Yokohama
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Yokohama

Yokohama
Designated city
City of Yokohama[1]
From top left: Minato Mirai 21, Yokohama Chinatown, Nippon Maru, Yokohama Station, Yokohama Marine Tower
Flag of Yokohama
Flag
Official seal of Yokohama
Seal
Map of Kanagawa Prefecture with Yokohama highlighted in purple
Map of Kanagawa Prefecture with Yokohama highlighted in purple
Yokohama is located in Japan
Yokohama
Yokohama
 
Coordinates: 35°26?39?N 139°38?17?E / 35.44417°N 139.63806°E / 35.44417; 139.63806Coordinates: 35°26?39?N 139°38?17?E / 35.44417°N 139.63806°E / 35.44417; 139.63806
Country  Japan
Region Kant?
Prefecture Kanagawa Prefecture
Government
 o Mayor Fumiko Hayashi
Area
 o Total 437.38 km2 (168.87 sq mi)
Population (October 1, 2016)
 o Total 3,732,616
 o Density 8,534.03/km2 (22,103.0/sq mi)
Time zone Japan Standard Time (UTC+9)
- Tree Camellia, Chinquapin, Sangoju
Sasanqua, Ginkgo, Zelkova
- Flower Rose
Address 1-1 Minato-ch?, Naka-ku, Yokohama-shi, Kanagawa-ken
231-0017
Website www.city.yokohama.lg.jp
Yokohama
Yokohama (Chinese characters).svg
"Yokohama" in new-style (shinjitai) kanji
Japanese name
Hiragana ?
Katakana ?
Ky?jitai
Shinjitai

Yokohama (Japanese: , Hepburn: Yokohama, pronounced [joko?hama]), literally "horizontal beach"[2][3], is the second largest city in Japan by population, after Tokyo, and the most populous municipality of Japan. It is the capital city of Kanagawa Prefecture. It lies on Tokyo Bay, south of Tokyo, in the Kant? region of the main island of Honshu. It is a major commercial hub of the Greater Tokyo Area.

Yokohama's population of 3.7 million makes it Japan's largest city after the special wards of Tokyo. Yokohama developed rapidly as Japan's prominent port city following the end of Japan's relative isolation in the mid-19th century, and is today one of its major ports along with Kobe, Osaka, Nagoya, Hakata, Tokyo, and Chiba.

Name meaning

Yokohama () literally means "horizontal beach"[2]. The current area surrounded by Maita Park, ?oka River and Nakamura River had been a gulf divided by a sandbar from the open sea. This sandbar was the original Yokohama fishing village. Since the sandbar protruded perpendicularly from the land, or horizontally when viewed from the sea, it was called a "horizontal beach"[3].

History

Opening of the Treaty Port (1859-1868)

Landing of Commodore Perry, officers, and men of the squadron to meet the Imperial commissioners at Yokohama 14 July 1853. Lithograph by Sarony & Co., 1855, after Wilhelm Heine

Yokohama was a small fishing village up to the end of the feudal Edo period, when Japan held a policy of national seclusion, having little contact with foreigners.[4] A major turning point in Japanese history happened in 1853-54, when Commodore Matthew Perry arrived just south of Yokohama with a fleet of American warships, demanding that Japan open several ports for commerce, and the Tokugawa shogunate agreed by signing the Treaty of Peace and Amity.[5]

It was initially agreed that one of the ports to be opened to foreign ships would be the bustling town of Kanagawa-juku (in what is now Kanagawa Ward) on the T?kaid?, a strategic highway that linked Edo to Kyoto and Osaka. However, the Tokugawa shogunate decided that Kanagawa-juku was too close to the T?kaid? for comfort, and port facilities were instead built across the inlet in the sleepy fishing village of Yokohama. The Port of Yokohama was officially opened on June 2, 1859.[6]

Yokohama quickly became the base of foreign trade in Japan. Foreigners initially occupied the low-lying district of the city called Kannai, residential districts later expanding as the settlement grew to incorporate much of the elevated Yamate district overlooking the city, commonly referred to by English speaking residents as The Bluff.

Foreign ships in Yokohama harbor
A foreign trading house in Yokohama in 1861

Kannai, the foreign trade and commercial district (literally, inside the barrier), was surrounded by a moat, foreign residents enjoying extraterritorial status both within and outside the compound. Interactions with the local population, particularly young samurai, outside the settlement inevitably caused problems; the Namamugi Incident, one of the events that preceded the downfall of the shogunate, took place in what is now Tsurumi Ward in 1862, and prompted the Bombardment of Kagoshima in 1863.

