Yoga (philosophy)

Yoga philosophy is one of the six major orthodox schools of Hinduism.[1][2] Ancient, medieval and most modern literature often refers to the Yoga school of Hinduism simply as Yoga.[1][3] It is closely related to the Samkhya school of Hinduism. The Yoga school's systematic studies to better oneself physically, mentally and spiritually has influenced all other schools of Indian philosophy.[4][5] The Yoga Sutras of Patanjali is a key text of the Yoga school of Hinduism.[6]

The epistemology of the Yoga school of Hinduism, like the S?mkhya school, relies on three of six Pramanas as the means of gaining reliable knowledge.[7] These include Pratyak?a (perception), Anum??a (inference) and Sabda (?ptavacana, word/testimony of reliable sources).[8][9] The metaphysics of Yoga is built on the same dualist foundation as the Samkhya school.[6] The universe is conceptualized as composed of two realities in the Samhkya-Yoga schools: Puru?a (consciousness) and prakriti (matter). Jiva (a living being) is considered as a state in which puru?a is bonded to prakriti in some form, in various permutations and combinations of various elements, senses, feelings, activity and mind.[10] During the state of imbalance or ignorance, one of more constituents overwhelm the others, creating a form of bondage. The end of this bondage is called liberation, or moksha, by both the Yoga and Samkhya schools of Hinduism.[11] The ethical theory of the Yoga school is based on Yamas and Niyama, as well as elements of the Gu?a theory of Samkhya.[6]

The Yoga school of Hinduism differs from the closely related non-theistic/atheistic Samkhya school by incorporating the concept of a "personal, yet essentially inactive, deity" or "personal god" (Ishvara).[12][13][14] While the Samkhya school suggests that jnana (knowledge) is a sufficient means to moksha, the Yoga school suggests that systematic techniques and practice, or personal experimentation, combined with Samkhya's approach to knowledge, is the path to moksha.[6] Yoga shares several central ideas with the Advaita Vedanta school of Hinduism, with the difference that Yoga philosophy is a form of experimental mysticism, while Advaita Vedanta is a form of monistic personalism.[15][16][17] Advaita Vedanta, and other schools of Hinduism, accept, adopt and build upon many of the teachings and techniques of Yoga.

History

A statue of a man in yoga posture (Kashmir, India)

The origins of the Yoga school of Hinduism are unclear. Some of its earliest discussions are found in 1st millennium BCE Indian texts such as the Katha Upanishad, the Shvetashvatara Upanishad and the Maitri Upanishad.[18]

The root of "Yoga" is found in hymn 5.81.1 of the Rig Veda, a dedication to rising Sun-god in the morning (Savitri), interpreted as "yoke" or "yogically control".[19]

??????? ?? ?? ??????? ???? ?????? ???????? ????? ????????? (...)[20]

Seers of the vast illumined seer yogically [???????, yunjante] control their minds and their intelligence... (...)[19]

-- Rigveda 5.81.1

Rigveda, however, does not describe Yoga philosophy with the same meaning or context as in medieval or modern times. Early references to practices that later became part of Yoga school of Hinduism, are made in Brihadaranyaka Upanishad, the oldest Upanishad. Gavin Flood translates it as, "...having become calm and concentrated, one perceives the self (atman), within oneself." The practice of pranayama (consciously regulating breath) is mentioned in hymn 1.5.23 of Brihadaranyaka Upanishad (c. ~ 900 BCE), and the practice of pratyahara (concentrating all of one's senses on self) is mentioned in hymn 8.15 of Chandogya Upanishad (c. ~ 800-700 BCE).[21][22]

The Katha Upanishad, dated to be from about the middle of the 1st millennium BCE, in verses 2.6.6 through 2.6.13 recommends a path to Self-knowledge, and calls this path Yoga.[23]

??? ??????????????? ???????? ???? ?? ?
????????? ? ????????? ??????? ????? ????? ? ?? ?
??? ??????? ???????? ?????????????????????? ?
????????????? ???? ???? ?? ??????????? ? ?? ?[24]

Only when Manas (mind) with thoughts and the five senses stand still,
and when Buddhi (intellect, power to reason) does not waver, that they call the highest path.
That is what one calls Yoga, the stillness of the senses, concentration of the mind,
It is not thoughtless heedless sluggishness, Yoga is creation and dissolution.

