Voiceless Alveolar Fricative
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Voiceless Alveolar Fricative

A voiceless alveolar fricative is a type of fricative consonant pronounced with the tip or blade of the tongue against the alveolar ridge (gum line) just behind the teeth. This refers to a class of sounds, not a single sound. There are at least six types with significant perceptual differences:

The first three types are sibilants, meaning that they are made with the teeth closed and have a piercing, perceptually prominent sound.

Voiceless alveolar sibilants

Voiceless alveolar sibilant
s
IPA number 132
Encoding
Entity (decimal) s
Unicode (hex) U+0073
X-SAMPA s
Kirshenbaum s
Braille ? (braille pattern dots-234)
Listen

Voiceless laminal dentalized alveolar sibilant
s?
s?
Voiceless alveolar retracted sibilant
s?
?
Encoding
Entity (decimal) s̺
Unicode (hex) U+0073 U+033A
Listen

The voiceless alveolar sibilant is a common consonant sound in vocal languages. It is the sound in English words such as sea and pass, and is represented in the International Phonetic Alphabet with ?s?. It has a characteristic high-pitched, highly perceptible hissing sound. For this reason, it is often used to get someone's attention, using a call often written as sssst! or psssst!.

The voiceless alveolar sibilant [s] is one of the most common sounds cross-linguistically. If a language has fricatives, it will most likely have [s].[2] However, some languages have a related sibilant sound, such as [?], but no [s]. In addition, sibilants are absent from Australian Aboriginal languages, in which fricatives are rare; even the few indigenous Australian languages that have developed fricatives do not have sibilants.[]

The voiceless alveolar retracted sibilant (commonly termed the voiceless apico-alveolar sibilant) is a fricative that is articulated with the tongue in a hollow shape, usually with the tip of the tongue (apex) against the alveolar ridge. It is a sibilant sound and is found most notably in a number of languages in a linguistic area covering northern and central Iberia. It is most well known from its occurrence in the Spanish of this area. In the Middle Ages, it occurred in a wider area, covering Romance languages spoken throughout France, Portugal, and Spain, as well as Old High German and Middle High German.

Voiceless apico-alveolar sibilant

Occurrence in Europe

Modern

In Romance languages, it occurs as the normal voiceless alveolar sibilant in Astur-Leonese, Castilian Spanish, Catalan, Galician, northern European Portuguese, and some Occitan dialects. It also occurs in Basque and Mirandese, where it is opposed to a different voiceless alveolar sibilant, the more common [s]; the same distinction occurs in a few dialects of northeastern Portuguese. Outside this area, it also occurs in a few dialects of Latin American Spanish (e.g. Antioqueño, in Colombia).

Amongst Germanic languages, it occurs in Dutch and closely related Low German, Icelandic, many dialects in Scandinavia, and working-class Glaswegian English.

It also occurs in Modern Greek (with a laminal articulation), as well as the Baltic languages.

There is no single IPA symbol used for this sound. The symbol ?s?? is often used, with a diacritic indicating an apical pronunciation. However, that is potentially problematic in that not all alveolar retracted sibilants are apical (see below), and not all apical alveolar sibilants are retracted. The ad hoc non-IPA symbols ??? and ?S? are often used in the linguistic literature even when IPA symbols are used for other sounds,[] but ??? is a common transcription of the retroflex sibilant [?].

Medieval

In medieval times, it occurred in a wider area, including the Romance languages spoken in most or all of France and Iberia (Old Spanish, Galician-Portuguese, Catalan, French, etc.), as well as in the Old and Middle High German of central and southern Germany[3], and most likely Northern Germany as well. In all of these languages, the retracted "apico-alveolar" sibilant was opposed to a non-retracted sibilant much like modern English [s], and in many of them, both voiceless and voiced versions of both sounds occurred. A solid evidence is different spelings used for two different sibilants: in general, the retracted "apico-alveolar" variants were written ?s? or ?ss?, while the non-retracted variants were written ?z?, ?c? or ?ç?. In the Romance languages, the retracted sibilants derived from Latin /s/, /ss/ or /ns/, while the non-retracted sibilants derived from earlier affricates [t?s] and [d?z], which in turn derived from palatalized /k/ or /t/. The situation was similar in High German, where the retracted sibilants derived largely from Proto-Germanic /s/, while the non-retracted sibilants derived from instances of Proto-Germanic /t/ that were shifted by the High German sound shift. Minimal pairs were common in all languages. Examples in Middle High German, for example, were wizzen "to know" (Old English witan, cf. "to wit") vs. wissen "known" (Old English wissen), and weiz "white" (Old English w?t) vs. weis "way" (Old English w?s, cf. "-wise").

