Vikrami Calendar

The Bikrami calendar, also called Vikrami calendar or sometimes Hindu calendar,[1][2] is named after king Vikramaditya and starts in 57 B.C.[3] The Vikrami era, or Vikrami-samvat, is notable because many ancient and medieval era inscriptions use it. However, in early inscriptions the term Vikrami-samvat is not used, rather the same calendaring system is found by other names such as Krita and Malava.[4]

The Vikrami era ancient calendar has been historically used by Hindus and Sikhs.[5] It is one of the several regional Hindu calendars that have been in use on the Indian subcontinent, and it is based on twelve synodical lunar months and 365 solar days.[5][6] The lunar new year starts on the new moon in the month of Chaitra.[7] This day, known as Chaitra Sukhladi, is a restricted holiday in India.[8]

The Vikrami calendar is similar in conceptual design to the Jewish calendar, but different from the Gregorian calendar.[5] Unlike Gregorian calendar which adds additional days to lunar month to adjust for the mismatch between twelve lunar cycles (354 lunar days)[9] and nearly 365 solar days, the Vikrami and Jewish calendars maintain the integrity of the lunar month, but insert an extra full month by complex rules, every few years, to ensure that the festivals and crop related rituals fall in the appropriate season. This Indian system of calendar keeping is one of the luni-solar calendar systems innovated in ancient human cultures.[5][6] Early Buddhist communities of India adopted the ancient Indian calendar, later Vikrami calendar and then local Buddhist calendars. Buddhist festivals continue to be scheduled according to a lunar system.[10]

The Vikrami samvat (Bikrami Samvat system) has been in use in the Indian subcontinent since ancient times, and remains in use by the Hindus in north, west and central India as well as Nepal.[4] In south India, and some parts of east and west India such as Assam, Bengal and Gujarat, saka era has been widely used.[4] With the arrival of the Islamic rule era, the Hijri Islamic calendar became the official calendar of various Sultanates and the Mughal Empire. During the colonial rule era of the Indian subcontinent, the Gregorian calendar was adopted and it is commonly used in the urban areas of India and Nepal.[11] The predominantly Muslim countries of Pakistan and Bangladesh use the Islamic calendar since 1947, but older texts variously include the Bikrami and Gregorian calendar systems. In 2003, the India-based Shiromani Gurdwara Parbandhak Committee of Sikhism adopted the Nanakshahi calendar, a move that continues to be debated.[5] The Vikrami calendar is the official calendar of Nepal.[12]

Significance and origins

The Vikrami era, or Vikrami-samvat, is notable because many historic manuscripts and inscriptions use it. However, in early inscriptions such as the Badva yupa inscriptions and Mandasor inscriptions, the term Vikrami-samvat is not used, rather the same calendaring system is found by other names such as Krta (Krita) and Malava.[4]

In the colonial era scholarship, Vikrama-samvat was believed to be based on the commemoration of King Vikramaditya expelling the Sakas from Ujjain. However, later epigraphical evidence and scholarship suggests that this theory has no historical basis and very likely was an error. Until the 9th century, the same era is inscribed in numerous archeological sites by other names such as Krta and Malava. Starting in the 9th century and thereafter, epigraphical artwork uses Vikrama-samvat, suggesting that sometime around the 9th-century, the Hindu calendar that was already in use became popular as Vikrami calendar, while Buddhist and Jain epigraphy continued to use an era based on the Buddha or the Mahavira.[13]

The original calendar was likely based on one established by King Azes I in 1st century BCE, and this is supported by archeological and chronological evidence.[4]

Solar calendar

The table below starts the calendar from the Solar month of Vaisakh.

The names of months are

S.No. Solar Month Name Duration
1. Visakh (Besakh) (Baisakh) Mid of April to Mid of May
2. Jeth (Jestha) Mid of May to Mid of June
3. Harh (Ashad) Mid of June to Mid of July
4. Sawan (Shrawan) Mid of July to Mid of August
5. Bhadon (Bhadhray) (Bhadra) Mid of August to Mid of September
6. Asooj (Assun) (Ashwin) Mid of September to Mid of October
7. Kattek (Kattun) (Kartik) Mid of October to Mid of November
8. Maghar (Marga or Margsheersh) Mid of November to Mid of December
9. Poh (Poush) Mid of December to Mid of January
10. Maah (Magh) Mid of January to Mid of February
11. Phaggan (Falgun) Mid of February to Mid of March
12. Chetar (Chaitra) Mid of March to Mid of April

