A voting age is a minimum age established by law that a person must attain before they become eligible to vote in a public election. Today, the most common voting age is 18 years; however, voting ages as low as 16 and as high as 25 exist (see list below). Most countries have set a minimum voting age, often set in their constitution. In a number of countries voting is compulsory for those eligible to vote, while in most it is optional.
When the right to vote was being established in democracies, the voting age was generally set at 21 or higher. In the 1970s many countries reduced the voting age to 18. Debate is ongoing in a number of countries on proposals to reduce the voting age to or below 16.
Before the Second World War, the voting age in almost all countries was 21 years or higher. Czechoslovakia was the first to reduce the voting age to 18 years in 1946, and by 1968 a total of 17 countries had lowered their voting age. Many countries, particularly in Western Europe, reduced their voting ages to 18 years during the 1970s, starting with the United Kingdom (1970), with the United States (26th Amendment) (1971), Canada, Australia (1974), France and others following soon afterwards. By the end of the 20th century, 18 had become by far the most common voting age. However, a few countries maintain a voting age of 20 years or higher. It was argued that 18-year-old men could be drafted to go to war, and many people felt they should be able to vote at the age of 18.
In the late 20th and early 21st centuries voting ages were lowered to 18 in India, Switzerland, Austria and Morocco. Japan was due to make the change to 18 in 2016. A dispute is continuing in the Maldives.
Debate on lowering voting age to 16
Around the year 2000 a number of countries began to consider whether the voting age ought to be reduced further, with arguments most often being made in favour of a reduction to 16. The earliest moves came during the 1990s, when the voting age for municipal elections in some States of Germany was lowered to 16. Lower Saxony was the first state to make such a reduction, in 1995, and four other states did likewise.
During the 2000s several proposals for a reduced voting age were put forward in U.S. states, including California, Florida and Alaska, but none was successful. A national reduction was proposed in 2005 in Canada and in the Australian state of New South Wales, but these proposals were not adopted. In May 2009, Danish Member of Parliament Mogens Jensen presented an initiative to the Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe in Strasbourg to lower the voting age in Europe to 16.
In 2007, Austria became the first member of the European Union to adopt a voting age of 16 for most purposes. The voting age had been reduced in Austria from 19 to 18 at all levels in 1992. At that time a voting age of 16 was proposed by the Green Party, but was not adopted.
The voting age for municipal elections in some states was lowered to 16 shortly after 2000. Three states had made the reduction by 2003 (Burgenland, Carinthia and Styria), and in May 2003 Vienna became the fourth.Salzburg followed suit, and so by the start of 2005 the total had reached at least five states out of nine. As a consequence of state law, reduction of the municipal voting age in the states of Burgenland, Salzburg and Vienna resulted in the reduction of the regional voting age in those states as well.
After the 2006 election, the winning SPÖ-ÖVP coalition announced on 12 January 2007 that one of its policies would be the reduction of the voting age to 16 for elections in all states and at all levels in Austria. The policy was set in motion by a Government announcement on 14 March, and a bill proposing an amendment to the Constitution was presented to the legislature on 2 May. On 5 June the National Council approved the proposal following a recommendation from its Constitution Committee. During the passage of the bill through the chamber relatively little opposition was raised to the reduction, with four out of five parties explicitly supporting it; indeed, there was some dispute over which party had been the first to suggest the idea. Greater controversy surrounded the other provisions of the bill concerning the Briefwahl, or postal vote, and the extension of the legislative period for the National Council from four to five years. A further uncontroversial inclusion was a reduction in the candidacy age from 19 to 18. The Federal Council approved the Bill on 21 June, with no party voting against it. The voting age was reduced when the Bill's provisions came into force on 1 July 2007. Austria thus became the first member of the European Union, and the first of the developed world democracies, to adopt a voting age of 16 for all purposes.
Brazil lowered the voting age from 18 to 16 in the 1988 constitution. The presidential election of 1989 was the first with the lower voting age. People between the ages 18 and 70 are required to vote.
On 20 November 2013, Malta lowered the voting age from 18 to 16 for local elections starting from 2015. The proposal had wide support from both the government and opposition, social scientists and youth organizations.
The Representation of the People Act 1969 lowered the voting age from 21 to 18, with effect from 1970 and remained in force until the Scottish Independence Referendum Act 2013 which allowed 16 year olds to vote for the first time, but only in Scotland and only in that particular referendum. The Scottish Parliament reduced the voting age to 16 for its own and Scottish local elections in 2015.
Men in military service who turned 19 during the first world war were entitled to vote in 1918 irrespective of their age as part of the Representation of the People Act 1918 which also allowed some women over the age of 30 to vote. The Representation of the People (Equal Franchise) Act 1928 brought the voting age for women down to 21.
The reduction of the voting age to 16 in the United Kingdom was first given serious consideration on 15 December 1999, when the House of Commons considered in Committee an amendment proposed by Simon Hughes to the Representation of the People Bill. This was the first time the reduction of a voting age below 18 had ever been put to a vote in the Commons. The Government opposed the amendment, and it was defeated by 434 votes to 36.
The Votes at 16 coalition, a group of political and charitable organisations supporting a reduction of the voting age to 16, was launched on 29 January 2003. At that time a Private Member's Bill was also proposed in the House of Lords by Lord Lucas, and received a Second Reading on 9 January.