Description of the retracted sibilant

Often, to speakers of languages or dialects that do not have the sound, it is said to have a "whistling" quality, and to sound similar to palato-alveolar [?]. For this reason, when borrowed into such languages or represented with non-Latin characters, it is often replaced with [?]. This occurred, for example, in English borrowings from Old French (e.g. push from pousser, cash from caisse); in Polish borrowings from medieval German (e.g. kosztowa? from kosten, ?ur from s?r (contemporary sauer); and in representations of Mozarabic (an extinct medieval Romance language once spoken in southern Spain) in Arabic characters. The similarity between retracted [s?] and [?] has resulted in many exchanges in Spanish between the sounds, during the medieval period when Spanish had both phonemes. Examples are jabón (formerly xabón) "soap" from Latin sap?/sap?nem, jibia "cuttlefish" (formerly xibia) from Latin s?pia, and tijeras "scissors" (earlier tixeras < medieval tiseras) from Latin c?s?rias (with initial t- due to influence from t?nsor "shaver").

One of the clearest descriptions of this sound is from Obaid:[4] "There is a Castilian s, which is a voiceless, concave, apicoalveolar fricative: The tip of the tongue turned upward forms a narrow opening against the alveoli of the upper incisors. It resembles a faint /?/ and is found throughout much of the northern half of Spain".

Many dialects of Modern Greek have a very similar-sounding sibilant that is pronounced with a laminal articulation.[3]

Loss of the voiceless alveolar sibilant

This distinction has since vanished from most of the languages that once had it in medieval times.

  • In most dialects of Spanish, the four alveolar sibilants have merged into the non-retracted [s].
  • In French and most dialects of Portuguese, the four alveolar sibilants have merged into non-retracted [s] and [z], while in European Portuguese, most other Old World Portuguese variants and some recently European-influenced dialects of Brazil all instances of coda [s?], voiced [z?] before voiced consonants, were backed to [?] [?], while in most of Brazilian Portuguese this phenomenon is much rarer, being essentially absent in the dialects that conserved the most archaic Portuguese forms and/or had a greater indigenous and/or non-Portuguese European influence.
  • In the remaining dialects of Portuguese, found in northern Portugal, they merged into the retracted [s?] [z?], or, as in Mirandese (which is, however, not a Portuguese dialect, but belongs to Asturian-Leonese), conserved the medieval distinction.
  • In central and northern Spanish, the non-retracted [s] was fronted to [?] after merging with non-retracted [z], while the retracted [s?] remains.
  • In German, most instances of [s?] were fronted to [s], but some were backed to become [?] (initially before a consonant; in many modern High German dialects, also non-initially before a consonant), postalveolar as in European and fluminense Portuguese.

Loss-causing events

Those languages in which the sound occurs typically did not have a phonological process from which either [s] or [?] appeared, two similar sounds with which ?s was eventually confused. In general, older European languages only had a single pronunciation of s.

In Romance languages, [s] was reached from -ti-, -ci-, -ce- ([ti], [ki], [ke]) clusters that eventually became [ts], [tsi], [tse] and later [s], [si], [se] (as in Latin fortia "force", civitas "city", centum "hundred"), while [?] was reached:

  • From a [sk] or [ks] cluster in southern Romance, as in Latin miscere > Portuguese mexer "to move", Latin fluxus > Spanish flojo "lax", Latin crescere > Italian crescere "grow", with a different pronunciation.
  • from a deaffricated [t?] in Northern France and southern-central Portugal, as in French chat "cat", Portuguese achar "find".