To protect British commercial and diplomatic interests in Yokohama a military garrison was established in 1862. With the growth in trade increasing numbers of Chinese also came to settle in the city.[7] Yokohama was the scene of many notable firsts for Japan including the growing acceptance of western fashion, photography by pioneers such as Felice Beato, Japan's first English language newspaper, the Japan Herald published in 1861 and in 1865 the first ice cream and beer to be produced in Japan.[8] Recreational sports introduced to Japan by foreign residents in Yokohama included European style horse racing in 1862, cricket in 1863[9] and rugby union in 1866. A great fire destroyed much of the foreign settlement on November 26, 1866 and smallpox was a recurrent public health hazard, but the city continued to grow rapidly attracting both foreigners and local Japanese.

Meiji and Taisho Periods (1868-1923)

Street scene c. 1880.

After the Meiji Restoration of 1868, the port was developed for trading silk, the main trading partner being Great Britain. Western influence and technological transfer contributed to the establishment of Japan's first daily newspaper (1870), first gas-powered street lamps (1872) and Japan's first railway constructed in the same year to connect Yokohama to Shinagawa and Shinbashi in Tokyo. In 1872 Jules Verne portrayed Yokohama, which he had never visited, in an episode of his widely read Around the World in Eighty Days, capturing the atmosphere of the fast-developing, internationally oriented Japanese city.

In 1887, a British merchant, Samuel Cocking, built the city's first power plant. At first for his own use, this coal-burning plant became the basis for the Yokohama Cooperative Electric Light Company. The city was officially incorporated on April 1, 1889.[10] By the time the extraterritoriality of foreigner areas was abolished in 1899, Yokohama was the most international city in Japan, with foreigner areas stretching from Kannai to the Bluff area and the large Yokohama Chinatown.

The early 20th century was marked by rapid growth of industry. Entrepreneurs built factories along reclaimed land to the north of the city toward Kawasaki, which eventually grew to be the Keihin Industrial Area. The growth of Japanese industry brought affluence, and many wealthy trading families constructed sprawling residences there, while the rapid influx of population from Japan and Korea also led to the formation of Kojiki-Yato, then the largest slum in Japan.

Great Kanto earthquake and the Second World War (1923-1945)

Much of Yokohama was destroyed on September 1, 1923 by the Great Kant? earthquake. The Yokohama police reported casualties at 30,771 dead and 47,908 injured, out of a pre-earthquake population of 434,170.[11] Fuelled by rumours of rebellion and sabotage, vigilante mobs thereupon murdered many Koreans in the Kojiki-yato slum.[12] Many people believed that Koreans used black magic to cause the earthquake. Martial law was in place until November 19. Rubble from the quake was used to reclaim land for parks, the most famous being the Yamashita Park on the waterfront which opened in 1930.

Yokohama was rebuilt, only to be destroyed again by U.S. air raids during World War II. An estimated seven or eight thousand people were killed in a single morning on May 29, 1945 in what is now known as the Great Yokohama Air Raid, when B-29s firebombed the city and in just one hour and nine minutes reduced 42% of it to rubble.[10]

Post-World War II growth

During the Korean War, the United States Navy used Yokohama's port as a transshipment base. This ship departed Yokohama in 1951, carrying war dead home to the U.S.

During the American occupation, Yokohama was a major transshipment base for American supplies and personnel, especially during the Korean War. After the occupation, most local U.S. naval activity moved from Yokohama to an American base in nearby Yokosuka.

The city was designated by government ordinance on September 1, 1956.[]

The city's tram and trolleybus system was abolished in 1972, the same year as the opening of the first line of Yokohama Municipal Subway.

Landsat image of Yokohama

Construction of Minato Mirai 21 ("Port Future 21"), a major urban development project on reclaimed land, started in 1983. Minato Mirai 21 hosted the Yokohama Exotic Showcase in 1989, which saw the first public operation of maglev trains in Japan and the opening of Cosmo Clock 21, then the tallest Ferris wheel in the world. The 860m-long Yokohama Bay Bridge opened in the same year.

In 1993, Minato Mirai saw the opening of the Yokohama Landmark Tower, the second tallest building in Japan.

The 2002 FIFA World Cup final was held in June at the International Stadium Yokohama.

In 2009, the city marked the 150th anniversary of the opening of the port and the 120th anniversary of the commencement of the City Administration. An early part in the commemoration project incorporated the Fourth Tokyo International Conference on African Development (TICAD IV) which was held in Yokohama in May 2008.

In November 2010, Yokohama hosted the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) meeting.