In 2004, the UK Electoral Commission conducted a major consultation on the subject of the voting and candidacy ages, and received a significant response. In its conclusions it recommended that the voting age remain at 18. On 29 November 2005 the House of Commons voted 136-128 (on a free vote) against a Private Member's Bill for a reduction in the voting age to 16 proposed by Liberal Democrat MP Stephen Williams. Parliament chose not to include a provision reducing the voting age in the Electoral Administration Act during its passage in 2006.
On 27 February 2006, the report of the Power Inquiry called for a reduction of the voting age, and of the candidacy age for the House of Commons, to 16. On the same day the Chancellor of the Exchequer, Gordon Brown, indicated in an article in The Guardian that he favoured a reduction provided it was made concurrently with effective citizenship education.
The UK Ministry of Justice published on 3 July 2007 a Green Paper entitled The Governance of Britain, in which it proposed the establishment of a "Youth Citizenship Commission". The Commission would examine the case for lowering the voting age. On launching the Paper in the House of Commons, PM Gordon Brown said: "Although the voting age has been 18 since 1969, it is right, as part of that debate, to examine, and hear from young people themselves, whether lowering that age would increase participation."
The Scottish National Party's conference voted unanimously on 27 October 2007 for a policy of reducing the voting age to 16, as well as in favour of a campaign for the necessary power to be devolved to the Scottish Parliament.
During the Youth Parliament debates of 30 October 2009 in the House of Commons, Votes at 16 was debated and young people of that age group voted for it overwhelmingly as a campaign priority. Since that debate the issue has been raised in Prime Minister's Questions and has also gained the widespread support of the major political parties.
In April 2015, Labour announced that it would support the policy if it won an overall majority in the 2015 general election.
There was some criticism about not reducing the voting age to 16 years for the referendum on the membership in the European Union in 2016.
In September 2011, it was announced that the voting age was likely to be reduced from 18 to 16 for the Scottish independence referendum. This was approved by the Scottish Parliament in June 2013.
In June 2015, the Scottish Parliament voted unanimously to reduce the voting age to 16 for Scottish Parliament elections and Scottish local government elections.
Moves to lower the voting age to 16 were successful in each of the three British Crown dependencies from 2006 to 2008. The Isle of Man was the first to amend its law, when in July 2006 it reduced the voting age to 16 for its general elections, with the House of Keys approving the move by 19 votes to 4.
Jersey followed suit on 4 July 2007, when it approved in principle a reduction of the voting age to 16. The States of Jersey voted narrowly in favour, by 25 votes to 21, and the legislative amendments were adopted on 26 September. The law was sanctioned by Order in Council on 12 December, and was brought into force on 1 April, in time for the general elections in late 2008.
On 31 October 2007, a proposal for a reduction made by the House Committee of the States of Guernsey, and approved by the States' Policy Committee, was adopted by the assembly by 30 votes to 15. An Order in Council sanctioning the law was made on 12 December, and it was registered at the Court of Guernsey on 19 December. It came into force immediately, and the voting age was accordingly reduced in time for the Guernsey general election, 2008.
Alderney and Sark, each part of the Bailiwick of Guernsey, have autonomy in deciding the question. Both have yet to favour a reduction to 16.
Blue indicates a state that allows 17-year olds who will turn 18 on or before election day to vote in caucuses or primaries.
In the United States, the debate about lowering voting age from 21 to 18 began during World War II and intensified during the Vietnam War, when most of those subjected to the draft were too young to vote, and the image of young men being forced to risk their lives in the military without the privileges of voting successfully pressured legislators to lower the voting age nationally and in many states. (See also Opposition to United States involvement in the Vietnam War#Draft.) By 1968, several states had lowered the voting age below 21 years: Alaska and Hawaii's minimum age was 20, Kentucky's was 19, and Georgia's was 18. In 1970, the Supreme Court in Oregon v. Mitchell ruled that Congress had the right to regulate the minimum voting age in federal elections; however, not at local and state level.
The 26th Amendment (passed and ratified in 1971) set the voting age for federal and state elections at 18 years, but does not prevent states from establishing a lower voting age. Except for the express limitations provided for in Amendments XIV, XV, XIX and XXVI, voter qualifications for House and Senate elections are largely delegated to the States under Article I, Section 2 and Amendment XVII of the United States Constitution, which respectively state that "The House of Representatives shall be composed of Members chosen every second Year by the People of the several States, and the Electors in each State shall have the Qualifications requisite for Electors of the most numerous Branch of the State Legislature." and "The Senate of the United States shall be composed of two Senators from each State, elected by the people thereof, for six years; and each Senator shall have one vote. The electors in each State shall have the qualifications requisite for electors of the most numerous branch of the State legislatures."
21 states permit 17-year-olds to vote in primary elections and caucuses if they will be 18 by election day: Alaska, Connecticut, Hawaii, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Kentucky, Maine, Maryland, Mississippi, Nebraska, Nevada, New Mexico, North Dakota, North Carolina, Ohio, Oregon, Virginia, Vermont, and Washington. Alaska, Kansas, North Dakota and Washington allow 17-year-olds to participate in Democrat caucuses, but not in the Republican caucus. Minnesota allows 17-year-olds to participate in presidential caucuses, but may not vote in primary elections for other offices.
Currently, the Maine Green Independent Party, the state branch of the Green Party of the United States, calls for the lowering of the voting age to 17.Youth suffrage appears to be gaining ground in Massachusetts; three of the four Democratic United States Senate candidates in 2010 supported lowering the voting age.
In 2013, the City of Takoma Park, Maryland became the first place in the United States to lower its voting age to 16, for local (but not general) elections and referendums. California has, since the 1980s, allowed persons who are 17 to register to vote for an election where the election itself will occur on or after their 18th birthday, and several states including Indiana allow 17-year-olds to vote in a primary election provided they will be 18 by the general election.