In High German, [s] was reached from a [t] > [ts] > [s] process, as in German Wasser vs English water. In English, the same process of Romance [ts] > [s] occurred in Norman-imported words, accounting for modern homophones sell and cell. [?] was also reached from a -sk- cluster reduction as in Romance, e.g. Old English spelling "asc" for modern "ash", German schirm vs English screen, English ship vs Danish skib.

Exceptions

Standard Modern Greek, that has apical [s?], lacked both processes.

The Germanic-speaking regions that did not have either phenomena have normally preserved the apical [s?], that is, Icelandic, Dutch and many Scandinavian lects. It also reached modern times in Low German, but this language has largely been replaced by Standard German.

The main Romance language to preserve the sound, Castilian Spanish, is exceptional in that it had both events that produced [s] and [?], and preserved the apical S at the expense of both, that were shifted farther away. Galician changed only [s], and Catalan still preserves all three sounds, as well as Ladino.

Reach in ancient times

Because of the widespread medieval distribution, it has been speculated that retracted [s?] was the normal pronunciation in spoken Latin. Certain borrowings suggest that it was not far off from the sh-sound [?], e.g. Aramaic Jeshua > Latin Jesus, Hebrew Shabbat > Vulgar Latin Sabato; but this could also be explained by the lack of a better sound in Latin to represent Semitic sh. It equally well could have been an areal feature inherited from the prehistoric languages of Western Europe, as evidenced by its occurrence in modern Basque.

For the same reasons, it can be speculated that retracted [s?] was the pronunciation of Proto-Germanic s. Its presence in many branches of Indo-European and its presence particularly in the more conservative languages inside each branch (e.g. Icelandic, Spanish), as well as being found in disparate areas, such as the Baltic languages and Greece, suggests it could have ultimately been the main allophone of Proto-Indo-European s, known for ranging from [s] to as far as [?].

[?], but not [s], was developed in Italian. However, where Spanish and Catalan have apical [s?], Italian uses the same laminal [s] that occurs in standard forms of English, which could be argued to be proof against an apical pronunciation of S in Latin. But Neapolitan has a medieval S becoming either [s] or [?] depending on context, much as in European Portuguese, which could attest to the previous existence of [s?] in the Italian Peninsula. The Italian pronunciation as laminal S could also be explained by the presence of [?] but not [s], thus moving the pronunciation of [s?] to the front of the mouth in an attempt to better differentiate between the two sounds.

Comparison between the English alveolar sibilant and the Spanish apico-alveolar sibilant

The term "voiceless alveolar sibilant" is potentially ambiguous in that it can refer to at least two different sounds. Various languages of northern Iberia (e.g. Astur-Leonese, Catalan, Basque, Galician, Portuguese and Spanish) have a so-called "voiceless apico-alveolar sibilant" that lacks the strong hissing of the [s] described in this article but has a duller, more "grave" sound quality somewhat reminiscent of a voiceless retroflex sibilant. Basque, Mirandese and some Portuguese dialects in northeast Portugal (as well as medieval Spanish and Portuguese in general) have both types of sounds in the same language.

There is no general agreement about what actual feature distinguishes these sounds. Spanish phoneticians normally describe the difference as apical (for the northern Iberian sound) vs. laminal (for the more common sound), but Ladefoged and Maddieson[5] claim that English /s/ can be pronounced apical, which is evidently not the same as the apical sibilant of Iberian Spanish and Basque. Also, Adams[6] asserts that many dialects of Modern Greek have a laminal sibilant with a sound quality similar to the "apico-alveolar" sibilant of northern Iberia.

Some authors have instead suggested that the difference lies in tongue shape. Adams[6] describes the northern Iberian sibilant as "retracted". Ladefoged and Maddieson[5] appear to characterize the more common hissing variant as grooved, and some phoneticians (such as J. Catford) have characterized it as sulcal (which is more or less a synonym of "grooved"), but in both cases, there is some doubt about whether all and only the "hissing" sounds actually have a "grooved" or "sulcal" tongue shape.