-- Katha Upanishad, 2.6.10-11[25][26]

The Yoga school of Hinduism is mentioned in foundational texts of other orthodox schools such as the Vaisesikha Sutras, Nyaya Sutras and Brahma Sutras, which suggests that the Yoga philosophy was in vogue in the 1st millennium BCE.[27] It influenced and was influenced by other schools and Indian philosophies. There are, for example, numerous parallels in the concepts in the Samkhya school of Hinduism, Yoga and the Abhidharma schools of thought, particularly from the 2nd century BCE to the 1st century AD, notes Larson.[18] Patanjali's Yoga Sutras may be a synthesis of these three traditions. From the Samkhya school of Hinduism, the Yoga Sutras adopt the "reflective discernment" (adhyavasaya) of prakrti and purusa (dualism), its metaphysical rationalism, as well its three epistemic methods to gaining reliable knowledge.[18] From Abhidharma Buddhism's idea of nirodhasamadhi, suggests Larson, the Yoga Sutras adopt the pursuit of an altered state of awareness, but unlike Buddhism, which believes that there is neither self nor soul, Yoga is physicalist and realist like Samkhya in believing that each individual has a self and soul.[18] The third concept that the Yoga Sutras synthesize into its philosophy is the ancient ascetic traditions of isolation, meditation and introspection.[18]

The systematic collection of ideas of the Yoga school of Hinduism is found in the Yoga Sutras of Patanjali. After its circulation in the first half of the 1st millennium CE, many Indian scholars reviewed it, then published their Bh??ya (notes and commentary) on it, which together form a canon of texts called the P?tañjalayoga??stra ("The Treatise on Yoga of Patañjali").[28][29]

Six darsanas

The Yoga school of Hinduism has been included as one of the six orthodox schools in medieval era Indian texts.[30] The other schools are Samkhya, Nyaya, Vaisheshika, Mimamsa and Vedanta.[31]

Philosophy

The Yoga school of Hindu philosophy is most closely related to the Samkhya school. In both, the foundational concepts include two realities: Purusha and Prakriti.[31] The Purusha is defined as that reality which is pure consciousness and is devoid of thoughts or qualities. The Prakriti is the empirical, phenomenal reality which includes matter and also mind, sensory organs and the sense of identity (self, soul).[31] A living being is held in both schools to be the union of matter and mind. The Yoga school differs from the Samkhya school in its views on the ontology of Purusha, on axiology and on soteriology.[32][33]

Epistemology

The Yoga school considers perception, inference and reliable testimony as three reliable means to knowledge.[8][9]

Yoga school, like Samkhya school, considers Pratyak?a or D???am (direct sense perception), Anum?na (inference), and ?abda or ?ptavacana (verbal testimony of the sages or sh?stras) to be the only valid means of knowledge or Pramana.[8] Unlike few other schools of Hinduism such as Advaita Vedanta, Yoga did not adopt the following three Pramanas: Upam??a (comparison and analogy), Arth?patti (postulation, deriving from circumstances) or Anupalabdi (non-perception, negative/cognitive proof).[9]

