, ô
[t] [kp]
after u, ô, o
n [n] [?]
ng [?]
after i, ê
[n] [n]
nh []
after u, ô
[n] [?m]
after u, ô, o

In addition to the regional variation described above, there is also a merger of l and n in certain rural varieties:

l, n variation
Orthography "Mainstream" varieties Rural varieties
n [n] [n]
l [l]

Variation between l and n can be found even in mainstream Vietnamese in certain words. For example, the numeral "five" appears as n?m by itself and in compound numerals like n?m mi "fifty" but appears as l?m in mi l?m "fifteen" (see Vietnamese grammar#Cardinal). In some northern varieties, this numeral appears with an initial nh instead of l: hai mi nh?m "twenty-five" vs. mainstream hai mi l?m.[42]

The consonant clusters that were originally present in Middle Vietnamese (of the 17th century) have been lost in almost all modern Vietnamese varieties (but retained in other closely related Vietic languages). However, some speech communities have preserved some of these archaic clusters: "sky" is bl?i with a cluster in H?o Nho (Yên Mô prefecture, Ninh Bình Province) but tr?i in Southern Vietnamese and gi?i in Hanoi Vietnamese (initial single consonants /?/, /z/, respectively).


Generally, the Northern varieties have six tones while those in other regions have five tones. The h?i and ngã tones are distinct in North and some North-central varieties (although often with different pitch contours) but have merged in Central, Southern, and some North-central varieties (also with different pitch contours). Some North-central varieties (such as Hà T?nh Vietnamese) have a merger of the ngã and n?ng tones while keeping the h?i tone distinct. Still other North-central varieties have a three-way merger of h?i, ngã, and n?ng resulting in a four-tone system. In addition, there are several phonetic differences (mostly in pitch contour and phonation type) in the tones among dialects.

Regional tone correspondences
Tone Northern North-central Central Southern
 Vinh  Thanh
Hà T?nh
ngang ? 33 35 35 35, 353 35 ? 33
huy?n 21? ? 33 ? 33 ? 33 ? 33 21
s?c 35 ? 11 ? 11, 13? 13? 13? 35
h?i ? 31?3 31 31 ? 31 312 214
ngã 3?5 13? 22?
n?ng ? 21 ? 22 22? 22? 212

The table above shows the pitch contour of each tone using Chao tone number notation (where 1 = lowest pitch, 5 = highest pitch); glottalization (creaky, stiff, harsh) is indicated with the ⟨⟩ symbol; murmured voice with ⟨⟩; glottal stop with ⟨?⟩; sub-dialectal variants are separated with commas. (See also the tone section below.)


Vietnamese, like many languages in Southeast Asia, is an analytic language. Vietnamese does not use morphological marking of case, gender, number or tense (and, as a result, has no finite/nonfinite distinction).[43] Also like other languages in the region, Vietnamese syntax conforms to subject-verb-object word order, is head-initial (displaying modified-modifier ordering), and has a noun classifier system. Additionally, it is pro-drop, wh-in-situ, and allows verb serialization.

Some Vietnamese sentences with English word glosses and translations are provided below.




giáo viên


Minh là {giáo viên}

Minh BE teacher.

"Min is a teacher."







Trí 13 tu?i

Trí 13 age

"Trí is 13 years old,"







Tài ?ang nói.

Tài PRES.CONT talk

"Tài is talking."



có v?



sinh viên

student (college)



h?c sinh.

student (under-college)

Mai {có v?} là {sinh viên} ho?c {h?c sinh}.

Mai seem BE {student (college)} or {student (under-college)}

"Mai seems to be a college or high school student."







Giáp r?t cao.

Giáp INT tall

"Giáp is very tall."






older brother





Ngi ?ó là anh c?a nó.

person that.DET BE {older brother} POSS 3.PRO

"That person is his/her brother."









bao gi?






Con chó này ch?ng {bao gi?} s?a c?.

CL dog DET NEG ever bark all

"This dog never barks at all."








Vi?t Nam




Nó ch? ?n c?m {Vi?t Nam} thôi.

3.PRO just eat rice.FAM Vietnam only

"He/she only eats Vietnamese rice (or food, especially spoken by the elderly)."











Tôi thích con ng?a ?en.

1.PRO like CL horse black

"I like the black horse."















Tôi thích cái con ng?a ?en ?ó.

1.PRO like FOC CL horse black DET

"I like that black horse."



? l?i








cho t?i










Hãy {? l?i} ?ây ít phút {cho t?i} khi tôi quay l?i.

HORT stay here few minute until when 1.PRO turn come

"Please stay here for a few minutes until I come back."

Dates and numbers writing formats

Vietnameses speak date in the format "[date] [month] [year]". Each month's name is just the ordinal of that month appended after the word tháng, which means "month". Traditional Vietnamese however assigns other names to some months and these names are mostly used in the lunar calendar.

English month name Vietnamese month name
Normal Traditional
January Tháng m?t Tháng giêng
February Tháng hai
March Tháng ba
April Tháng t?
May Tháng n?m
June Tháng sáu
July Tháng b?y
August Tháng tám
September Tháng chín
October Tháng mi
November Tháng mi m?t Tháng m?t
December Tháng mi hai Tháng ch?p

When written in the short form, "D/M/YYYY" is preferred.