Features

Features of the voiceless alveolar sibilant:

  • Its manner of articulation is sibilant fricative, which means it is generally produced by channeling air flow along a groove in the back of the tongue up to the place of articulation, at which point it is focused against the sharp edge of the nearly clenched teeth, causing high-frequency turbulence.
  • There are at least three specific variants of [s]:
    • Dentalized laminal alveolar (commonly called "dental"), which means it is articulated with the tongue blade very close to the upper front teeth, with the tongue tip resting behind lower front teeth. The hissing effect in this variety of [s] is very strong.[7]
    • Non-retracted alveolar, which means it is articulated with either the tip or the blade of the tongue at the alveolar ridge, termed respectively apical and laminal. According to Ladefoged & Maddieson (1996) about half of English speakers use a non-retracted apical articulation.
    • Retracted alveolar, which means it is articulated with either the tip or the blade of the tongue slightly behind the alveolar ridge, termed respectively apical and laminal. Acoustically, it is close to laminal [?] or (to a lesser extent) [?].
  • Its phonation is voiceless, which means it is produced without vibrations of the vocal cords. In some languages the vocal cords are actively separated, so it is always voiceless; in others the cords are lax, so that it may take on the voicing of adjacent sounds.
  • It is an oral consonant, which means air is allowed to escape through the mouth only.
  • It is a central consonant, which means it is produced by directing the airstream along the center of the tongue, rather than to the sides.
  • The airstream mechanism is pulmonic, which means it is articulated by pushing air solely with the lungs and diaphragm, as in most sounds.

Examples

Dentalized laminal alveolar

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Arabic Gulf[8] ? [m?'s?i:d?] 'mosque'
Armenian Eastern[9] ? 'mountain'
Azerbaijani[10] su [s?u] 'water'
Basque[11] gauza [?äus?ä] 'thing' Contrasts with an apical sibilant.[11] See Basque phonology
Belarusian[12] ? [s?t?ä'?od?dze] 'century' Contrasts with palatalized form. See Belarusian phonology
Bulgarian[13] ?? ['vski] 'everyone' Contrasts with palatalized form
Chinese Mandarin[14][15] ? s?n [s?a?n] 'three' See Mandarin phonology
Czech[16] sv?t [s?vj?t?] 'world' See Czech phonology
English Auckland[17] sand [sn?d?] 'sand' See English phonology
Multicultural London[18] [s?an?d?]
French[19][20][21] façade [fäs?äd?] 'front' See French phonology
Hungarian[22] sziget ['s?it?] 'island' See Hungarian phonology
Kashubian[23] [example needed]
Kazakh[24] ? [s?um] 'pure'
Kyrgyz[25] ?? [s?ä'bis?] 'carrot'
Latvian[26] sens [s?en?s?] 'ancient' See Latvian phonology
Macedonian[27] ?? ['s?k?kä] 'jump' See Macedonian phonology
Mirandese [example needed] Contrasts seven sibilants altogether, preserving medieval Ibero-Romance contrasts.
Polish[7][28] sum 'catfish' See Polish phonology
Romanian[29] surd [s?ur?d?] 'deaf' See Romanian phonology
Russian[30] ??? 'hair' Contrasts with palatalized form. See Russian phonology
Scottish Gaelic[31] Slàinte ['sä:n?t?] 'cheers' See Scottish Gaelic phonology
Serbo-Croatian[32][33] ? sam [sm] 'alone' See Serbo-Croatian phonology
Slovene[34] svet [sé:t?] 'world' See Slovene phonology
Spanish European[35] estar [e?s?'t?är] 'to be' Allophone of /s/ before dental consonants.[35] See Spanish phonology
Swedish[36] Central Standard[37][38] säte ['s:t?e] 'seat' Retracted in some southern dialects.[39] See Swedish phonology
Toda[40][41] [k?s?] 'money'
Turkish[19][42] su [s?u] 'water' See Turkish phonology
Ukrainian[43] ? [s'] 'village' See Ukrainian phonology
Upper Sorbian[44] sowa ['s?ovä] 'owl' See Upper Sorbian phonology
Uzbek[45] soat ['s?o?æt?] 'hour'
Vietnamese Hanoi[46] xa [s?ä:] 'far' See Vietnamese phonology