A day consists of 8 Peh'r/Pahars, every Peh'r/Pahar equals to 3 hours of the modern clock. These Pahars are named: 1: Sajar vela or Sver vela = Morning/Day-break (6'o clock to 9'o clock). 2: Dhammi vela = Pre- noon time(9'o clock to 12'o clock). 3: Paishee vela = Noon(12'o clock to 3'o clock). 4: Deegar vela = Afternoon(3'o clock to 6'o clock). 5: nimasheen/namashan vela = Sunset + Evening + Early hours of night(6'o clock to 9'o clock). 6: Kuftain vela = Pre-midnight time (9'o clock to 12'o clock). 7: Adh Raat vela = Midnight to 3'o clock (12'o clock to 3'o clock). 8: Sarghee vela = Pre Dawn/Very early morning before the sunrise(3'o clock to 6'o clock). The word vela which may be spelled as vailaa means "time of the day" whereas the word Adh means half. While 'dowpahar/dowpeh'r' denotes noon time; and 'shikardowpehr' when sun is right on the heads.

Lunar calendar

The names of the lunar months are as follows with the new lunar year starting on new moon in Chetar:

S.No. Lunar Month Name Duration
1. Chetar (Chaitra) March to April
2. Visakh (Besakh) (Baisakh) April to May
3. Jeth (Jestha) May to June
4. Harh (Ashad) June to July
5. Sawan (Shrawan) July to August
6. Bhadon (Bhadhray) (Bhadra) August to September
7. Asooj (Assun) (Ashwin) September to October
8. Kattek (Kattun) (Kartik) October to November
9. Maghar (Marga or Margsheersh) November to December
10. Poh (Poush) December to January
11. Maah (Magh) January to February
12. Phaggan (Falgun) February to March

A lunar year consists of 12 months. A lunar month has two fortnights. The lunar days are called "tithis". Each month has 30 tithis, which may vary from 20 - 27 hours. During the waxing phases, tithis are called "shukla" or the bright phase -- the auspicious fortnight, beginning with the day after the new moon called "Amavasya". Tithis for the waning phases are called "krishna" or the dark phase, which is regarded as the inauspicious fortnight,[14] starting from the day after the full moon or "purnima".

See also

References

  1. ^ Masatoshi Iguchi (2015). Java Essay: The History and Culture of a Southern Country. TPL. p. 135. ISBN 978-1-78462-885-7. 
  2. ^ Edward Simpson (2007). Muslim Society and the Western Indian Ocean: The Seafarers of Kachchh. Routledge. pp. 113-114. ISBN 978-1-134-18484-2. 
  3. ^ Eleanor Nesbitt (2016). Sikhism: a Very Short Introduction. Oxford University Press. pp. 122, 142. ISBN 978-0-19-874557-0. 
  4. ^ a b c d e Richard Salomon (1998). Indian Epigraphy: A Guide to the Study of Inscriptions in Sanskrit, Prakrit, and the Other Indo-Aryan Languages. Oxford University Press. pp. 182-183. ISBN 978-0-19-509984-3. 
  5. ^ a b c d e Eleanor Nesbitt (2016). Sikhism: a Very Short Introduction. Oxford University Press. pp. 122-123. ISBN 978-0-19-874557-0. 
  6. ^ a b Christopher John Fuller (2004). The Camphor Flame: Popular Hinduism and Society in India. Princeton University Press. pp. 109-110. ISBN 978-0-69112-04-85. 
  7. ^ Davivajña, R?ma (1996) Muhurtacint?ma?i. Sagar Publications
  8. ^ India.gov.in
  9. ^ Orazio Marucchi (2011). Christian Epigraphy: An Elementary Treatise with a Collection of Ancient Christian Inscriptions Mainly of Roman Origin. Cambridge University Press. p. 289. ISBN 978-0-521-23594-5. , Quote: "the lunar year consists of 354 days".
  10. ^ Anita Ganeri (2003). Buddhist Festivals Through the Year. BRB. pp. 11-12. ISBN 978-1-58340-375-4. 
  11. ^ Tim Harper; Sunil Amrith (2014). Sites of Asian Interaction: Ideas, Networks and Mobility. Cambridge University Press. pp. 56-57. ISBN 978-1-316-09306-1. 
  12. ^ Bal Gopal Shrestha (2012). The Sacred Town of Sankhu: The Anthropology of Newar Ritual, Religion and Society in Nepal. Cambridge Scholars Publishing. pp. 13-14. ISBN 978-1-4438-3825-2. 
  13. ^ Richard Salomon (1998). Indian Epigraphy: A Guide to the Study of Inscriptions in Sanskrit, Prakrit, and the Other Indo-Aryan Languages. Oxford University Press. pp. 182-183, 194-195. ISBN 978-0-19-509984-3. 
  14. ^ http://hinduism.about.com/od/history/a/calendar.htm

External links


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