  • English: 28 March 2018
  • Vietnamese long form: Ngày 28 tháng ba n?m 2018
  • Vietnamese short form: 28/3/2018

The Vietnamese prefer writing numbers with a comma as the decimal separator, and either spaces or dots to group the digits. An example is 1 629,15 (one thousand six hundred twenty-nine point fifteen). Because a comma is used as the decimal separator, a semicolon is used to separate two numbers instead.

Writing systems

In the bilingual dictionary Nh?t d?ng thng ?àm (1851), Chinese characters (ch? nho) are explained in ch? Nôm.
Jean-Louis Taberd's dictionary Dictionarium anamitico-latinum (1838) represents Vietnamese (then Annamese) words in the Latin alphabet and ch? Nôm.
A sign at the H?a Lò Prison museum in Hanoi lists rules for visitors in both Vietnamese and English.

Up to the late 19th century, two writing systems based on Chinese characters were used in Vietnam.[44] All formal writing, including government business, scholarship and formal literature, was done in Classical Chinese (ch? nho "scholar's characters").

Folk literature in Vietnamese was recorded using the ch? Nôm script, in which many Chinese characters were borrowed and many more modified and invented to represent native Vietnamese words. Created in the 13th century or earlier, the Nôm writing reached its zenith in the 18th century when many Vietnamese writers and poets composed their works in Nôm, most notably Nguy?n Du and H? Xuân Hng (dubbed "the Queen of Nôm poetry"). However it was only used for official purposes during the brief H? and Tây S?n dynasties.

A Vietnamese Catholic, Nguy?n Trng T?, sent petitions to the Court which suggested a Chinese character-based syllabary which would be used for Vietnamese sounds; however, his petition failed. The French colonial administration sought to eliminate the Chinese writing system, Confucianism, and other Chinese influences from Vietnam by getting rid of Nôm.[45]

A romanization of Vietnamese was codified in the 17th century by the French Jesuit missionary Alexandre de Rhodes (1591-1660), based on works of earlier Portuguese missionaries Gaspar do Amaral and António Barbosa. This Vietnamese alphabet (ch? qu?c ng? or "national script") was gradually expanded from its initial domain in Christian writing to become more popular among the general public. However, the Romanized script did not come to predominate until the beginning of the 20th century, when education became widespread and a simpler writing system was found more expedient for teaching and communication with the general population. Under French Indochina colonial rule, French superseded Chinese in administration. Vietnamese written with the alphabet became required for all public documents in 1910 by issue of a decree by the French Résident Supérieur of the protectorate of Tonkin. By the middle of the 20th century virtually all writing was done in ch? qu?c ng?, which became the official script on independence. Ch? nho was still in use on early North Vietnamese and late French Indochinese banknotes issued after World War II,[46][47] but fell out of official use shortly thereafter. Only a few scholars and some extremely elderly people are able to read ch? Nôm today. In China, members of the Jing minority still write in ch? Nôm.

Changes in the script were made by French scholars and administrators and by conferences held after independence during 1954-1974. The script now reflects a so-called Middle Vietnamese dialect that has vowels and final consonants most similar to northern dialects and initial consonants most similar to southern dialects (Nguy?n 1996). This Middle Vietnamese is presumably close to the Hanoi variety as spoken sometime after 1600 but before the present. (This is not unlike how English orthography is based on the Chancery Standard of Late Middle English, with many spellings retained even after the Great Vowel Shift.)

Computer support

The Unicode character set contains all Vietnamese characters and the Vietnamese currency symbol. On systems that do not support Unicode, many 8-bit Vietnamese code pages are available such as Vietnamese Standard Code for Information Interchange (VSCII) or Windows-1258. Where ASCII must be used, Vietnamese letters are often typed using the VIQR convention, though this is largely unnecessary with the increasing ubiquity of Unicode. There are many software tools that help type true Vietnamese text on US keyboards, such as WinVNKey and Unikey on Windows, or MacVNKey on Macintosh.


It seems likely that in the distant past, Vietnamese shared more characteristics common to other languages in the Austroasiatic family, such as an inflectional morphology and a richer set of consonant clusters, which have subsequently disappeared from the language. However, Vietnamese appears to have been heavily influenced by its location in the Mainland Southeast Asia linguistic area, with the result that it has acquired or converged toward characteristics such as isolating morphology and phonemically distinctive tones, through processes of tonogenesis. These characteristics have become part of many of the genetically unrelated languages of Southeast Asia; for example, Tsat (a member of the Malayo-Polynesian group within Austronesian), and Vietnamese each developed tones as a phonemic feature.