Non-retracted alveolar

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Adyghe ?? [sa] 'I'
Arabic Modern Standard[47] ? ['d?ælæs?] 'to sit' See Arabic phonology
Assyrian Neo-Aramaic sepa [se:pa:] 'sword'
Bengali ? [ra:st?a] 'street' See Bengali phonology
Burmese ? [s? sá bjì] 'I am eating now'
Chinese Cantonese ? / sim2 [si:m] 'twinkle' See Cantonese phonology
Dutch[48][49] staan [s?t?a:n?] 'to stand' Laminal; may have only mid-to-low pitched friction in the Netherlands.[48][49] See Dutch phonology
Estonian sõna ['s?n?] 'word'
English sit 'sit' See English phonology
Esperanto Esperanto [espe'ranto] 'Who hopes' See Esperanto phonology
Faroese sandur [sand] 'sand'
Georgian[50] ? ['s?mi] 'three'
Hebrew ? ['sefe?] 'book' See Modern Hebrew phonology
Hindustani / ? [sa:l] 'year' See Hindustani phonology
Icelandic[51][52] segi ['s:j?] 'I say' Apical.[51][52] See Icelandic phonology
Italian Marked accents
of Emilia-Romagna[53]
sali ['sä:li] 'you go up' Palatalized apical;[53] may be [?] or [?] instead.[53] See Italian phonology
Japanese[54] / fukus?k? [k?s?:ke:] 'plural' See Japanese phonology
Kabardian ?? [sa] 'I'
Korean ? / seom [s?:m] 'island' See Korean phonology
Malay satu [satu] 'one'
Maltese iebes [ea'bes] 'hard'
Marathi [sa:p] 'snake' See Marathi phonology
Occitan Limousin maichent [mej's?] 'bad'
Persian ? / sib [sib] 'apple' See Persian phonology
Portuguese[55] caço ['kasu] 'I hunt' See Portuguese phonology
Punjabi [s?p:] 'snake'
Spanish[35] Latin American saltador [s?al?t?a'ð?o?r] 'jumper' See Spanish phonology and Seseo
Canarian
Andalusian
Equatorial Guinean
Philippine
Swahili Kiswahili [kiswahili] 'Swahili'
Sylheti ?ise 'done'
Vietnamese[56] xa [sa:?] 'far' See Vietnamese phonology
West Frisian[57] sâlt [s?:t] 'salt' See West Frisian phonology
Yi ? sy [s] 'die'

Retracted alveolar

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Asturian pasu ['päs?u] 'step' Apical.
Basque[11][58] su [s?u] 'fire' Apical. Contrasts with a dentalized laminal sibilant.[11][58]
Catalan[59][60] Most dialects set ['st?] 'seven' Apical. See Catalan phonology
Some Valencian speakers[61] peix ['pe?js] 'fish' Normally transcribed with ???; realized as pre-palatal [?] in Standard Catalan and Valencian.
Some Valencian speakers[61] patisc [pä't?isk] 'I suffer'
English Glasgow[62] sun [sn] 'sun' Working-class pronunciation, other speakers may use a non-retracted [s]
Galician saúde [s?ä'uðe] 'health' Apical.
Italian Central Italy[63] sali ['s?ä:li] 'you go up' Present in Lazio north of Cape Linaro,[63] most of Umbria[63] (save Perugia and the extreme south),[63]Marche and south of Potenza.[63]
Northern Italy[64][65] Apical.[66] Present in many areas north of the La Spezia-Rimini Line.[67][68] See Italian phonology
Sicily[63] Present south and west of a line drawn from Syracuse to Cefalù.[63]
Leonese pasu ['päs] 'step' Apical.
Low German[39] [example needed]
Mirandese passo ['päs?u] 'step' Apical. Contrasts with /s?/.
Occitan Gascon dos [d?ys?] 'two' See Occitan phonology
Languedocien [d?us?]
Portuguese[55][69] European,
inland northern
cansaço [k's?äs?u] 'weariness' Apical. Contrasts with /s?/. See Portuguese phonology
European,
coastal northern
cansaço [k's?äs?u] Merges with /s?/. See Portuguese phonology
Inland and
southern capixaba
pescador 'fisherman' Realization of Portuguese coda sibilant, which may be postalveolars, depending on dialect
Carioca do brejo escadas [is?'käds?] 'stairs'
Spanish Andean saltador [s?äl?t?ä'ð?o] 'jumper' Apical. In Andean and Paisa (except in southern parts of Antioquia) alternates with a more frequent corono-dental /s/.[70][71] See Spanish phonology and seseo
Castilian[35]
Paisa accent
Swedish Blekinge[39] säte ['s:te] 'seat' See Swedish phonology
Bohuslän[39]
Halland[39]
Scania[39]