  • Pratyak?a (???????????) means perception. It is of two types in Hindu texts: external and internal. External perception is described as that arising from the interaction of five senses and worldly objects, while internal perception is described by this school as that of inner sense, the mind.[34][35] The ancient and medieval Indian texts identify four requirements for correct perception:[36]Indriyarthasannikarsa (direct experience by one's sensory organ(s) with the object, whatever is being studied), Avyapadesya (non-verbal; correct perception is not through hearsay, according to ancient Indian scholars, where one's sensory organ relies on accepting or rejecting someone else's perception), Avyabhicara (does not wander; correct perception does not change, nor is it the result of deception because one's sensory organ or means of observation is drifting, defective, suspect) and Vyavasayatmaka (definite; correct perception excludes judgments of doubt, either because of one's failure to observe all the details, or because one is mixing inference with observation and observing what one wants to observe, or not observing what one does not want to observe).[36] Some ancient scholars proposed "unusual perception" as pramana and called it internal perception, a proposal contested by other Indian scholars. The internal perception concepts included pratibha (intuition), samanyalaksanapratyaksa (a form of induction from perceived specifics to a universal), and jnanalaksanapratyaksa (a form of perception of prior processes and previous states of a 'topic of study' by observing its current state).[37] Further, some schools of Hinduism considered and refined rules of accepting uncertain knowledge from Pratyak?a-pranama, so as to contrast nirnaya (definite judgment, conclusion) from anadhyavasaya (indefinite judgment).[38]
  • Anum??a (??????) means inference. It is described as reaching a new conclusion and truth from one or more observations and previous truths by applying reason.[39] Observing smoke and inferring fire is an example of Anumana.[34] In all except one Hindu philosophies,[40] this is a valid and useful means to knowledge. The method of inference is explained by Indian texts as consisting of three parts: pratijna (hypothesis), hetu (a reason), and drshtanta (examples).[41] The hypothesis must further be broken down into two parts, state the ancient Indian scholars: sadhya (that idea which needs to proven or disproven) and paksha (the object on which the sadhya is predicated). The inference is conditionally true if sapaksha (positive examples as evidence) are present, and if vipaksha (negative examples as counter-evidence) are absent. For rigor, the Indian philosophies also state further epistemic steps. For example, they demand Vyapti - the requirement that the hetu (reason) must necessarily and separately account for the inference in "all" cases, in both sapaksha and vipaksha.[41][42] A conditionally proven hypothesis is called a nigamana (conclusion).[43]
  • ?abda (????) means relying on word, testimony of past or present reliable experts.[44][45] Hiriyanna explains Sabda-pramana as a concept which means reliable expert testimony. The schools of Hinduism which consider it epistemically valid suggest that a human being needs to know numerous facts, and with the limited time and energy available, he can learn only a fraction of those facts and truths directly.[46] He must cooperate with others to rapidly acquire and share knowledge and thereby enrich each other's lives. This means of gaining proper knowledge is either spoken or written, but through Sabda (words).[46] The reliability of the source is important, and legitimate knowledge can only come from the Sabda of reliable sources.[44][46] The disagreement between the schools of Hinduism has been on how to establish reliability. Some schools, such as Carvaka, state that this is never possible, and therefore Sabda is not a proper pramana. Other schools debate means to establish reliability.[47]

Metaphysics

The metaphysics of Yoga school, again like Samkhya school, is a form of dualism. It considers consciousness and matter, self/soul and body as two different realities.[48][49]

The Samkhya-Yoga system espouses dualism between consciousness and matter by postulating two "irreducible, innate and independent realities: Purusha and Prakriti. While the Prakriti is a single entity, the Samkhya-Yoga schools admit a plurality of the Puru?as in this world. Unintelligent, unmanifest, uncaused, ever-active, imperceptible and eternal Prakriti is alone the final source of the world of objects. The Puru?a is considered as the conscious principle, a passive enjoyer (bhokta) and the Prakriti is the enjoyed (bhogya). Samkhya-Yoga believes that the Puru?a cannot be regarded as the source of inanimate world, because an intelligent principle cannot transform itself into the unconscious world. This metaphysics is a pluralistic spiritualism, a form of realism built on the foundation of dualism.[50]

Yoga school of Hinduism adopts the theory of Gu?a from Samkhya.[6] Gu?as theory states that three gunas (innate tendency, attributes) are present in different proportions in all beings, and these three are sattva guna (goodness, constructive, harmonious), rajas guna (passion, active, confused), and tamas guna (darkness, destructive, chaotic).[51][52] These three are present in every being but in different proportions, and the fundamental nature and psychological dispositions of beings is a consequence of the relative proportion of these three gunas.[6] When sattva guna predominates an individual, the qualities of lucidity, wisdom, constructiveness, harmonious, and peacefulness manifest themselves; when rajas is predominant, attachment, craving, passion-driven activity and restlessness manifest; and when tamas predominates in an individual, ignorance, delusion, destructive behavior, lethargy, and suffering manifests. The gu?as theory underpins the philosophy of mind in Yoga school of Hinduism.[6]

The early scholars of Yoga philosophy, posits that the Puru?a (consciousness) by its nature is sattva (constructive), while Prakriti (matter) by its nature is tamas (chaotic).[6] It further posits that individuals at birth have buddhi (intelligence, sattvic). As life progresses and churns this buddhi, it creates ahamkara (ego, rajasic). When ego in turn is churned by life, manas (temper, mood, tamasic) is produced. Together, buddhi, ahamkara and manas interact and constitute citta (mind) in Yoga school of Hinduism.[6] Unrestrained modification of citta causes suffering. A way of life that empowers one to become ever more aware of one's consciousness and spirituality innate in buddhi, is the path to one's highest potential and a more serene, content, liberated life. Patanjali's Yoga sutra begins, in verse 2 of Book 1, by defining Yoga as "restraining the Citta from Vrittis."[53]

Axiology

Axiology in the texts of Yoga school of Hindu philosophy include both a theory of values through the observances of positive values and avoidance of negative, as well as an aesthetic theory on bliss from intrinsic and extrinsic perspectives.[54][55] The values to be observed are called Niyamas, while those to be avoided are called Yamas in Yoga philosophy.