The ancestor of the Vietnamese language is usually believed to have been originally based in the area of the Red River in what is now northern Vietnam. However, Chamberlain argues that the Red River Delta region was originally Tai-speaking and became Vietnamese-speaking only between the seventh and ninth centuries AD, as a result of immigration from the south, i. e., modern central Vietnam, where the highly distinctive and conservative North-Central Vietnamese dialects are spoken today. Therefore, the region of origin of Vietnamese (and the earlier Viet-Muong) was well south of the Red River.[48]

Like the ethnonym Lao, the name Yue/Vi?t originally referred to Tai-Kadai-speaking groups. In northern Vietnam, these later adopted Viet-Muong and further north Chinese varieties, where the designation Yue Chinese preserves the ethnonym. (Both in Vietnam and southern China, however, many Tai-Kadai languages remain in use.) This explains the fact that the same ethnonym Yue ~ Vi?t is associated with groups that speak Tai-Kadai, Austroasiatic and Chinese languages, which are typologically similar and share significant amounts of lexicon, but have different origins.

Linguists Sagart (2011) and Bellwood (2013) favour the middle Yangzte, although there is no direct linguistic evidence for this, and the expansion of the phylum in its present form would have to begin further south.[49]

Distinctive tonal variations emerged during the subsequent expansion of the Vietnamese language and people into what is now central and southern Vietnam through conquest of the ancient nation of Champa and the Khmer people of the Mekong Delta in the vicinity of present-day Ho Chi Minh City, also known as Saigon.

Vietnamese was primarily influenced by Chinese, which came to predominate politically in the 2nd century BC. After Vietnam achieved independence in the 10th century, the ruling class adopted Classical Chinese as the medium of government, scholarship and literature. With the dominance of Chinese came radical importation of Chinese vocabulary and grammatical influence. A portion of the Vietnamese lexicon in all realms consists of Sino-Vietnamese words (They comprise about a third of the Vietnamese lexicon, and may account for as much as 60% of the vocabulary used in formal texts.[50])

When France invaded Vietnam in the late 19th century, French gradually replaced Chinese as the official language in education and government. Vietnamese adopted many French terms, such as m (dame, from madame), ga (train station, from gare), s? mi (shirt, from chemise), and búp bê (doll, from poupée). In addition, many Sino-Vietnamese terms were devised for Western ideas imported through the French.

Henri Maspero described six periods of the Vietnamese language:[51][52]

  1. Pre-Vietnamese, also known as Proto-Viet-Muong or Proto-Vietnamuong, the ancestor of Vietnamese and the related Muong language.
  2. Proto-Vietnamese, the oldest reconstructable version of Vietnamese, dated to just before the entry of massive amounts of Sino-Vietnamese vocabulary into the language, c. 7th to 9th century AD? At this state, the language had three tones.
  3. Archaic Vietnamese, the state of the language upon adoption of the Sino-Vietnamese vocabulary, c. 10th century AD.
  4. Ancient Vietnamese, the language represented by Ch? Nôm (c. 15th century) and the Chinese-Vietnamese glossary Huáyí Yìy? (Chinese: ? c. 15th century). By this point, a tone split had happened in the language, leading to six tones but a loss of contrastive voicing among consonants.
  5. Middle Vietnamese, the language of the Dictionarium Annamiticum Lusitanum et Latinum of the Jesuit missionary Alexandre de Rhodes (c. 17th century).
  6. Modern Vietnamese, from the 19th century.


The following diagram shows the phonology of Proto-Viet-Muong (the nearest ancestor of Vietnamese and the closely related Muong language), along with the outcomes in the modern language:[53][54][55][56]

Labial Dental/Alveolar Palatal Velar Glottal
Stop tenuis *p > b *t > ? *c > ch *k > k/c/q *? > #
voiced *b > b *d > ? *? > ch *? > k/c/q
aspirated *p? > ph *t? > th *k? > kh
voiced glottalized *? > m *? > n *? > nh 1
Nasal *m > m *n > n *? > nh *? > ng/ngh
Affricate voiceless *t? > x 1
Fricative voiceless *s > t *h > h
voiced 2 *(?) > v 3 *(ð) > d *(r?) > r 4 *(?) > gi *(?) > g/gh
Approximant *w > v *l > l *r > r *j > d

^1 According to Ferlus, */t?/ and */?/ are not accepted by all researchers. Ferlus 1992[53] also had additional phonemes */d?/ and */?/.

^2 The fricatives indicated above in parentheses developed as allophones of stop consonants occurring between vowels (i.e. when a minor syllable occurred). These fricatives were not present in Proto-Viet-Muong, as indicated by their absence in Muong, but were evidently present in the later Proto-Vietnamese stage. Subsequent loss of the minor-syllable prefixes phonemicized the fricatives. Ferlus 1992[53] proposes that originally there were both voiced and voiceless fricatives, corresponding to original voiced or voiceless stops, but Ferlus 2009[54] appears to have abandoned that hypothesis, suggesting that stops were softened and voiced at approximately the same time, according to the following pattern:

  • *p, *b > /?/
  • *t, *d > /ð/
  • *s > /r?/
  • *c, *?, *t? > /?/
  • *k, *? > /?/

^3 In Middle Vietnamese, the outcome of these sounds was written with a hooked b (?), representing a /?/ that was still distinct from v (then pronounced /w/). See below.