Variable

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Danish[72][73][74] sælge ['selj?] 'sell' Most often non-retracted apical, but can be dentalized laminal for some speakers.[72][73][74] See Danish phonology
Finnish[75] sinä [sinæ] 'you' Varies between non-retracted and retracted.[75] See Finnish phonology
German Standard[76] Biss [b?s] 'bite' Varies between dentalized laminal, non-retracted laminal and non-retracted apical.[76] See Standard German phonology
Greek[77] ? san [s?n] 'as' Varies between non-retracted and retracted, depending on the environment.[77] See Modern Greek phonology
Norwegian Urban East[78] sand [s?n:] 'sand' Most often dentalized laminal, but can be non-retracted apical for some speakers.[78] See Norwegian phonology
Italian Standard[79] sali ['sä:li] 'you go up' Varies between dentalized laminal and non-retracted apical.[79] See Italian phonology
Ticino[66] Varies between dentalized laminal and non-retracted apical.[80] Both variants may be labiodentalized.[66] See Italian phonology

Voiceless alveolar non-sibilant fricative

Voiceless alveolar non-sibilant fricative
t?
IPA number 130 414
Encoding
Entity (decimal) &#952;&#817;
Unicode (hex) U+03B8 U+0331
Listen
Voiceless alveolar tapped fricative
?
IPA number 124 402A 430
Encoding
Unicode (hex) U+027E U+031E U+030A
Listen

The voiceless alveolar non-sibilant fricative (also known as a "slit" fricative) is a consonantal sound. As the International Phonetic Alphabet does not have separate symbols for the alveolar consonants (the same symbol is used for all coronal places of articulation that are not palatalized), this sound is usually transcribed ??, occasionally ?? (retracted or alveolarized [?], respectively), ?? (constricted voiceless [?]), or ?t?? (lowered [t]).

Few languages also have the voiceless alveolar tapped fricative, which is simply a very brief apical alveolar non-sibilant fricative, with the tongue making the gesture for a tapped stop but not making full contact. This can be indicated in the IPA with the lowering diacritic to show full occlusion did not occur.[81]

Tapped fricatives are occasionally reported in the literature, though these claims are not generally independently confirmed and so remain dubious.

Flapped fricatives are theoretically possible but are not attested.[81]

Features

  • Its manner of articulation is fricative, which means it is produced by constricting air flow through a narrow channel at the place of articulation, causing turbulence. However, it does not have the grooved tongue and directed airflow, or the high frequencies, of a sibilant.
  • Its place of articulation is alveolar, which means it is articulated with either the tip or the blade of the tongue at the alveolar ridge, termed respectively apical and laminal.
  • Its phonation is voiceless, which means it is produced without vibrations of the vocal cords. In some languages the vocal cords are actively separated, so it is always voiceless; in others the cords are lax, so that it may take on the voicing of adjacent sounds.
  • It is an oral consonant, which means air is allowed to escape through the mouth only.
  • It is a central consonant, which means it is produced by directing the airstream along the center of the tongue, rather than to the sides.
  • The airstream mechanism is pulmonic, which means it is articulated by pushing air solely with the lungs and diaphragm, as in most sounds.