Iran had been unique in awarding suffrage at 15, but raised the age to 18 in January 2007 despite the opposition of the Government. In May 2007 the Iranian Cabinet proposed a bill to reverse the increase.
On 6 May 2007, the Swiss Canton of Glarus reduced the voting age from 18 to 16 for cantonal and local elections.
The New Zealand Green Party MP Sue Bradford announced on 21 June 2007 that she intended to introduce her Civics Education and Voting Age Bill on the next occasion upon which a place became available for the consideration of Members' Bills. When this happened on 25 July Bradford abandoned the idea, citing an adverse public reaction. The Bill would have sought to reduce the voting age to 16 in New Zealand and make civics education part of the compulsory curriculum in schools.
A request to lower the voting age to 16 was made during consideration of revisions to the Constitution of Venezuela in 2007. Cilia Flores, president of the National Assembly, announced that the Mixed Committee for Constitutional Reform had found the idea acceptable. Following approval in the legislature the amendment formed part of the package of constitutional proposals, and was defeated in the 2007 referendum.
A report suggesting that consideration be given to reducing the voting age to 16 in the Australian Capital Territory in Canberra, Australia was tabled in the territorial legislature on 26 September 2007 and defeated.
In 2015, federal Opposition Leader Bill Shorten said that the voting age should be lowered to 16.
Luxembourg has compulsory voting from the age of 18. A proposal by the government to introduce optional voting for those aged 16 and 17 was rejected by 81% of voters in a June 2015 referendum.
Voting ages around the world
Eighteen is the most common voting age, with a small minority of countries differing from this rule. Those with a national minimum age of 17 include East Timor, Greece, Indonesia, North Korea, South Sudan and Sudan. The minimum age is 16 in Argentina, Austria, Brazil, Cuba, Ecuador, Nicaragua and the Isle of Man, Jersey and Guernsey (three self-governing British Crown Dependencies). People aged 16-18 can vote in Bosnia, Serbia and Montenegro if employed. The highest minimum voting age is 21 in several nations. Some countries have variable provision for the minimum voting age, whereby a lower age is set for eligibility to vote in state, regional or municipal elections.
The only known maximum voting age is in the Holy See, where the franchise for electing a new Pope is restricted to Cardinals under the age of 80.
Alphabetical list of countries
The following is an alphabetical list of voting ages in the various countries of the world.
- Gabon: 18
- Gambia: 18
- Georgia: 18
- Germany: 18
- Voting age 16 for state elections: Brandenburg, Bremen, Hamburg and Schleswig-Holstein.
- Voting age 16 for municipal elections: Baden-Württemberg, Berlin, Brandenburg, Bremen, Hamburg, Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Lower Saxony, North Rhine-Westphalia, Saxony-Anhalt and Schleswig-Holstein.
- Ghana: 18
- Gibraltar: 18; universal, plus other British citizens who have been residents six months or more
- Greece: 17 from 3 August 2016 onwards, was 18 before 3 August 2016
- Greenland: 18
- Grenada: 18
- Guadeloupe: 18
- Guam: 18; US citizens, but do not vote in US presidential elections
- Guatemala: 18; active-duty members of the armed forces may not vote and are restricted to their barracks on election day.
- Guernsey: 16
- Guinea: 18
- Guinea-Bissau: 18
- Guyana: 18
- Haiti: 18
- Honduras: 18
- Hong Kong: direct election 18 years of age; universal for permanent residents living in the territory of Hong Kong for the past seven years; indirect election limited to about 220,000 members of functional constituencies and an 1,200-member election committee drawn from broad regional groupings, municipal organizations, and central government bodies
- Hungary: 18
- Oman: 21, except for members of the military and police.
- Pakistan: 18; joint electorates and reserved parliamentary seats for women and non-Muslims
- Palau: 18
- Panama: 18
- Papua New Guinea: 18
- Paraguay: 18; universal and compulsory until the age of 75
- Peru: 18; universal and compulsory until the age of 70; (members of the military and national police could not vote until a Constitutional Reform in 2005)
- Philippines: 18
- For youth councils: 18 to 30; previously from 15 to 18. Incumbents are allowed to keep their positions if they surpass the legal age.
- Pitcairn Islands: 18; universal with three years' residency
- Poland: 18
- Portugal: 18
- Puerto Rico: 18; island residents are US citizens but do not vote in US presidential elections.
Chronology of lowering the voting age to 18
The following is a chronological list of the dates upon which countries lowered the voting age to 18; unless otherwise indicated, the reduction was from 21. In some cases the age was lowered decrementally, and so the "staging points" are also given. Some information is also included on the relevant legal instruments involved.
- non-federal elections: Quebec in 1963,Manitoba on 10 October 1969,Ontario in 1971,Nova Scotia in 1973 following reduction to 19 in 1970 and British Columbia in 1992 following reduction to 19 in 1952
- Germany: 1970 
- Netherlands: 1971 (previous reduction from 23 to 21 in 1965)
- United States: 1 July 1971, per the Twenty-sixth Amendment. Previously reduced on 1 January 1971 by the Voting Rights Act Amendments 1970, ss. 302, 305 (Prior reductions: Georgia in August 1943,Kentucky in 1955,Guam in 1954 and American Samoa in 1965.)