Over sixty different ancient and medieval era texts of Yoga philosophy discuss Yamas and Niyamas.[56][57] The specific theory and list of values varies between the texts, however, Ahimsa, Satya, Asteya, Sv?dhy?ya, K?ham?, and Day? are among the predominantly discussed ethical concepts by majority of these texts.[56]

The five yamas listed by Patañjali in Yogas?tra 2.30 are:[58]

  1. Ahi?s? (??????): Nonviolence, non-harming other living beings[59]
  2. Satya (????): truthfulness, non-falsehood[59][60]
  3. Asteya (??????): non-stealing[59]
  4. Brahmacarya (??????????): celibacy, non-cheating on one's partner[60]
  5. Aparigraha (?????????): non-avarice,[59] non-possessiveness[60]

Patanjali, in Book 2, explains how and why each of the above self restraints help in the personal growth of an individual. For example, in verse II.35, Patanjali states that the virtue of nonviolence and non-injury to others (Ahimsa) leads to the abandonment of enmity, a state that leads the yogi to the perfection of inner and outer amity with everyone, everything.[61][62] Other texts of the Yoga school of Hinduism include K?am? (?????, forgiveness),[63]Dh?ti (????, fortitude, non-giving up in adversity), Day? (???, compassion),[63]?rjava (?????, non-hypocrisy)[64] and Mit?h?ra (??????, measured diet).[65]

The Niyamas part of theory of values in the Yoga school include virtuous habits, behaviors and observances.[66][67] The Yogasutra lists the niyamas as:[68]

  1. ?auca: purity, clearness of mind, speech and body[69]
  2. Santo?a: contentment, acceptance of others, acceptance of one's circumstances as they are in order to get past or change them, optimism for self[70]
  3. Tapas: persistence, perseverance, austerity[71][72]
  4. Sv?dhy?ya: study of Vedas (see Sabda in epistemology section), study of self, self-reflection, introspection of self's thoughts, speeches and actions[72][73]
  5. ??varapra?idh?na: contemplation of the Ishvara (God/Supreme Being, Brahman, True Self, Unchanging Reality)[70][74]

As with Yamas, Patanjali explains how and why each of the above Niyamas help in the personal growth of an individual. For example, in verse II.42, Patanjali states that the virtue of contentment and acceptance of others as they are (Santo?a) leads to the state where inner sources of joy matter most, and the craving for external sources of pleasant ceases.[75] Other texts of the Yoga school expanded the list of values under Niyamas, to include behaviors such as ?stika (??????, belief in personal God, faith in Self, conviction that there is knowledge in Vedas/Upanishads), D?na (??? , charity, sharing with others),[76]Hr? (????, remorse and acceptance of one's past/mistakes/ignorance, modesty)[77]Mati (???, think and reflect, reconcile conflicting ideas)[78] and Vrata (????, resolutions and vows, fast, pious observances).[79][80][81]

Soteriology

The fusion of Dharana, Dhyana and Samadhi is Sanyama - the path to Kaivalya in Yoga school.

Yoga school of Hinduism holds that ignorance is the cause of suffering and sa?s?ra.[6] Liberation, like many other schools, is removal of ignorance, which is achieved through discriminative discernment, knowledge and self-awareness. The Yoga S?tras is Yoga school's treatise on how to accomplish this.[6]Sam?dhi is the state where ecstatic awareness develops, state Yoga scholars, and this is how one starts the process of becoming aware of Purusa and true Self. It further claims that this awareness is eternal, and once this awareness is achieved, a person cannot ever cease being aware; this is moksha, the soteriological goal in Hinduism.[6]

Book 3 of Patanjali's Yogasutra is dedicated to soteriological aspects of yoga philosophy. Patanjali begins by stating that all limbs of yoga are necessary foundation to reaching the state of self-awareness, freedom and liberation. He refers to the three last limbs of yoga as sanyama, in verses III.4 to III.5, and calls it the technology for "discerning principle" and mastery of citta and self-knowledge.[82][83] In verse III.12, the Yogasutras state that this discerning principle then empowers one to perfect sant (tranquility) and udita (reason) in one's mind and spirit, through intentness. This leads to one's ability to discern the difference between sabda (word), artha (meaning) and pratyaya (understanding), and this ability empowers one to compassionately comprehend the cry/speech of all living beings.[84][85] Once a yogi reaches this state of sanyama, it leads to unusual powers, intuition, self-knowledge, freedoms and kaivalya, the soteriological goal of the yogi.[84]