Occurrence

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Afenmai[81] V?[au] 'hat' Tapped; tense equivalent of lax /?/.[81]
Dutch[82] Geert [?e:t] 'Geert' One of many possible realizations of /r/; distribution unclear. See Dutch phonology
English Australian[83] Italy ['?i?] 'Italy' Occasional allophone of /t/.[83] See Australian English phonology
Received Pronunciation[84] ['?l?i?] Common allophone of /t/.[84]
Irish[85] ['?li] Allophone of /t/. See English phonology
Some American speakers[86] ['i] Tapped; possible allophone of /t/. Can be a voiceless tap [] or a voiced tap [?] instead.[86] See English phonology
Scouse[87][88] attain 'attain' Allophone of /t/. See English phonology
Icelandic[52][89] þakið ['äkið?] 'the roof' Laminal.[52][89] See Icelandic phonology
Italian Bologna[66] sali ['ä:li] 'you go up' Laminal; a hypercorrective variant of /s/ for some young speakers. Either non-sibilant, or "not sibilant enough".[66] See Italian phonology
Turkish[90] bir [bi] 'a(n)' Tapped; word-final allophone of /?/.[90] See Turkish phonology

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Pandeli et al. (1997), p. ?.
  2. ^ Maddieson (1984), p. ?.
  3. ^ a b Adams (1975), p. ?.
  4. ^ Obaid (1973), p. ?.
  5. ^ a b Ladefoged & Maddieson (1996), p. ?.
  6. ^ a b Adams (1975), p. 283.
  7. ^ a b Puppel, Nawrocka-Fisiak & Krassowska (1977:149), cited in Ladefoged & Maddieson (1996:154)
  8. ^ Qafisheh (1977), pp. 2, 9.
  9. ^ Kozintseva (1995), p. 7.
  10. ^ Axundov (1983), pp. 115, 128-131.
  11. ^ a b c d Hualde, Lujanbio & Zubiri (2010:1). Although this paper discusses mainly the Goizueta dialect, the authors state that it has "a typical, conservative consonant inventory for a Basque variety".
  12. ^ Padluzhny (1989), p. 47.
  13. ^ Klagstad Jr. (1958), p. 46.
  14. ^ Lee & Zee (2003), pp. 109-110.
  15. ^ Lin (2001), pp. 17-25.
  16. ^ Palková (1994), p. 228.
  17. ^ Bauer & Warren (2004), p. 594.
  18. ^ "English speech services | Accent of the Year / sibilants in MLE". Retrieved 2015. 
  19. ^ a b Adams (1975), p. 288.
  20. ^ Fougeron & Smith (1999), p. 79.
  21. ^ Grønnum (2005), p. 144.
  22. ^ Szende (1999), p. 104.
  23. ^ Jerzy Treder. "Fonetyka i fonologia". 
  24. ^ Kara (2002), p. 10.
  25. ^ Kara (2003), p. 11.
  26. ^ Nau (1998), p. 6.
  27. ^ Lunt (1952), p. 1.
  28. ^ Roc?awski (1976), pp. 149.
  29. ^ Ovidiu Dr?ghici. "Limba Român? contemporan?. Fonetic?. Fonologie. Ortografie. Lexicologie" (PDF). Retrieved 2013. 
  30. ^ Chew (2003), p. 67.
  31. ^ Lamb (2003), p. 18.
  32. ^ Kordi? (2006), p. 5.
  33. ^ Landau et al. (1999), p. 66.
  34. ^ Pretnar & Tokarz (1980), p. 21.
  35. ^ a b c d Martínez-Celdrán, Fernández-Planas & Carrera-Sabaté (2003), p. 258.
  36. ^ Ladefoged & Maddieson (1996), p. 171.
  37. ^ Engstrand (1999), pp. 140-141.
  38. ^ Engstrand (2004), p. 167.
  39. ^ a b c d e f Adams (1975), p. 289.
  40. ^ Ladefoged & Maddieson (1996), p. 157.