Geography

Climate

Yokohama features a humid subtropical climate (Köppen: Cfa) with hot and humid summers and chilly winters. Weatherwise, Yokohama has a mixed bag of rain, clouds and sun, although in Winter, it is surprisingly sunny, more so than Southern Spain. Winter temperatures rarely drop below freezing, while summer can get quite warm due to the effects of humidiy.[13] The coldest temperature was on 24 January 1927 when -8.2 °C (17.2 °F) was reached, whilst the hottest day was 11 August 2013 at 37.4 °C (99.3 °F). The highest monthly rainfall has been in October 2004 with 761.5 millimetres (30.0 in), closely followed by July 1941 with 753.4 millimetres (29.66 in), whilst December and January have recorded no measurable precipitation three times each.

Climate data for Yokohama, Kanagawa (1981-2010 except for records)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 20.8
(69.4)
24.8
(76.6)
24.5
(76.1)
28.7
(83.7)
31.1
(88)
35.5
(95.9)
36.9
(98.4)
37.4
(99.3)
36.2
(97.2)
30.9
(87.6)
26.2
(79.2)
23.5
(74.3)
37.4
(99.3)
Average high °C (°F) 9.9
(49.8)
10.3
(50.5)
13.2
(55.8)
18.5
(65.3)
22.4
(72.3)
24.9
(76.8)
28.7
(83.7)
30.6
(87.1)
26.7
(80.1)
21.5
(70.7)
16.7
(62.1)
12.4
(54.3)
19.7
(67.5)
Daily mean °C (°F) 5.9
(42.6)
6.2
(43.2)
9.1
(48.4)
14.2
(57.6)
18.3
(64.9)
21.3
(70.3)
25.0
(77)
26.7
(80.1)
23.3
(73.9)
18.0
(64.4)
13.0
(55.4)
8.5
(47.3)
15.8
(60.4)
Average low °C (°F) 2.3
(36.1)
2.6
(36.7)
5.3
(41.5)
10.4
(50.7)
15.0
(59)
18.6
(65.5)
22.4
(72.3)
24.0
(75.2)
20.6
(69.1)
15.0
(59)
9.6
(49.3)
4.9
(40.8)
12.5
(54.5)
Record low °C (°F) -8.2
(17.2)
-6.8
(19.8)
-4.6
(23.7)
-0.5
(31.1)
3.6
(38.5)
9.2
(48.6)
13.3
(55.9)
15.5
(59.9)
11.2
(52.2)
2.2
(36)
-2.4
(27.7)
-5.6
(21.9)
-8.2
(17.2)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 58.9
(2.319)
67.5
(2.657)
140.7
(5.539)
144.1
(5.673)
152.2
(5.992)
190.4
(7.496)
168.9
(6.65)
165.0
(6.496)
233.8
(9.205)
205.5
(8.091)
107.0
(4.213)
54.8
(2.157)
1,688.8
(66.488)
Average snowfall cm (inches) 5
(2)
6
(2.4)
1
(0.4)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
12
(4.8)
Average precipitation days 6.0 6.7 11.8 11.1 11.5 13.6 11.7 8.7 12.7 11.5 8.3 5.5 119.1
Average snowy days 1.6 2.3 0.7 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.3 4.9
Average relative humidity (%) 53 54 60 65 70 78 78 76 76 71 64 56 67
Mean monthly sunshine hours 186.4 164.0 159.5 175.2 177.1 131.7 162.9 206.3 130.7 141.0 149.3 180.4 1,964.4
Source #1: [14]
Source #2: [15] (records)

Demographics

Historical population

Minato Mirai at dusk
Population
Year of
census
Population Rank among cities in Japan
1920 422,942 6th, behind Kobe, Kyoto,
Nagoya, Osaka, and Tokyo
1925 405,888 6th
1930 620,306 6th
1935 704,290 6th
1940 968,091 5th, surpassing Kobe
1945 814,379 4th, the city government of Tokyo
having been disbanded in 1943
1950 951,189 4th
1955 1,143,687 4th
1960 1,375,710 3rd, surpassing Kyoto
1965 1,788,915 3rd
1970 2,238,264 2nd, surpassing Nagoya
1975 2,621,771 2nd
1980 2,773,674 1st, surpassing Osaka[16]
1985 2,992,926 1st
1990 3,220,331 1st
1995 3,307,136 1st
2000 3,426,651 1st
2005 3,579,133 1st
2010 3,670,669 1st
2015 3,710,824 1st

Yokohama's foreign population of 92,139 includes Chinese, Koreans, Filipinos, and Vietnamese.[17]

Administrative divisions

A map of Yokohama's wards

Yokohama has 18 wards (ku):

Government and politics

The Yokohama Municipal Assembly consists of 92 members elected from a total of 18 Wards. The LDP has minority control with 30 seats with Democratic Party of Japan with a close 29. The mayor is Fumiko Hayashi, who succeeded Hiroshi Nakada in September 2009.