The benefits of Yoga philosophy of Hinduism is then summarized in verses III.46 to III.55 of Yogasutras, stating that the first 5 limbs leads to bodily perfections such as beauty, loveliness, strength and toughness; while the last 3 limbs through sanyama leads to mind and psychological perfections of perceptiveness, one's nature, mastery over egoism, discriminative knowledge of purity, self and soul.[86][87] This knowledge once reached is irreversible, states Yogasutra's Book IV.

God in Yoga school of Hinduism

Yoga philosophy allows the concept of God, unlike the closely related Samkhya school of Hinduism which is atheistic/non-theistic.[32] Hindu scholars such as the 8th century Adi Sankara, as well many modern academic scholars describe the Yoga school as "Samkya school with God."[2][13][33]

The Yoga Sutras of Patanjali use the term Isvara in 11 verses: I.23 through I.29, II.1, II.2, II.32 and II.45. Ever since the Sutras' release, Hindu scholars have debated and commented on who or what is Isvara. These commentaries range from defining Isvara as a "personal god" to a "special self" to "anything that has spiritual significance to the individual".[13][88] Whicher explains that while Patanjali's terse verses can be interpreted both as theistic or non-theistic, Patanjali's concept of Isvara in Yoga philosophy functions as a "transformative catalyst or guide for aiding the yogin on the path to spiritual emancipation".[89]

Patanjali defines Isvara (Sanskrit: ?????) in verse 24 of Book 1, as "a special Self (??????????, puru?a-vi?e?a)",[90]

Sanskrit: ????? ???? ??????????????????? ?????????? ?????? ????
- Yoga Sutras I.24

This sutra of Yoga philosophy of Hinduism adds the characteristics of Isvara as that special Self which is unaffected (?????????, aparamrsta) by one's obstacles/hardships (?????, klesha), one's circumstances created by the past or by one's current actions (????, karma), one's life fruits (?????, vipâka), and one's psychological dispositions or intentions (???, ashaya).[91][92]

Text sources

The most studied ancient and medieval era texts of the Yoga school of philosophy include those by Patanjali, Bhaskara, Haribhadra (Jaina scholar), Bhoja, and Hemachandra.[6][93]

References to the teachings of the Yoga school of Hinduism abound in ancient Indian texts of other orthodox schools of Hinduism, for example, verse 5.2.17[94] of Vaisheshika Sutra by Kanada, belonging to the Vaisheshika school of Hinduism and dated to be from the 1st millennium BCE,[95] states[96]

Pleasure and pain results from contact of soul, sense, mind and object. Non-origination of that follows when the mind becomes steady in the soul. After it, there is non-existence of pain in the embodied soul. This is that Yoga.

-- Vai?e?ika S?tra 5.2.15-5.2.16, [96]

The Ny?ya S?tras by Akshapada variously dated to be from 4th to 2nd century BCE,[95] and belonging to the Nyaya school of Hinduism, in chapter 4.2 discusses the importance of Yoga philosophy as follows,[27]

We are instructed to practice meditation in such places as a forest, a cave or a sand-bank. Such possibilities [the opponent claims] may occur even in release. It is, we reply, not so, because knowledge must spring up only in a body already in the state of formation. And there is absence of a body in our release. For that purpose, there should be a purifying of our soul by abstinence from evil, and observance of certain virtues, as well as by following the spiritual injunctions gleaned from Yoga. To secure release [moksha], it is necessary to study and follow this treatise on knowledge [Yoga], as well as to hold discussions with those learned in that treatise.

-- Nyaya S?tra 4.2.42-4.2.47, [97]

The Brahma Sutras by Badarayana dated to be from 5th century BCE[98] to 2nd century BCE,[95] belonging to the Vedanta school of Hinduism, in chapter 2 assumes the existence of a text called Yoga Smriti. Scholars contest whether this text was a precursor or the same as Patanjali's Yogasutra, but either premise is uncertain.[27] The verses of Brahma Sutras assert that dualism of the prevailing Yoga philosophy is refuted, as the value of Yoga is as a means to realization of the Self, not in propositions about Self that is in conflict with the Vedic texts. Radhakrishnan translates the text as follows,

If it is said that there will result the defect of not allowing room for certain Smritis, we say not so, because there will result the defect of not allowing room for some other smritis [further knowledge], and on account of the non-perception of others. Thereby [pradh?na theory of] the Yoga Smriti is refuted.