^4 It is unclear what this sound was. According to Ferlus 1992,[53] in the Archaic Vietnamese period (c. 10th century AD, when Sino-Vietnamese vocabulary was borrowed) it was *r?, distinct at that time from *r.

The following initial clusters occurred, with outcomes indicated:

  • *pr, *br, *tr, *dr, *kr, *gr > /k?r/ > /k?/ > s
  • *pl, *bl > MV bl > Northern gi, Southern tr
  • *kl, *gl > MV tl > tr
  • *ml > MV ml > mnh > nh
  • *kj > gi

Note also that a large number of words were borrowed from Middle Chinese, forming part of the Sino-Vietnamese vocabulary. These caused the original introduction of the retroflex sounds /?/ and /?/ (modern s, tr) into the language.

Origin of the tones

Proto-Viet-Muong had no tones to speak of. The tones later developed in some of the daughter languages from distinctions in the initial and final consonants. Vietnamese tones developed as follows:

Register Initial consonant Smooth ending Glottal ending Fricative ending
High (first) register Voiceless A1 ngang "level" B1 s?c "sharp" C1 h?i "asking"
Low (second) register Voiced A2 huy?n "hanging" B2 n?ng "heavy" C2 ngã "tumbling"

Glottal-ending syllables ended with a glottal stop /?/, while fricative-ending syllables ended with /s/ or /h/. Both types of syllables could co-occur with a resonant (e.g. /m/ or /n/).

At some point, a tone split occurred, as in many other Southeast Asian languages. Essentially, an allophonic distinction developed in the tones, whereby the tones in syllables with voiced initials were pronounced differently from those with voiceless initials. (Approximately speaking, the voiced allotones were pronounced with additional breathy voice or creaky voice and with lowered pitch. The quality difference predominates in today's northern varieties, e.g. in Hanoi, while in the southern varieties the pitch difference predominates, as in Ho Chi Minh City.) Subsequent to this, the plain-voiced stops became voiceless and the allotones became new phonemic tones. Note that the implosive stops were unaffected, and in fact developed tonally as if they were unvoiced. (This behavior is common to all East Asian languages with implosive stops.)

As noted above, Proto-Viet-Muong had sesquisyllabic words with an initial minor syllable (in addition to, and independent of, initial clusters in the main syllable). When a minor syllable occurred, the main syllable's initial consonant was intervocalic and as a result suffered lenition, becoming a voiced fricative. The minor syllables were eventually lost, but not until the tone split had occurred. As a result, words in modern Vietnamese with voiced fricatives occur in all six tones, and the tonal register reflects the voicing of the minor-syllable prefix and not the voicing of the main-syllable stop in Proto-Viet-Muong that produced the fricative. For similar reasons, words beginning with /l/ and /?/ occur in both registers. (Thompson 1976[56] reconstructed voiceless resonants to account for outcomes where resonants occur with a first-register tone, but this is no longer considered necessary, at least by Ferlus.)

Middle Vietnamese

The writing system used for Vietnamese is based closely on the system developed by Alexandre de Rhodes for his 1651 Dictionarium Annamiticum Lusitanum et Latinum. It reflects the pronunciation of the Vietnamese of Hanoi at that time, a stage commonly termed Middle Vietnamese (ti?ng Vi?t trung i). The pronunciation of the "rime" of the syllable, i.e. all parts other than the initial consonant (optional /w/ glide, vowel nucleus, tone and final consonant), appears nearly identical between Middle Vietnamese and modern Hanoi pronunciation. On the other hand, the Middle Vietnamese pronunciation of the initial consonant differs greatly from all modern dialects, and in fact is significantly closer to the modern Saigon dialect than the modern Hanoi dialect.

The following diagram shows the orthography and pronunciation of Middle Vietnamese:

Labial Dental/
Retroflex Palatal Velar Glottal
Nasal m [m] n [n] nh [?] ng/ngh [?]
Stop tenuis p [p]1 t [t] tr [?] ch [c] c/k [k]
aspirated ph [p?] th [t?] kh [k?]
voiced glottalized b [?] ? [?]
Fricative voiceless s/s [?] x [?] h [h]
voiced ? [?]2 d [ð] gi [?] g/gh [?]
Approximant v/u/o [w] l [l] y/i/? [j]3
Rhotic r [r]
The first page of the ? section in Alexandre de Rhodes's Dictionarium Annamiticum Lusitanum et Latinum (Vietnamese-Portuguese-Latin dictionary)

^1 [p] occurs only at the end of a syllable.
^2 This symbol, "Latin small letter B with flourish", looks like: ?. It has a rounded hook that starts halfway up the left side (where the top of the curved part of the b meets the vertical, straight part) and curves about 180 degrees counterclockwise, ending below the bottom-left corner.
^3 [j] does not occur at the beginning of a syllable, but can occur at the end of a syllable, where it is notated i or y (with the difference between the two often indicating differences in the quality or length of the preceding vowel), and after /ð/ and /?/, where it is notated ?. This ?, and the /j/ it notated, have disappeared from the modern language.

Note that b [?] and p [p] never contrast in any position, suggesting that they are allophones.