- Finland: 1972 (from 20; previous reductions were 24 to 21 in 1944 and 21 to 20 in 1968/1969)
- Sweden: 1972 (from 20) 
- Ireland: 5 January 1973 (4th Amendment of the Constitution). Women under 30 gained the vote in local elections in 1935 and in Dáil elections and referendums in 1922 (Constitution of the Irish Free State). The only popular election (in 1925) to the Free State Seanad had a voting age of 30.
- Australia: 1973 (New South Wales was the first state to do so, in 1970)
- France: 5 July 1974 (Act No. 74-631)
- New Zealand: November 1974 (from 20; previous reduction from 21 to 20 in 1969)
- Dominica: 1974
- Italy: 1975 (voting age to elect the Senate remained at 25)
- Trinidad and Tobago: 1976
- Denmark: 19 September 1978 (from 20; 53.8% in referendum; previous reductions were 25 to 23 in 1953, 23 to 21 in 1961 and 21 to 20 in 1971)
- Spain: 29 December 1978 (1978 Constitution)
- Peru: 1979 Constitution
- Belgium: 1981
- India: 28 March 1989 (61st Constitution Amendment Act, 1988 read with Act 21 of 1989)
- Switzerland: 1991 (from 20; referendum held on 3 March)
- Austria: 1992 (from 19; previous reductions were 21 to 20 in 1949 and 20 to 19 in 1970)
- Estonia: 29 July 1992 (from 22, according to the 1938 Constitution; was 18 during the Soviet Occupation since 1940 and 16 for the Congress of Estonia in 1990)
- Hong Kong: 1995 (from 21)
- Liechtenstein: 2000 (from 20; LGBl. 2000 No. 55)
- Jordan: July 2001 (from 19; Provisional Election Law No. 34/2001)
- Pakistan: 21 August 2002 (Legal Framework Order, 2002), was 18 under 1973 Constitution, then increased to 21, then lowered back to 18.
- Morocco: 11 December 2002 (from 20)
- Uzbekistan: July 2012 (from 25)
- Saudi Arabia: April 2015 (from 21)
- Japan: June 2016 (from 20)
Chronology of lowering the voting age to 16
This is a further list, similar to the above but of the dates upon which countries lowered the voting age to 16; unless otherwise indicated, the reduction was from 18.
- Nicaragua: November 1984 (from 21)
- Brazil: 5 October 1988 (Constitution of the Federative Republic of Brazil, 1988)
- Estonia: 24 February 1990 (from 22 according to the 1938 Constitution, from 18 during the Soviet occupation); only for the Congress of Estonia, was raised to 18 according to the 1992 Constitution
- Isle of Man: 11 July 2006; legislation brought into force in time for general election held on 23 November 2006
- Austria: 1 July 2007 (BGBl. No. 1/1930, as amended)
- Guernsey: 19 December 2007 (Reform (Guernsey) (Amendment) Law, 2007)
- Jersey: 1 April 2008 (Public Elections (Amendment No. 2) (Jersey) Law 2008)
- Ecuador: 28 September 2008 (New constitution accepted by referendum) for general election on 26 March 2009.
- Argentina: 1 November 2012. Voting for teenagers between 16 and 18 years of age became optional.
- Malta: 20 November 2013. Motion passed in parliament to lower the voting age to 16 at local council elections starting from 2015.
- Scotland: 18 September 2014. 16 & 17 years old were given the vote for the Independence Referendum. This was subsequently extended permanently as of the 2016 parliament election.
- Estonia: 6 May 2015 in local elections only.
Organizations in favour of lowering the voting age
The following are political parties and other campaigning organisations that have either endorsed a lower voting age or who favour its removal.
Alphabetical list of countries
In 2013, the Constitutional Convention was asked to consider reducing the voting age to 17 and recommended lowering it to 16. The then government agreed to hold a referendum, but in 2015 postponed it indefinitely to give priority to other referendums.
No political party had decreed that its members should all follow the party line about lowering voting age policy, resulting in public differences of view. Most parties had splits in their members and supporters, taking different sides.
- ^ "Lowering the Minimum Voting Age to 18 Years - Pro and Con Arguments", Constitutional Revision Study Documents of the Maryland Constitutional Convention Commission, 1968. Retrieved 5 February 2007.
- ^ Representation of the People Act 1969
- ^ Sanders, Mark (2000). Your Right To Vote. United State: Raintree Steck- Vaugh company.
- ^ a b "Lower voting age welcome, but politics remains unappealing". Asahi Shimbun.
- ^ Moosa, A.S.I. (1 April 2007). "The murderous dictator and the 'Bullet-Ballot' propaganda". Dhivehi Observer. Retrieved 2007.
- ^ HeveeruOnline "Committee supports lowering voting age to 18 for referendum Mar 20, 2007" Retrieved 8 March 2015
- ^ a b c How old is old enough? - the minimum age of voting and candidacy in UK elections: consultation paper, July 2003, UK Electoral Commission, para. 3.6.
- ^ Worldwide Efforts to Lower the Voting Age, National Youth Rights Association
- ^ Parliament of Canada, Bill C-261 (2005); Vote16, Canada
- ^ Parliament of New South Wales, Parliamentary Electorates and Elections Amendment (Voting Age) Bill (2005); Hansard, 14 September 2005, p. 17686.
- ^ "edoc11895" (PDF). Retrieved 2011.
- ^ a b c "Austria lowers voting age to 16". EUX.tv -- the Europe Channel, the Netherlands. 5 June 2007. Retrieved 2007.
- ^ a b c Wählen mit 16, Briefwahl, fünfjährige Gesetzgebungsperiode kommen, Republik Österreich Parlament (German). Retrieved 6 June 2007.