-- Brahma S?tra 2.1.1-2.1.3, [99][100]

The Yoga Vasistha is a syncretic text on Yoga philosophy, variously dated to be from 6th- to 14th-century CE.[101] It is structured as a dialogue between sage Vasistha of the Vedic era and the philosopher-king Rama of the Hindu epic Ramayana.[102] The text synthesizes elements of Vedanta, Jainism, Yoga, Samkhya, Saiva Siddhanta and Mahayana Buddhism.[102] Among other things, the text discusses Yoga philosophy in its various chapters. In section 6.1, Yoga Vasistha introduces Yoga as follows,[103]

Yoga is the utter transcendence of the mind and is of two types. Self-knowledge is one type, another is the restraint of the life-force of self limitations and psychological conditioning. Yoga has come to mean only the latter, yet both the methods lead to the same result. To some, Self-knowledge through inquiry is difficult, to others Yoga is difficult. But my conviction is that the path of inquiry is easy for all, because Self-knowledge is the ever-present truth. I shall now describe to you the method of Yoga.

-- Vasistha to Rama, Yoga Vasistha 6.1.12-13, [103]

See also

References

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  2. ^ a b Maurice Phillips (Published as Max Muller collection), The Evolution of Hinduism, Origin and Growth of Religion, p. 8, at Google Books, PhD. Thesis awarded by University of Berne, Switzerland, page 8
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  20. ^ Sanskrit: '
    Source: Rigveda Book 5, Chapter 81 Wikisource
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    GN Jha: Chandogya Upanishad VIII.15, page 488
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  40. ^ Carvaka school is the exception
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  48. ^ Haney 2002, p. 17
  49. ^ Isaac & Dangwal 1997, p. 339
  50. ^ Sharma 1997, pp. 149-68
  51. ^ Alban Widgery (1930), The principles of Hindu Ethics, International Journal of Ethics, Vol. 40, No. 2, pages 234-237
  52. ^ James G. Lochtefeld, Guna, in The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Hinduism: A-M, Vol. 1, Rosen Publishing, ISBN 978-0-8239-3179-8, page 265
  53. ^ Vivekanada, p. 115.
  54. ^ Robert S. Hartman (2002), The Knowledge of Good: Critique of Axiological Reason, Rodopi, ISBN 978-9042012202, pages 224-225
  55. ^ Howard Coward (2002), Yoga and Psychology: Language, Memory, and Mysticism, State University of New York Press, ISBN 978-0-7914-5500-5, pages 42-46, 88-89, 109-110
  56. ^ a b SV Bharti (2001), Yoga Sutras of Patanjali: With the Exposition of Vyasa, Motilal Banarsidas, ISBN 978-8120818255, Appendix I, pages 672-691
  57. ^ Jean Varenne and Coltman Derek (1977), Yoga and the Hindu Tradition, University Of Chicago Press, ISBN 978-0-226-85116-7, pages 197-202
  58. ^ ?g??e, K. S. (1904). P?tañjalayogas?tr??i. Pu?e: ?nand??rama. p. 102. 
  59. ^ a b c d James Lochtefeld, "Yama (2)", The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Hinduism, Vol. 2: N-Z, Rosen Publishing. ISBN 978-0-8239-3179-8, page 777
  60. ^ a b c Arti Dhand (2002), The dharma of ethics, the ethics of dharma: Quizzing the ideals of Hinduism, Journal of Religious Ethics, 30(3), pages 347-372
  61. ^ The Yoga Philosophy TR Tatya (Translator), with Bhojaraja commentary; Harvard University Archives, page 80
  62. ^ Jan E. M. Houben and Karel Rijk van Kooij (1999), Violence Denied: Violence, Non-Violence and the Rationalization of Violence in South Asian Cultural History, Brill Academic, ISBN 978-9004113442, page 5
  63. ^ a b Stuart Sovatsky (1998), Words from the Soul: Time East/West Spirituality and Psychotherapeutic Narrative, State University of New York, ISBN 978-0-7914-3949-4, page 21
  64. ^ J Sinha, Indian Psychology, p. 142, at Google Books, Volume 2, Motilal Banarsidas, OCLC 1211693, page 142
  65. ^ Desai, B. P. (1990). "Place of Nutrition in Yoga". Ancient Science of Life. 9 (3): 147-153. PMC 3331325 Freely accessible. PMID 22557690. 
  66. ^ N Tummers (2009), Teaching Yoga for Life, ISBN 978-0-7360-7016-4, page 13-16
  67. ^ Y Sawai (1987), The Nature of Faith in the ?a?karan Ved?nta Tradition, Numen, Vol. 34, Fasc. 1 (Jun., 1987), pages 18-44
  68. ^ ?g??e, K. S. (1904). P?tañjalayogas?tr??i. Pu?e: ?nand??rama. p. 102. 