  41. ^ Ladefoged (2005), p. 168.
  42. ^ Zimmer & Orgun (1999), p. 154.
  43. ^ S. Buk; J. Ma?utek; A. Rovenchak (2008). "Some properties of the Ukrainian writing system". arXiv:0802.4198 Freely accessible. 
  44. ^ ?ewc-Schuster (1984), pp. 22, 38, 39.
  45. ^ Sjoberg (1963), p. 11.
  46. ^ Thompson (1987), pp. 8-9.
  47. ^ Thelwall (1990), p. 37.
  48. ^ a b Gussenhoven (1999), p. 75.
  49. ^ a b Collins & Mees (2003), p. 190.
  50. ^ Shosted & Chikovani (2006), p. 255.
  51. ^ a b Kress (1982:23-24) "It is never voiced, as s in sausen, and it is pronounced by pressing the tip of the tongue against the alveolar ridge, close to the upper teeth - somewhat below the place of articulation of the German sch. The difference is that German sch is labialized, while Icelandic s is not. It is a pre-alveolar, coronal, voiceless spirant."
  52. ^ a b c d Pétursson (1971:?), cited in Ladefoged & Maddieson (1996:145)
  53. ^ a b c Canepari (1992), p. 73.
  54. ^ Okada (1991), p. 94.
  55. ^ a b Cruz-Ferreira (1995), p. 91.
  56. ^ Thompson (1959), pp. 458-461.
  57. ^ Sipma (1913), p. 16.
  58. ^ a b Hualde, J. Basque Phonology (1991) Routledge ISBN 0-415-05655-1
  59. ^ Carbonell & Llisterri (1992), p. 54.
  60. ^ Torreblanca (1988), p. 347.
  61. ^ a b Saborit (2009), p. 12.
  62. ^ Annexe 4: Linguistic Variables
  63. ^ a b c d e f g Adams (1975), p. 286.
  64. ^ Adams (1975), pp. 285-286.
  65. ^ Canepari (1992), pp. 71-72.
  66. ^ a b c d e Canepari (1992), p. 72.
  67. ^ Canepari (1992), p. 71.
  68. ^ Adams (1975), p. 285.
  69. ^ (in Italian) Accenti romanze: Portogallo e Brasile (portoghese) - The influence of foreign accents on Italian language acquisition
  70. ^ Montes (1992), p. 527.
  71. ^ Betancourt (1993), p. 285-286.
  72. ^ a b Basbøll (2005), pp. 61 and 131.
  73. ^ a b Thorborg (2003:80). The author states that /s/ is pronounced with "the tip of the tongue right behind upper teeth, but without touching them." This is confirmed by the accompanying image.
  74. ^ a b Grønnum (2005:144). Only this author mentions both alveolar and dental realizations.
  75. ^ a b Suomi, Toivanen & Ylitalo (2008), p. 27.
  76. ^ a b Mangold (2005), p. 50.
  77. ^ a b Arvaniti (2007), p. 12.
  78. ^ a b Skaug (2003), pp. 130-131.
  79. ^ a b Canepari (1992), p. 68.
  80. ^ Canepari (1992), pp. 68 and 72.
  81. ^ a b c d Laver (1994), p. 263.
  82. ^ Collins & Mees (2003:199). Authors do not say where exactly it is used.
  83. ^ a b Loakes & McDougall (2007), pp. 1445-1448.
  84. ^ a b Buizza (2011), pp. 16-28.
  85. ^ Hickey (1984), pp. 234-235.
  86. ^ a b Laver (1994), pp. 263-264.
  87. ^ Marotta & Barth (2005), p. 385.
  88. ^ Watson (2007), pp. 352-353.
  89. ^ a b Grønnum (2005), p. 139.
  90. ^ a b Yavuz & Balc? (2011), p. 25.

References


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Voiceless_alveolar_fricative
 



 

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