- ^ Austria joins the votes at 16 club, Votes at 16. Retrieved 6 June 2007.
- ^ Lowering the Electoral Age, Austrian National Youth Council. Retrieved 6 June 2007.
- ^ a b Elections, Demokratiezentrum Wien. Retrieved 6 June 2007.
- ^ Committee on Rights of Child Considers Second Periodic Report of Austria, UNHCHR, 14 January 2005.
- ^ Oleksyn, Veronika (12 January 2007). "Austrians split on voting at age 16 plan". AP/washingtonpost.com. Retrieved 2007.
- ^ "Austria lowers voting age". IOL, South Africa. 14 March 2007. Retrieved 2007.
- ^ "Austria lowers voting age to 16". News 24, South Africa. 3 May 2007. Retrieved 2007.
- ^ 94 d.B. (XXIII. GP) Bundesverfassungsgesetz, mit dem das Bundes-Verfassungsgesetz geändert wird, Republik Österreich Parlament (German).
- ^ Verfassungsausschuss gibt grünes Licht für Wahlrechtsreform, Republik Österreich Parlament (German). Retrieved 25 May 2007.
- ^ Wahlrechtsreform 2007 passiert den Bundesrat, Republik Österreich Parlament (German). Retrieved 30 June 2007.
- ^ a b c 31/BNR (XXIII. GP) Bundes-Verfassungsgesetz Archived 29 September 2007 at Archive.is, ss. 1, 5 and 25, Republik Österreich Parlament (German). Retrieved 1 July 2007.
- ^ a b c "Cut in Scottish voting age passed unanimously". BBC News. 18 June 2015. Retrieved 2015.
- ^ Hansard, House of Commons, fifth edition, vol 219, col 1035
- ^ smells14.htm#91215-14_time0 HC Deb, 15 December 1999, Vol. 341, cc. 305-338. Retrieved 3 November 2007.
- ^ a b smells14.htm#91215-14_time0 HC Deb, 15 December 1999, Vol. 341, c. 336. Retrieved 3 November 2007.
- ^ "'A real chance to improve British Politics' - Votes at 16 Campaign Launches". Votes at 16. 29 January 2003. Retrieved 2007.
- ^ The Voting Age (Reduction to 16) Bill (HL).
- ^ Age of Electoral Majority, Electoral Commission, 19 April 2004, para. 8.16
- ^ "Political system faces 'meltdown'". BBC News. 27 February 2006. Retrieved 2007.
- ^ "And so does Gordon Brown". Votes at 16. 27 February 2006. Retrieved 2007.
- ^ The Governance of Britain, UK Ministry of Justice, 3 July 2007, para. 190. Retrieved 5 July 2007.
- ^ HC Deb, 3 July 2007, Vol. 462, c. 819. Retrieved 5 July 2007.
- ^ "'Vote at 16' move backed by SNP". BBC News. 27 October 2007. Retrieved 2007.
- ^ Labour Vows To Lower Voting Age To 16. Huffington Post (UK edition). Published 7 April 2015. Retrieved 29 April 2017.
- ^ "Young people are gathering at Parliament furious at not being given the vote". 2016-06-24. Retrieved .
- ^ Bloom, Dan (2016-06-24). "Young voters wanted Brexit the least - and must live with it the longest". Retrieved .
- ^ Macdonnell, Hamish (17 September 2011). "16-year-olds likely to get the vote on Union split". The Times Scotland. London: Times Newspapers Limited. Retrieved 2011.
- ^ "Scottish independence: Referendum voting age bill approved by MSPs". BBC News. 27 June 2013. Retrieved 2015.
- ^ "Teenagers vote in Manx election". BBC News. 13 July 2006. Retrieved 2007.
- ^ Vote P63/2007, States of Jersey, 4 July 2007. Retrieved 6 July 2007.
- ^ States of Jersey Minutes, 26 September 2007. Retrieved 24 October 2007.
- ^ a b ORDERS APPROVED AT THE PRIVY COUNCIL HELD BY THE QUEEN AT BUCKINGHAM PALACE ON 12 December 2007, Privy Council Office, 20 December 2007. Retrieved 15 January 2008.
- ^ a b Public Elections (Amendment No. 2) (Jersey) Law 2008, Jersey Legal Information Board. Retrieved 15 January 2008.
- ^ Public Elections: reduction in voting age to 16, States of Jersey, 15 May 2007. Retrieved 6 July 2007.
- ^ Public Elections (Amendment No. 2) (Jersey) Law 2007 (Appointed Day) Act 2008, Jersey Legal Information Board. Retrieved 13 April 2008.
- ^ "'Give our young people a voice'". The Guernsey Press and Star. 18 September 2007. Retrieved 2007.
- ^ a b Billet d'État XXII 2007 (October) & Resolutions, States of Guernsey. Retrieved 20 December 2007.
- ^ "Too young at 16 to vote - deputy". The Guernsey Press and Star. 2 November 2007. Retrieved 2007.
- ^ a b "16 Year Olds Can Vote in General Election". States of Guernsey -- The Official Guernsey Government Website. 19 December 2007. Retrieved 2008.
- ^ "Constitution lowers voting age to 19". Baltimore Afro-American. 6 April 1968.
- ^ "The 26th Amendment". A&E Television Networks. 1996. Retrieved 2013.
- ^ http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/GPO-CONAN-2014/pdf/GPO-CONAN-2014-10-27.pdf
- ^ "Transcript of the Constitution of the United States - Official Text". archives.gov.