  69. ^ Sharma and Sharma, Indian Political Thought, Atlantic Publishers, ISBN 978-8171566785, page 19
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  71. ^ Kaelber, W. O. (1976). "Tapas", Birth, and Spiritual Rebirth in the Veda, History of Religions, 15(4), 343-386
  72. ^ a b SA Bhagwat (2008), Yoga and Sustainability. Journal of Yoga, Fall/Winter 2008, 7(1): 1-14
  73. ^ Polishing the mirror Yoga Journal, GARY KRAFTSOW, FEB 25, 2008
  74. ^ ??vara + pra?idh?na, ??vara and pra?idh?na
  75. ^ The Yoga Philosophy TR Tatya (Translator), with Bhojaraja commentary; Harvard University Archives, page 84
  76. ^ William Owen Cole (1991), Moral Issues in Six Religions, Heinemann, ISBN 978-0-435-30299-3, pages 104-105
  77. ^ Hri Monier Williams Sanskrit English Dictionary
  78. ^ Monier Williams, A Sanskrit-English Dictionary: Etymologically and philologically arranged, p. 740, at Google Books, Mati, ???, pages 740-741
  79. ^ SV Bharti (2001), Yoga Sutras of Patanjali: With the Exposition of Vyasa, Motilal Banarsidas, ISBN 978-8120818255, Appendix I, pages 680-691
  80. ^ Mikel Burley (2000), Ha?ha-Yoga: Its Context, Theory, and Practice, Motilal Banarsidas, ISBN 978-8120817067, pages 190-191
  81. ^ Hartmut Scharfe, Handbook of Oriental Studies - Education in Ancient India, Brill, ISBN 978-9004125568, pages 217-222
  82. ^ The Yoga-darsana: The sutras of Patanjali with the Bhasya of Vyasa - Book 3 GN Jha (Translator); Harvard University Archives, pages 94-95
  83. ^ Gregor Maehle (2007), Ashtanga Yoga: Practice & Philosophy, ISBN 978-1-57731-606-0, pages 237-238
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  87. ^ The Yoga Philosophy TR Tatya (Translator), with Bhojaraja commentary; Harvard University Archives, pages 132-139
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  89. ^ Ian Whicher (1999), The Integrity of the Yoga Darsana: A Reconsideration of Classical Yoga, State University of New York Press, ISBN 978-0-7914-3815-2, page 86
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  91. ^ aparAmRSTa, kleza, karma, vipaka and ashaya; Sanskrit English Dictionary, Koeln University, Germany
  92. ^ Lloyd Pflueger (2008), Person Purity and Power in Yogasutra, in Theory and Practice of Yoga (Editor: Knut Jacobsen), Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 978-8120832329, pages 31-45
  93. ^ CK Chapelle (2003), Reconciling Yogas, State University of New York Press, ISBN 978-0-7914-5900-3, pages 12-15, 39-48
  94. ^ This verse appears as 6.1 in some manuscripts of Vaiseisika Darsana
  95. ^ a b c Michael Brannigan (2009), Striking a Balance: A Primer in Traditional Asian Values, Rowman & Littlefield, ISBN 978-0-7391-3846-5, page 7
  96. ^ a b Original Sanskrit and Translation: The Vaisheshika Sutra of Kanada with the Commentary of Sankara Misra BD Basu (Translator), The Sacred Books of the Hindus, Volume 6, University of Toronto Archives; Modern translation: Johannes Bronkhorst (2000), The Two Traditions of Meditation in Ancient India, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 978-8120811140, page 64
  97. ^ Original Sanskrit and Translation: The Nyaya Sutras of Gotama SC Vidyabhusana (Translator), The Bhuvaneswari Ashrama, University of Toronto Archives
  98. ^ Oliver Leaman (1999), Key Concepts in Eastern Philosophy, Routledge, ISBN 978-0-415-17363-6, page xiv
  99. ^ Brahma Sutra Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan (Translator, 1960), London: George Allen, pages 333-335
  100. ^ For a more recent translation of the same verse, see Jan E. M. Houben and Karel Rijk van Kooij (1999), Violence Denied, Brill Academic, ISBN 978-9004113442, page 149
  101. ^ S Venkatesananda (Author) and CK Chapelle (Editor, 1985), The Concise Yoga Vasistha, State University of New York Press, ISBN 978-0-87395-954-4, page x
  102. ^ a b S Venkatesananda (Author) and CK Chapelle (Editor, 1985), The Concise Yoga Vasistha, State University of New York Press, ISBN 978-0-87395-954-4, pages xi-xii
  103. ^ a b S Venkatesananda (Author) and CK Chapelle (Editor, 1985), The Concise Yoga Vasistha, State University of New York Press, ISBN 978-0-87395-954-4, pages 275, also 239-246, 272-277