The language also has three clusters at the beginning of syllables, which have since disappeared:

  • tl /tl/ > modern tr
  • bl /?l/ > modern gi (Northern), tr (Southern)
  • ml /ml/ > mnh /m?/ > modern nh

Most of the unusual correspondences between spelling and modern pronunciation are explained by Middle Vietnamese. Note in particular:

  • de Rhodes' system has two different b letters, a regular b and a "hooked" b in which the upper section of the curved part of the b extends leftward past the vertical bar and curls down again in a semicircle. This apparently represented a voiced bilabial fricative /?/. Within a century or so, both /?/ and /w/ had merged as /v/, spelled as v.
  • de Rhodes' system has a second medial glide /j/ that is written ? and appears in some words with initial d and hooked b. These later disappear.
  • ? /?/ was (and still is) alveolar, whereas d /ð/ was dental. The choice of symbols was based on the dental rather than alveolar nature of /d/ and its allophone [ð] in Spanish and other Romance languages. The inconsistency with the symbols assigned to /?/ vs. /?/ was based on the lack of any such place distinction between the two, with the result that the stop consonant /?/ appeared more "normal" than the fricative /?/. In both cases, the implosive nature of the stops does not appear to have had any role in the choice of symbol.
  • x was the alveolo-palatal fricative /?/ rather than the dental /s/ of the modern language. In 17th-century Portuguese, the common language of the Jesuits, s was the apico-alveolar sibilant /s?/ (as still in much of Spain and some parts of Portugal), while x was a palatoalveolar /?/. The similarity of apicoalveolar /s?/ to the Vietnamese retroflex /?/ led to the assignment of s and x as above.
de Rhodes's entry for d?óu? shows distinct breves, acutes and apices.

De Rhodes's orthography also made use of an apex diacritic to indicate a final labial-velar nasal /m/, an allophone of /?/ that is peculiar to the Hanoi dialect to the present day. This diacritic is often mistaken for a tilde in modern reproductions of early Vietnamese writing.

Word play

A language game known as nói lái is used by Vietnamese speakers.[57]Nói lái involves switching the tones in a pair of words and also the order of the two words or the first consonant and rime of each word; the resulting nói lái pair preserves the original sequence of tones. Some examples:

Original phrase Phrase after nói lái transformation Structural change
?ái d?m "(child) pee " -> d?m ?ài (nonsense words) word order and tone switch
ch?a hoang "pregnancy out of wedlock" -> ho?ng ch?a "scared yet?" word order and tone switch
b?y tôi "all the king's subjects" -> b?i tây "French waiter" initial consonant, rime, and tone switch
bí m?t "secrets" -> b?t mí "revealing secrets" initial consonant and rime switch

The resulting transformed phrase often has a different meaning but sometimes may just be a nonsensical word pair. Nói lái can be used to obscure the original meaning and thus soften the discussion of a socially sensitive issue, as with d?m ?ài and ho?ng ch?a (above) or, when implied (and not overtly spoken), to deliver a hidden subtextual message, as with b?i tây.[58] Naturally, nói lái can be used for a humorous effect.[59]

Another word game somewhat reminiscent of pig latin is played by children. Here a nonsense syllable (chosen by the child) is prefixed onto a target word's syllables, then their initial consonants and rimes are switched with the tone of the original word remaining on the new switched rime.

Nonsense syllable Target word Intermediate form with prefixed syllable Resulting "secret" word
la ph? "beef or chicken noodle soup" -> la ph? -> l? ph?
la ?n "to eat" -> la ?n -> l?n a
la hoàn c?nh "situation" -> la hoàn la c?nh -> loan hà lanh c?
chim hoàn c?nh "situation" -> chim hoàn chim c?nh -> choan hìm chanh k?m

This language game is often used as a "secret" or "coded" language useful for obscuring messages from adult comprehension.


The Tale of Kieu is an epic narrative poem by the celebrated poet Nguy?n Du, (), which is often considered the most significant work of Vietnamese literature. It was originally written in Ch? Nôm (titled ?o?n Trng Tân Thanh ?) and is widely taught in Vietnam today.

