Voiced Palato-alveolar Affricate
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Voiced Palato-alveolar Affricate
Voiced palato-alveolar affricate
IPA number104 135
Entity (decimal)d​͡​ʒ
Unicode (hex)U+0064 U+0361 U+0292
X-SAMPAdZ or d_rZ

The voiced palato-alveolar sibilant affricate, voiced post-alveolar affricate or voiced domed postalveolar sibilant affricate, is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. The sound is transcribed in the International Phonetic Alphabet with ⟨d⟩ (formerly the ligature ⟨?⟩), or in broad transcription?⟩, and the equivalent X-SAMPA representation is dZ. Alternatives commonly used in linguistic works, particularly in older or American literature, are ⟨?⟩, ⟨?⟩, ⟨?⟩, and ⟨d?⟩. It is familiar to English speakers as the pronunciation of ⟨j⟩ in jump.


Features of the voiced postalveolar affricate:


Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Abkhaz ?? [adr] 'steel' See Abkhaz phonology
Adyghe 'dress'
Albanian xham [dam] 'glass'
Amharic ?? [?ndra] 'injera'
Arabic Modern Standard[1] [daras] 'bell' In other standards and dialects, corresponds to [?] or [?]. See Arabic phonology
Armenian Eastern[2] ? [du?] 'water'
Western ?? [dnd] 'musca (fly)'
Assyrian Neo-Aramaic jura [du?:a] 'big' Used predominantly in Urmia and some Jilu dialects. [g] is used in other varieties.
Azerbaijani a?ac [d] 'tree'
Bengali ?? [dl] 'water' Contrasts with the aspirated form. See Bengali phonology
Berber Kabyle l?iran [ldiræn] 'the neighbors'
Bulgarian ?? ['dud] 'dwarf' See Bulgarian phonology
Chechen ? / dzhyerwo [djerwo] 'previously married woman'
Chinese Quzhou dialect ? [dõ] 'heavy'
Coptic ?? [de] 'that'
Czech ?ba [l?:dba] 'treatment' See Czech phonology
English jump ['dmp] 'jump ' See English phonology
Esperanto man?a?o [man'da?o?] 'food' See Esperanto phonology
Faroese gestir ['dst] 'guests ' See Faroese phonology
French adjonction [ad?ksj] 'addition' Rare. See French phonology
Georgian[3] ? [dib?] 'pocket'
German Standard[4] Dschungel ['dl] 'jungle' Laminal or apico-laminal and strongly labialized.[4] Some speakers may merge it with /t/. See Standard German phonology
Goemai [da:n] 'twins'
Hebrew [duk] 'cockroach' See Modern Hebrew phonology
Hindustani ? / ? [d:n?:] 'to go' Contrasts with aspirated form. See Hindustani phonology
Hungarian lándzsa [la:nd] 'spear' Rare, mostly in loanwords. See Hungarian phonology
Italian[5] gemma ['dmma] 'gem' See Italian phonology
Indonesian jarak ['dara?] 'distance'
Kashubian[6] [example needed]
Kurdish Kurmanji cîger [di:'] 'lung'
Kyrgyz ?? [daman] 'bad' See Kyrgyz phonology
Latvian dad?i [dadi] 'thistles' See Latvian phonology
Limburgish Hasselt dialect[7] djèn [d:n²] 'Eugene'
Lithuanian d?iaugsmingas [ds?'mns] 'gladsome' See Lithuanian phonology
Macedonian ? ['dmp?r] 'sweater' See Macedonian phonology
Malay jahat [dahat] 'evil'
Manchu ? [duwe] 'two'
Marathi ?? [dj] 'victory' See Marathi phonology
Occitan Languedocien jove ['du?e] 'young' See Occitan phonology
Provençal ['duve]
Ojibwe ?? / iicikiwee [i:dikiw?:?] 'brother' See Ojibwe phonology
Pashto [de?] 'high'
Persian [kod] 'where' See Persian phonology
Polish Gmina Istebna dziwny ['divn] 'strange' // and /d/ merge into [d] in these dialects. In standard Polish, /d/ is commonly used to transcribe what actually is a laminal voiced retroflex affricate.
Lubawa dialect[8]
Malbork dialect[8]
Ostróda dialect[8]
Warmia dialect[8]
Portuguese Most Brazilian dialects[9] grande ['?di] 'big' Allophone of /d/ before /i, ?/ (including when the vowel is elided) and other instances of [i] (e.g. epenthesis), marginal sound otherwise.
Most dialects jambalaya [d?b?'laj?] 'jambalaya' In free variation with /?/ in a few recent loanwords. See Portuguese phonology
Romanian ger [der] 'frost' See Romanian phonology
Sardinian Campidanese géneru ['dneru] 'son-in-law'
Scottish Gaelic Dia [dia] 'God' See Scottish Gaelic phonology
Serbo-Croatian Some speakers ? / d?em [dê?m] 'jam' May be laminal retroflex instead, depending on the dialect. See Serbo-Croatian phonology
Bosnian ? / ?avo [dâo?:] 'devil' Most Croatian and some Bosnian speakers merge /d/ and /d/, either to [d] or laminal [].
Silesian Gmina Istebna[10] [example needed] These dialects merge // and /d/ into [d].
Jablunkov[10] [example needed]
Somali joog [do:?] 'stop' See Somali phonology
Spanish Many dialects cónyuge ['kõduxe?] 'spouse' May correspond to [] in Castilian Spanish, or be a stigmatized dialectal realization of /?/ and /?/. See Spanish phonology
Some dialects ayudar [adu'ð?ar] 'to help'
Some Rioplatense dialects diez [des] 'ten'
Tagalog diyan [dän] 'there' Used to pronounce the multigraphs ⟨dy⟩ and ⟨diy⟩ in native words and ⟨j⟩ in loanwords outside Spanish. For more information, see Tagalog phonology.
Turkish ac? [ä'd] 'pain' See Turkish phonology
Turkmen jar [där] 'ravine'
Ubykh [amdan] '?' See Ubykh phonology
Ukrainian[11] [dr?'l?] 'source' See Ukrainian phonology
Uyghur ? [doz?] 'desk' See Uyghur phonology
West Frisian siedzje ['d] 'to sow' See West Frisian phonology
Yiddish [dx?] 'insect' See Yiddish phonology
Zapotec Tilquiapan[12] dxan [da?] 'god'