Sources

Printed sources

  • Akhilananda, Swami; Allport, Gordon W. (1999). Hindu Psychology. Routledge. ISBN 978-0-203-00266-7. 
  • Feuerstein, George (1978), Handboek voor Yoga (Dutch translation; English title Textbook of Yoga, Ankh-Hermes 
  • Feuerstein, Georg; Wilber, Ken (2002). "The Wheel of Yoga". The Yoga Tradition. Motilal Banarsidass Publishers. ISBN 978-81-208-1923-8. 
  • Jones, Constance; Ryan, James D. (2006), Encyclopedia of Hinduism, Infobase Publishing 
  • Larson, Gerald James (1998), Classical S??khya: An Interpretation of Its History and Meaning, London: Motilal Banarasidass, ISBN 81-208-0503-8 
  • Larson, Gerald James (2008), The Encyclopedia of Indian Philosophies: Yoga: India's philosophy of meditation, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 978-81-208-3349-4 
  • Maas, Philipp A. (2006), Sam?dhip?da: das erste Kapitel des P?tañjalayoga??stra zum ersten Mal kritisch ediert, Aachen: Shaker, ISBN 3-8322-4987-7 
  • Maehle, Gregor (2007), Ashtanga Yoga: Practice and Philosophy, New World Library 
  • Mallinson-1, James (2011), "Hatha Yoga", Brill Encyclopedia of Hinduism Vol.3, BRILL 
  • Mallinson-2, James (2011), "N?th Samprad?ya", Brill Encyclopedia of Hinduism Vol.3, BRILL 
  • Michaels, Axel (2004), Hinduism. Past and present, Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press 
  • Sen, Amiya P. (2006). "Raja Yoga: The Science of Self-Realization". The Indispensable Vivekananda. Orient Blackswan. pp. 219-227. ISBN 978-81-7824-130-2. 
  • Tola, Fernando; Dragonetti, Carmen; Prithipaul, K. Dad (1987), The Yogas?tras of Patañjali on concentration of mind, Motilal Banarsidass 
  • Vivekananda, Swami (1980). Raja Yoga. Ramakrishna-Vivekananda Center. ISBN 0-911206-23-X. 
  • Whicher, Ian (1998), The Integrity of the Yoga Darsana: A Reconsideration of Classical Yoga, SUNY Press 
  • White, David Gordon (2011), Yoga, Brief History of an Idea (Chapter 1 of "Yoga in practice") (PDF), Princeton University Press 
  • White, David Gordon (2014), The Yoga Sutra of Patanjali: A Biography, Princeton University Press 
  • Wood, Ernest (1951). Practical Yoga, Ancient and Modern, Being a New, Independent Translation of Patanjali's Yoga Aphorisms. Rider and Company. 

Further reading

  • Alain Daniélou (1991), Yoga: Mastering the Secrets of Matter and the Universe, ISBN 978-0-89281-301-8, Appendix D: Main Sanskrit Treatises on Yoga
  • Carl Olson (2007), The Many Colors of Hinduism: A Thematic-historical Introduction, Rutgers University Press, ISBN 978-0-8135-4068-9, Chapter 5
  • Karl Potter (2009), Encyclopedia of Indian Philosophies Vol. 1: Bibliography, ISBN 978-8120803084, Bibliography on Yoga school of Hinduism, pages 1073-1093
  • White, David Gordon (2014), The Yoga Sutra of Patanjali: A Biography, Princeton University Press 
  • Maehle, Gregor (2007), Ashtanga Yoga: Practice and Philosophy, New World Library 

External links


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