See also


  1. ^ Citizens belonging to minorities, which traditionally and on long-term basis live within the territory of the Czech Republic, enjoy the right to use their language in communication with authorities and in front of the courts of law (for the list of recognized minorities see National Minorities Policy of the Government of the Czech Republic, Belorussian and Vietnamese since 4 July 2013, see ?esko má nové oficiální národnostní men?iny. Vietnamce a B?lorusy). The article 25 of the Czech Charter of Fundamental Rights and Basic Freedoms ensures right of the national and ethnic minorities for education and communication with authorities in their own language. Act No. 500/2004 Coll. (The Administrative Rule) in its paragraph 16 (4) (Procedural Language) ensures, that a citizen of the Czech Republic, who belongs to a national or an ethnic minority, which traditionally and on long-term basis lives within the territory of the Czech Republic, have right to address an administrative agency and proceed before it in the language of the minority. In the case that the administrative agency doesn't have an employee with knowledge of the language, the agency is bound to obtain a translator at the agency's own expense. According to Act No. 273/2001 (About The Rights of Members of Minorities) paragraph 9 (The right to use language of a national minority in dealing with authorities and in front of the courts of law) the same applies for the members of national minorities also in front of the courts of law.
  2. ^ "Languages of ASEAN". Retrieved 2017.
  3. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Vietnamese". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
  4. ^ From Ethnologue (2009, 2013)
  5. ^ "The 2009 Vietnam Population and Housing Census: Completed Results". General Statistics Office of Vietnam: Central Population and Housing Census Steering Committee. June 2010. Archived from the original on October 18, 2013. Retrieved 2013.
  6. ^ George van Driem (2001). Languages of the Himalayas: An Ethnolinguistic Handbook. Brill Publishers. p. 264. Of the approximately 90 millions speakers of Austroasiatic languages, over 70 million speak Vietnamese, nearly ten million speak Khmer and roughly five million speak Santali.
  7. ^ Tsung, Linda (2014). Language Power and Hierarchy: Multilingual Education in China. Bloomsbury. p. 188. ISBN 978-1-4411-4235-1.
  8. ^ "MLA Language Map Data Center", MLA Language Map Data Center, Modern Language Association, retrieved
  9. ^ CIA World factbook
  10. ^ La dynamique des langues en France au fil du XXe siècle Insee, enquête Famille 1999. (in French)
  11. ^ "Vietnamese language". Britannica.
  12. ^ See Government Council for National Minorities, Belorussian and Vietnamese since 4 July 2013, see ?esko má nové oficiální národnostní men?iny. Vietnamce a B?lorusy
  13. ^ More Thai Students Interested in Learning ASEAN Languages Archived 2015-01-10 at the Wayback Machine.. April 16, 2014. The Government Public Relations Department. Retrieved 2015-01-10.
  14. ^ Why Vietnamese Language Most Popular among College Test Takers. December 5, 2014. Korea Bizwire in Culture & Society, Education, Top News. Retrieved 2015-01-06.
  15. ^ Nguyen, Angie; Dao, Lien, eds. (May 18, 2007). "Vietnamese in the United States" (PDF). California State Library. p. 82. Archived from the original (PDF) on March 4, 2016. Retrieved 2015.
  16. ^ Lam, Ha (2008). "Vietnamese Immigration". In González, Josué M. Encyclopedia of Bilingual Education. Thousand Oaks, California: Sage Publications. pp. 884-887. ISBN 978-1-4129-3720-7.
  17. ^ Blanc, Marie-Eve (2004), "Vietnamese in France", in Ember, Carol, Encyclopedia of Diasporas: Immigrant and Refugee Cultures Around the World, Springer, p. 1162, ISBN 978-0-306-48321-9
  18. ^ a b Vietnamese teaching and learning overwhelming Germany. Retrieved 2015-06-13.
  19. ^ School in Berlin maintains Vietnamese language. Retrieved 2015-06-13.
  20. ^ Vietnamese students in Cambodia usher in new school year Archived 2018-07-11 at the Wayback Machine.. Retrieved 2015-06-13.
  21. ^ Teaching the Vietnamese language in Laos. Retrieved 2015-06-13.
  22. ^ More US schools join Seattle, add Vietnamese to dual immersion. Retrieved 2015-06-13.
  23. ^ Vietnamese taught at school with community in mind. Retrieved 2015-06-13.
  24. ^ Teaching Vietnamese in Thailand
  25. ^ "Mon-Khmer languages: The Vietic branch". SEAlang Projects. Retrieved 2006.
  26. ^ Ferlus, Michel. 1996. Langues et peuples viet-muong. Mon-Khmer Studies 26. 7-28.
  27. ^ Hayes, La Vaughn H. (1992). "Vietic and Vi?t-Mng: a new subgrouping in Mon-Khmer". Mon-Khmer Studies 21, 211-228.
  28. ^ Diffloth, Gérard. (1992). "Vietnamese as a Mon-Khmer language". Papers from the First Annual Meeting of the Southeast Asian Linguistics Society, 125-128. Tempe, Arizona: Program for Southeast Asian Studies.
  29. ^ See p. 98 in Thuy Nga Nguyen and Ghil'ad Zuckermann (2012), "Stupid as a Coin: Meaning and Rhyming Similes in Vietnamese", International Journal of Language Studies 6(4), 97-118.
  30. ^ There are different descriptions of Hanoi vowels. Another common description is that of Thompson (1965):
    Front Central Back
    unrounded rounded
    Centering ia~iê [i] ?a~ [] ua~uô [u]
    Close i [i] ? [?] u [u]
    Close-mid ê [e] ? [?] ô [o]
    Open-mid e [?] ? [?] â [?] o [?]
    Open a [a]

    This description distinguishes four degrees of vowel height and a rounding contrast (rounded vs. unrounded) between back vowels. The relative shortness of ? and â would then be a secondary feature. Thompson describes the vowel ? [?] as being slightly higher (upper low) than a [a].