- ^ Steinborn, Jeff. "House Bill 138, 52ND LEGISLATURE - STATE OF NEW MEXICO - SECOND SESSION, 2016" (PDF). New Mexico Legislature. New Mexico Legislature. Retrieved 2016.
- ^ "FairVote.org - 17-year-old Primary Voting". FairVote.
- ^ "Green Platform". Mainegreens.org.
- ^ "Three Massachusetts Senator Candidates Support Lower Voting Age". Lowerthevote.wordpress.com. 30 November 2009. Retrieved 2011.
- ^ Powers, Lindsay A. (14 May 2013). "Takoma Park grants 16-year-olds right to vote". WashingtonPost.com.
- ^ "16-year-olds voting? Secession? 5 Election Day oddities". USA Today. November 6, 2013. Retrieved 2013.
- ^ a b "Iran raises voting age to 18". Iran Focus. 14 January 2007. Archived from the original on 29 June 2017.
- ^ "Bill may lower voting age to 15". Press TV. 2 May 2007. Retrieved 2007.
- ^ "President planning to lower voting age". Press TV. 23 September 2007. Retrieved 2007.
- ^ a b "Swiss canton drops voting age to 16". AP/International Herald Tribune Europe. 6 May 2007. Retrieved 2007.
- ^ a b "Glarus lowers voting age to 16". 24 Heures. 7 May 2007. Retrieved 2007.
- ^ Bradford launches Bill to lower voting age to 16 Archived 27 June 2007 at the Wayback Machine., Green Party of Aotearoa New Zealand, 21 June 2007. Retrieved 2 July 2007.
- ^ "Green MP abandons voting age bill". Radio New Zealand News. 26 July 2007. Retrieved 2007.
- ^ Morgan, Jeremy (9 September 2007). "Further details of Chavez' package of constitutional reforms are emerging". Caracas Daily Journal. Retrieved 2007.
- ^ Walter, Matthew (11 October 2007). "Venezuela May Lower Voting Age, Add Gay Rights in Constitution". Bloomberg.com. Retrieved 2007.
- ^ "ACT to consider lowering voting age". ABC News (Australia). 26 September 2007. Retrieved 2007.
- ^ a b ABC News, 31 October 2015, Bill Shorten calls for voting age to be lowered to 16
- ^ "Comparative Data --". aceproject.org.
- ^ BAHRAIN - Majlis Al-Nuwab (Council of Representatives)
- ^ Wahlrecht Wikipedia German Wikipedia article containing all references for each state. Retrieved 11 October 2014.
- ^ 
- ^ a b Reform (Guernsey) Law, 1948, s. 28(1); amended by Reform (Guernsey) (Amendment) Law, 2007 (adopted on 31 October 2007, sanctioned on 12 December and registered and coming into force on 19 December).
- ^ "Iran: Council of Ministers Approves Lowering Voting Age". Library of Congress. Retrieved 2013.
- ^ "Voting Age back to 18". Jame Jam Online.
- ^ "Voting Age". Khabar Online.
- ^ "NK constitute law". Unibook.unikorea.go.kr. 8 October 2010. Retrieved 2013.
- ^ "NA panel lowers voting age to 18". kuwaittimes.net. 18 January 2012. Retrieved 2012.
- ^ "Lebanon shoots down bill to lower voting age". Middle-east-online.com. 22 February 2010. Retrieved 2013.
- ^ "Militares y policías podrán votar en las próximas elecciones". terra. Retrieved 2013.
- ^ "Constitution of the Republic of Serbia". srbija.gov.rs. Retrieved 2007.
- ^ Inter-Parliamentary Union. "IPU PARLINE database: SEYCHELLES (National Assembly), Full text". Ipu.org. Retrieved 2013.
- ^ "Legislators mull lowering voting age". Taipei Times. 8 January 2013. Retrieved 2013.
- ^ Inter-Parliamentary Union. "IPU PARLINE database: TUNISIA (Al-Majlis Al-watani Al-Taasisi), Electoral system". Ipu.org. Retrieved 2013.
- ^ (in Ukrainian) ?????? ???? ?? ????? ??????? (The first step to disrupt the elections), Ukrayinska Pravda (9 April 2012)
- ^ a b "Suffrage". www.cia.gov. 2009. Retrieved 2009.
- ^ Inter-Parliamentary Union (16 February 2011). "IPU PARLINE database: UNITED ARAB EMIRATES (Majlis Watani Itihadi), Electoral system". Ipu.org. Retrieved 2013.
- ^ "Comparative Data --". aceproject.org.
- ^ The Constitution of the Republic of Turkey, Article 67
- ^ "Encyclopedia of the Nations, Turkey". Nationsencyclopedia.com. Retrieved 2011.
- ^ Horrell, Muriel. A Survey of Race Relations in South Africa, 1957-1958 (PDF). South African Institute of Race Relations. p. 10. Retrieved 2011.
- ^ "Young Canadians and the Voting Age: Should It Be Lowered?". Canadian Policy Research Networks (CPRN). 2005. Retrieved 2007.
- ^ "Canadian History 1900-1999". Canadian History Directory. 1 January 2007. Retrieved 2007.
- ^ a b "Elections Canada On-Line". Elections.ca. 14 June 2010. Retrieved 2013.
- ^ Elections Manitoba Archived 28 February 2007 at the Wayback Machine.
- ^ "The Canadian Encyclopedia, Nova Scotia". Canadianencyclopedia.ca. Retrieved 2011.
- ^ "Elections British Columbia". Elections.bc.ca. Retrieved 2013.