Voiced postalveolar non-sibilant affricate

Voiced postalveolar non-sibilant fricative


  • Its manner of articulation is affricate, which means it is produced by first stopping the airflow entirely, then allowing air flow through a constricted channel at the place of articulation, causing turbulence.
  • Its place of articulation is postalveolar, which means it is articulated with either the tip or the blade of the tongue behind the alveolar ridge.
  • Its phonation is voiced, which means the vocal cords vibrate during the articulation.
  • It is an oral consonant, which means air is allowed to escape through the mouth only.
  • It is a central consonant, which means it is produced by directing the airstream along the center of the tongue, rather than to the sides.
  • The airstream mechanism is pulmonic, which means it is articulated by pushing air solely with the lungs and diaphragm, as in most sounds.


Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
English Australian[13] dream [d?i?m] 'dream' Phonetic realization of the stressed, syllable-initial sequence /dr/.[13][14][15][16] In General American and Received Pronunciation, the less common alternative is alveolar [d].[14] See Australian English phonology and English phonology
General American[14][15]
Received Pronunciation[14][15]
Port Talbot[16] [di:m]

See also


  1. ^ Watson (2002:16)
  2. ^ Dum-Tragut (2009:13)
  3. ^ Shosted & Chikovani (2006:255)
  4. ^ a b Mangold (2005:51-52)
  5. ^ Rogers & d'Arcangeli (2004:117)
  6. ^ Jerzy Treder. "Fonetyka i fonologia". Archived from the original on 2016-03-04. Retrieved .
  7. ^ Peters (2006:119)
  8. ^ a b c d Dubisz, Kara? & Kolis (1995:62)
  9. ^ Barbosa & Albano (2004:228)
  10. ^ a b D?browska (2004:?)
  11. ^ Danyenko & Vakulenko (1995), p. 4.
  12. ^ Merrill (2008:108)
  13. ^ a b Cox & Fletcher (2017), p. 144.
  14. ^ a b c d Gimson (2014), pp. 177, 186-188, 192.
  15. ^ a b c Wells (2008).
  16. ^ a b Connolly (1990), p. 121.


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