  31. ^ In Vietnamese, diphthongs are âm ?ôi.
  32. ^ The closing diphthongs and triphthongs as described by Thompson can be compared with the description above:
      /w/ offglide /j/ offglide
    Centering iêu [iw] u [w] i [j] uôi [uj]
    Close iu [iw] ?u [?w] ?i [?j] ui [uj]
    Close-mid êu [ew] -
    âu [?w]
    ?i [?j]
    ây [?j]
    ôi [oj]
    Open-mid eo [?w] oi [?j]
    Open   ao [aw]
    au [?w]
    ai [aj]
    ay [?j]
  33. ^ The lack of diphthong consisting of a ? + back offglide (i.e., [?:w]) is an apparent gap.
  34. ^ Called thanh ?i?u or thanh in Vietnamese
  35. ^ Note that the name of each tone has the corresponding tonal diacritic on the vowel.
  36. ^ Sources on Vietnamese variation include: Alves (forthcoming), Alves & Nguy?n (2007), Emeneau (1947), Hoàng (1989), Honda (2006), Nguy?n, ?.-H. (1995), Pham (2005), Thompson (1991[1965]), V? (1982), Vng (1981).
  37. ^ Some differences in grammatical words are noted in Vietnamese grammar: Demonstratives, Vietnamese grammar: Pronouns.
  38. ^ a b c Desbarats, Jacqueline. "Repression in the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Executions and Population Relocation". Indochina report ; no. 11. Executive Publications, Singapore 1987. Retrieved 2013.
  39. ^ Table data from Hoàng (1989).
  40. ^ a b In southern dialects, ch and tr are increasingly being merged as [c]. Similarly, x and s are increasingly being merged as [s].
  41. ^ In southern dialects, v is increasingly being pronounced [v] among educated speakers. Less educated speakers have [j] more consistently throughout their speech.
  42. ^ Gregerson (1981) notes that this variation was present in de Rhodes's time in some initial consonant clusters: ml? ~ mnh? "reason" (cf. modern Vietnamese l? "reason").
  43. ^ Comparison note: As such its grammar relies on word order and sentence structure rather than morphology (in which word changes through inflection). Whereas European languages tend to use morphology to express tense, Vietnamese uses grammatical particles or syntactic constructions.
  44. ^ DeFrancis, John (1977). Colonialism and language policy in Viet Nam. Mouton. ISBN 978-90-279-7643-7.
  45. ^ Marr, David G. (1984). Vietnamese Tradition on Trial, 1920-1945. University of California Press. p. 145. ISBN 978-0-520-90744-7.
  46. ^ "French Indochina 500 Piastres 1951".
  47. ^ "North Vietnam 5 Dong 1946".
  48. ^ Chamberlain, James R. (2000). "The origin of the Sek: implications for Tai and Vietnamese history". In Burusphat, Somsonge. Proceedings of the International Conference on Tai Studies, July 29-31, 1998 (PDF). Bangkok, Thailand: Institute of Language and Culture for Rural Development, Mahidol University. pp. 97-127. ISBN 974-85916-9-7. Retrieved 2014.
  49. ^ Blench, Roger (2014), Reconstructing Austroasiatic prehistory. Chapter in the forthcoming Jenny, M. & P. Sidwell (eds.). forthcoming 2015. Handbook of the Austroasiatic Languages. Leiden: Brill, p. 1.
  50. ^ DeFrancis (1977), p. 8.
  51. ^ Maspero, Henri (1912). "Études sur la phonétique historique de la langue annamite" [Studies on the phonetic history of the Annamite language]. Bulletin de l'École française d'Extrême-Orient (in French). 12 (1): 10.
  52. ^ Nguy?n, ?ình-Hoà (2009), "Vietnamese", in Comrie, Bernard, The World's Major Languages (2nd ed.), Routledge, pp. 677-692, ISBN 978-0-415-35339-7.
  53. ^ a b c d Ferlus, Michel (1992), "Histoire abrégée de l'évolution des consonnes initiales du Vietnamien et du Sino-Vietnamien", Mon-Khmer Studies, 20: 111-125.
  54. ^ a b Ferlus, Michel (2009), "A layer of Dongsonian vocabulary in Vietnamese", Journal of the Southeast Asian Linguistics Society, 1: 95-109.
  55. ^ Ferlus, Michel (1982), "Spirantisation des obstruantes médiales et formation du système consonantique du vietnamien", Cahiers de linguistique - Asie Orientale, 11 (1): 83-106, doi:10.3406/clao.1982.1105.
  56. ^ a b Thompson, Laurence C., "Proto-Viet-Muong Phonology", Oceanic Linguistics Special Publications, Austroasiatic Studies Part II, University of Hawai'i Press, 13: 1113-1203, JSTOR 20019198.
  57. ^ Nguy?n ?.-H. (1997)
  58. ^ Nguy?n ?.-H. (1997: 29) gives the following context: "... a collaborator under the French administration was presented with a congratulatory panel featuring the two Chinese characters qu?n th?n. This Sino-Vietnamese expression could be defined as b?y tôi meaning 'all the king's subjects'. But those two syllables, when undergoing commutation of rhyme and tone, would generate b?i tây meaning 'servant in a French household'."
  59. ^ See Archived 2008-02-22 at the Wayback Machine., Language Log's, and for more examples.