- ^ "(missing)". Webcitation.org. Archived from the original on 25 October 2009. Retrieved 2013.
- ^ Title 3, 84 Stat. 318, 42 U.S.C. Sec. 1973bb.; text reproduced in Oregon v. Mitchell, 400 U.S. 112, 223
- ^ "Suffrage Jr". Time. 16 August 1943. Retrieved 2007.
- ^ "Lowering the Minimum Voting Age to Eighteen Years - Pro and Con Arguments", Constitutional Revision Study Documents of the Maryland Constitutional Convention Commission, 1968. Retrieved 5 February 2007.
- ^ a b Cheng, J. "The 'Qualified Voter' and the Minimum Voting Age" (PDF). Department of Political Science, University of Michigan. Archived from the original (PDF) on 13 February 2006. Retrieved 2007.
- ^ "HS Gallup: Little public support for reduction in voting age". Helsingin Sanomat International Edition -- Metro. 11 January 2007. Retrieved 2007.
- ^ "Sanasto". Eduskunta.fi. 1 March 2000. Retrieved 2011.
- ^ http://www.idea.int/publications/voter_turnout_weurope/upload/chapter%201.pdf
- ^ "Local Government (Extension of Franchise) Act, 1935". Irish Statute Book. 29 March 1935. pp. Section 2 (1). Retrieved 2016.; O'Kelly, Seán T. (12 July 1933). "Local Government (Extension of Franchise) Bill, 1933--Second Stage.". Seanad Éireann Debates. Vol. 17 No. 2 p.5 cc116-117. Retrieved 2016.
Clearly the theory [...] that married women under 30 years of age, although they may vote at a Dáil election, are not competent to vote at a local government election, will not stand.
- ^ "Constitution of the Irish Free State (Saorstát Eireann) Act, 1922". Irish Statute Book. 6 December 1922. Schedule 1, Article 14. Retrieved 2016.
All citizens of the Irish Free State (Saorstát Eireann) without distinction of sex, who have reached the age of twenty-one years and who comply with the provisions of the prevailing electoral laws, shall have the right to vote for members of Dáil Eireann, and to take part in the Referendum and Initiative.
- ^ Coakley, John (September 2005). "Ireland's Unique Electoral Experiment: The Senate Election of 1925". Irish Political Studies. 20 (3): 231-269: 234. doi:10.1080/07907180500359327.
- ^ "La Constitution du 4 Octobre 1958" (PDF)., Art. 3 and Le Code Civil francais, Art. 488
- ^ Elections New Zealand, "The Right to Vote". Retrieved 5 February 2007.
- ^ Encyclopedia of the Nations, New Zealand. Retrieved 6 February 2007.
- ^ Important Dates in Dominica's History Archived 30 August 2013 at the Wayback Machine., Lennox Honychurch
- ^ "folketinget.dk, "Representative democracy and referenda"". Folketinget.dk. Retrieved 2013.
- ^ Maravall, J.M. (July 1979). "Political Cleavages in Spain and the 1979 General Election". Government and Opposition. 14 (3): 299-317. doi:10.1111/j.1477-7053.1979.tb00247.x. Retrieved 2007.
- ^ Encyclopedia of the Nations, Belgium. Retrieved 6 February 2007.
- ^ "Official Website of the Chief Electoral Officer, Delhi, FAQs Q21". Ceodelhi.nic.in. 28 March 1989. Retrieved 2011.
- ^ swissworld.org, "The political system in Switzerland"Archived 1 January 2007 at the Wayback Machine.
- ^ Spannring, Reingard. Orientations of Young Men and Women to Citizenship and European Identity: Workpackage 1 - Socio-demographic Background: Austria (PDF). Institute for Advanced Studies, Vienna. Retrieved 2007.
- ^ Eesti Nõukogude Sotsialistliku Vabariigi konstitutsioon (1940) (in Estonian)
- ^ Valmistumine Eesti Kongressi valimisteks (in Estonian)
- ^ http://www.legco.gov.hk/yr97-98/english/sec/library/956rp17.pdf
- ^ "Constitution of the Principality of Liechtenstein". Archived from the original on 7 August 2009. Retrieved 2010., Art. 29 (2)|df=y
- ^ The World of Parliaments, Quarterly Review No. 4, IPU, 2001. Retrieved 22 July 2007.
- ^ Nadeem, M.; Laghari, J. Study of Pakistan Election System as "Intelligent e-Election". arXiv:cs/0405105 .
- ^ "SOUTH ASIA | Vote on Musharraf rule set for May". BBC News. 5 April 2002. Retrieved 2011.
- ^ Encyclopedia of the Nations, Pakistan Retrieved 6 February 2007.
- ^ "Morocco lowers voting age". BBC News. 11 December 2002. Retrieved 2007.
- ^ http://www.globalpost.com/article/6532529/2015/04/29/saudi-allows-women-join-2015-municipal-elections
- ^ "Minimum voting age in Japan dropped to 18". Asia News Network. 2016-06-19. Retrieved .
- ^ Bowman, K.; Lehoucq, F.; Mahoney, J. (2005). "Measuring Political Democracy: Case Expertise, Data Adequacy, and Central America" (PDF). Comparative Political Studies. 38 (8): 939-970 (Appendix C). doi:10.1177/0010414005277083. Retrieved 2007.
- ^ "MacroHistory: Prehistory to yesterday: The Sandinista Revolution". Retrieved 2008.
- ^ Federal Research Division, Library of Congress (April 1997). Brazil -- a country study. Washington, D.C.: Federal Research Division, Library of Congress. p. 300. ISBN 978-1-57980-299-8.