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Sound system

Language variation

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  • Hoàng, Th? Châu. (1989). Ti?ng Vi?t trên các mi?n t nc: Phng ng? h?c [Vietnamese in different areas of the country: Dialectology]. Hà N?i: Khoa h?c xã h?i.
  • Honda, Koichi. (2006). "F0 and phonation types in Nghe Tinh Vietnamese tones"[permanent dead link]. In P. Warren & C. I. Watson (Eds.), Proceedings of the 11th Australasian International Conference on Speech Science and Technology (pp. 454-459). Auckland, New Zealand: University of Auckland.
  • Pham, Andrea Hoa. (2005). "Vietnamese tonal system in Nghi Loc: A preliminary report". In C. Frigeni, M. Hirayama, & S. Mackenzie (Eds.), Toronto working papers in linguistics: Special issue on similarity in phonology (Vol. 24, pp. 183-459). Auckland, New Zealand: University of Auckland.
  • V?, Thanh Phng. (1982). "Phonetic properties of Vietnamese tones across dialects". In D. Bradley (Ed.), Papers in Southeast Asian linguistics: Tonation (Vol. 8, pp. 55-75). Sydney: Pacific Linguistics, The Australian National University.
  • Vng, H?u L?. (1981). "Vài nh?n xét v? c di?m c?a v?n trong th? âm Qu?ng Nam ? H?i An" [Some notes on special qualities of the rhyme in local Qu?ng Nam speech in H?i An]. In M?t S? V?n Ð? Ngôn Ng? H?c Vi?t Nam [Some linguistics issues in Vietnam] (pp. 311-320). Hà N?i: Nhà Xu?t B?n Ð?i H?c và Trung H?c Chuyên Nghi?p.


Historical and comparative

  • Alves, Mark J. (2001). "What's So Chinese About Vietnamese?" (PDF). In Thurgood, Graham W. Papers from the Ninth Annual Meeting of the Southeast Asian Linguistics Society. Arizona State University, Program for Southeast Asian Studies. pp. 221-242. ISBN 978-1-881044-27-7.
  • Cooke, Joseph R. (1968). Pronominal reference in Thai, Burmese, and Vietnamese. University of California publications in linguistics (No. 52). Berkeley: University of California Press.
  • Gregerson, Kenneth J. (1969). "A study of Middle Vietnamese phonology". Bulletin de la Société des Etudes Indochinoises, 44, 135-193. (Reprinted in 1981).
  • Maspero, Henri (1912). "Etudes sur la phonétique historique de la langue annamite. Les initiales". Bulletin de l'Ecole française d'Extrême-Orient. 12 (1): 1-124.
  • Nguy?n, ?ình-Hoà. (1986). "Alexandre de Rhodes' dictionary". Papers in Linguistics, 19, 1-18. doi:10.1080/08351818609389247.
  • Shorto, Harry L. edited by Sidwell, Paul, Cooper, Doug and Bauer, Christian (2006). A Mon-Khmer comparative dictionary. Canberra: Australian National University. Pacific Linguistics. ISBN
  • Thompson, Laurence E. (1967). "The history of Vietnamese final palatals". Language, 43(1), 362-371. doi:10.2307/411402. JSTOR 411402.


  • Haudricourt, André-Georges (1949). "Origine des particularités de l'alphabet vietnamien". Dân Vi?t-Nam. 3: 61-68.
  • Nguy?n, ?ình-Hoà. (1955). Qu?c-ng?: The modern writing system in Vietnam. Washington, DC: Author.
  • Nguy?n, ?ình-Hoà. (1990). "Graphemic borrowing from Chinese: The case of ch? nôm, Vietnam's demotic script". Bulletin of the Institute of History and Philology, Academia Sinica, 61, 383-432.
  • Nguy?n, ?ình-Hoà. (1996). Vietnamese. In P. T. Daniels, & W. Bright (Eds.), The world's writing systems, (pp. 691-699). New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-507993-7.


  • Nguyen, Bich Thuan. (1997). Contemporary Vietnamese: An intermediate text. Southeast Asian language series. Northern Illinois University, Center for Southeast Asian Studies.
  • Healy, Dana. (2004). Teach Yourself Vietnamese. Teach Yourself. Chicago: McGraw-Hill. ISBN
  • Hoang, Thinh; Nguyen, Xuan Thu; Trinh, Quynh-Tram; (2000). Vietnamese phrasebook, (3rd ed.). Hawthorn, Vic.: Lonely Planet. ISBN
  • Moore, John. (1994). Colloquial Vietnamese: A complete language course. London: Routledge.
  • Nguy?n, ?ình-Hoà. (1967). Read Vietnamese: A graded course in written Vietnamese. Rutland, Vermont: C.E. Tuttle.
  • Lâm, Lý-duc; Emeneau, M. B.; von den Steinen, Diether. (1944). An Annamese reader. Berkeley: University of California, Berkeley.
  • Nguy?n, ng Liêm. (1970). Vietnamese pronunciation. PALI language texts: Southeast Asia. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press.

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