- ^ Representation of the People (Amendment) Act 2006, s. 4
- ^ "Sin la oposición y en una sesión polémica, el kirchnerismo convirtió en ley el voto joven en Diputados". lanacion.com.ar.
- ^ "Motion in parliament to lower local council elections voting age to 16". Times of Malta.
- ^ http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-scotland-scotland-politics-33173488
- ^ "Front for Victory official site (spanish)". Archived from the original on 25 November 2006.
- ^ "Aktuelle Themen". Liberale.at. Retrieved 2011.
- ^ "× SPÖ - Sozialdemokratische Partei Österreichs × Startseite". Spoe.at. 17 December 2010. Retrieved 2011.
- ^ Bundesjugendvertretung. ". Nationalratswahl 2006". vote4future.at. Retrieved 2011.
- ^ a b c "Open Vld en Groen willen stemrecht op 16 jaar". Het Laatste Nieuws. 5 May 2015.
- ^ "Democratic renewal and proportional representation". Green Party of Canada. Retrieved 2015.
- ^ "Le Parti Québécois présente une douzaine de propositions pour changer la politique" (Press release) (in French). Parti Québécois. 7 December 2011. Retrieved 2011.
L'abaissement de l'âge légal pour voter à 16 ans. (Lowering the legal voting age to 16 years)
- ^ "VoteTO16 | Extending the Franchise for Better Democracy". Voteto16.ca. Retrieved 2013.
- ^ "DUF - Dansk Ungdoms Fællesråd fremmer unges deltagelse - Dansk Ungdoms Fællesråd". Dansk Ungdoms Fællesråd.
- ^ "FRFG-Intergenerational Justice - Children's Rights". Intergenerationaljustice.org. Retrieved 2011.
- ^ "K.R.Ä.T.Z.Ä. - Right to vote - Overview". En.kraetzae.de. Retrieved 2011.
- ^ "The youth must have a say (greek) (Ecologist Greens)". Ecogreens.gr. Retrieved 2011.
- ^ Political Reform. Accessed via Green Party (Ireland) (official website). Retrieved 19 June 2017.
- ^ "Labour Ireland - ''Local election voting age should be lowered to 16''". Labour.ie. 30 November 2008. Retrieved 2011.
- ^ Sinn Féin calls for voting age to be lowered to 16. Irish Examiner. Published 12 August 2017. Retrieved 17 August 2017.
- ^ "A Programme For Socialist Change - SY Manifesto (p. 2)". Socialistparty.net. Retrieved 2011.
- ^ Convention on the Constitution (March 2013). "First Report on (i) Reducing the voting age to 17; and (ii) Reducing the Presidential term of office to five years and aligning it with the local and European elections." (PDF). Retrieved 2016.
- ^ "Report of the Convention on the Constitution: Statements". Dáil Éireann debates. Oireachtas. 18 July 2013. Retrieved 2013.
- ^ Ryan, Órla (15 January 2015). "Enda accused of 'betraying' young people by scrapping voting age referendum". TheJournal.ie. Retrieved 2015.
- ^ Five Star Movement leader Grillo wants 16-year-olds to get the vote. The Local (Italy edition). Author - Catherine Edwards. Published 9 May 2017. Retrieved 18 August 2017.
- ^ "MPs split over lowering voting age to 18". The Star Online. 26 September 2015.
- ^ "Tuntutan-Tuntutan PRU13 Masyarakat Sivil Malaysia". suaram.net.
- ^ "Laporan Tribunal Rakyat Tentang Pilihan Raya ke-13 Malaysia" (PDF). bersih.org.
- ^ "DAP Malaysia - Party Policies". dapmalaysia.org.
- ^ "mykuasa.org - Amanah". mykuasa.org.
- ^ "Change voting age to 18". theSundaily. 13 September 2010.
- ^ "Resolusi Kongres Nasional Parti Sosialis Malaysia (PSM) ke-18". partisosialis.org.
- ^ "Venstre - Småbedrifter | Miljø | Velferd | Kunnskap". Venstre.no. Retrieved 2011.
- ^ "Forside - Sosialistisk Venstreparti" (in Norwegian). Sv.no. Retrieved 2011.
- ^ "Gorghiu insist?: vrea tinerii la vot de la 16 ani". Retrieved 2015.
- ^ "Votul la 16 ani revine în discu?ie". Retrieved 2015.
- ^ https://www.mp.se/politik/demokrati-och-politik
- ^ "Green Party - Greens back calls for votes at 16". greenparty.org.uk.
- ^ Green Party in Northern Ireland manifesto 2017. Section - Equality. P.15. Retrieved 9 September 2017.
- ^ Constitutional & Political Reform. Liberal Democrats (official website). Retrieved 11 May 2017.
- ^ David Proffitt. "The Liberal Party :: Government". liberal.org.uk.
- ^ National Health Action Party - election manifesto 2015. National Health Action Party (official website). p.10 - 'A fair political system'. Retrieved 14 May 2017.
- ^ 'Lower voting age to 16'. Wales Online. Published 9 March 2004. Last updated 31 March 2013. Retrieved 7 September 2017.
- ^ Building a Better Scotland.
'We will also campaign for the following measures, which are not within the Scottish Parliament's powers:
The reduction of the voting and candidacy age to 16 - for all elections'.
Scottish Socialist Party (official website).
Retrieved 1 February 2017.
- ^ "Future Voters of America". Future Voters of America. Retrieved 2011.
- ^ "Platform". txgreens.org. Retrieved 2017.