International relations

Yokohama has sister-city relationships with 12 cities worldwide.[18]

Culture

Depictions of the city in popular media

Sports

Economy and infrastructure

The city has a strong economic base, especially in the shipping, biotechnology, and semiconductor industries. Nissan moved its headquarters to Yokohama from Ch, Tokyo in 2010.[22]

Transport

Yokohama is serviced by the T?kaid? Shinkansen, a high-speed rail line with a stop at Shin-Yokohama Station. Yokohama Station is also a major station, with two million passengers daily. The Yokohama Municipal Subway, Minatomirai Line and Kanazawa Seaside Line provide metro services.

Maritime transport

Yokohama is the world's 31st largest seaport in terms of total cargo volume, at 121,326 freight tons as of 2011, and is ranked 37th in terms of TEUs (Twenty-foot equivalent units).[23]

In 2013, APM Terminals Yokohama facility was recognised as the most productive container terminal in the world averaging 163 crane moves per hour, per ship between the vessel's arrival and departure at the berth.[24]

Rail transport

Railway stations
? East Japan Railway Company
? T?kaid? Main Line
? Yokosuka Line
? Keihin-T?hoku Line
? Negishi Line
? Yokohama Line
? Nambu Line
? Tsurumi Line
? Central Japan Railway Company
? T?kaid? Shinkansen
  • - Shin-Yokohama -
? Keikyu
? Keikyu Main Line
? Keikyu Zushi Line
? Tokyu Corporation
? T?yoko Line
? Meguro Line
  • - Hiyoshi
? Den-en-toshi Line
? Kodomonokuni Line
? Sagami Railway
? Sagami Railway Main Line
? Izumino Line
? Yokohama Minatomirai Railway
? Minatomirai Line
? Yokohama City Transportation Bureau
? Blue Line
? Green Line
? Yokohama New Transit
? Kanazawa Seaside Line

Education

Public elementary and middle schools are operated by the city of Yokohama. There are nine public high schools which are operated by the Yokohama City Board of Education,[25] and a number of public high schools which are operated by the Kanagawa Prefectural Board of Education. Yokohama National University is a leading university in Yokohama which is also one of the highest ranking national universities in Japan.

See also

References

Citations

  1. ^ Yokohama official web site (in English)
  2. ^ a b [1] Japan Times, meaning of "Yokohama" is mentioned
  3. ^ a b [2] Yokohama City History, pg. 3
  4. ^ Der Große Brockhaus. 16. edition. Vol. 6. F. A. Brockhaus, Wiesbaden 1955, p. 82
  5. ^ "Official Yokohama city website it is fresh". City.yokohama.jp. Retrieved . 
  6. ^ Arita, Erika, "Happy Birthday Yokohama!", The Japan Times, May 24, 2009, p. 7.
  7. ^ Fukue, Natsuko, "Chinese immigrants played vital role", Japan Times, May 28, 2009, p. 3.
  8. ^ Matsutani, Minoru, "Yokohama - city on the cutting edge", Japan Times, May 29, 2009, p. 3.
  9. ^ Galbraith, Michael (16 June 2013). "Death threats sparked Japan's first cricket game". Japan Times. Retrieved 2016. 
  10. ^ a b Interesting Tidbits of Yokohama[History of Yokohama] Yokohama Convention & Visitors Bureau Retrieved on February 7, 2009 Archived September 28, 2011, at the Wayback Machine.
  11. ^ Hammer, Joshua. (2006). Yokohama Burning: The Deadly 1923 Earthquake and Fire that Helped Forge the Path to World War II, p. 143.
  12. ^ Hammer, pp. 149-170.
  13. ^ "Yokohama Weather, When to Go and Yokohama Climate Information". world-guides.com. Retrieved . 
  14. ^ "?: (?) ("Historical Climate data for Yokohama")". Japan Meteorological Agency. 
  15. ^ "?1~10( )". Japan Meteorological Agency. 
  16. ^ Osaka was once more populous than Yokohama is today.
  17. ^ "(30?3?)". Retrieved 2018. 
  18. ^ "Eight Cities/Six Ports: Yokohama's Sister Cities/Sister Ports". Yokohama Convention & Visitors Bureau. Archived from the original on May 5, 2009. Retrieved . 
  19. ^ "Partner Cities of Lyon and Greater Lyon". 2008 Mairie de Lyon. Archived from the original on July 19, 2009. Retrieved 2009. 
  20. ^ "MPSP sets sights on city status". The Star. 1 August 2016. 
  21. ^ "Vancouver Twinning Relationships" (PDF). City of Vancouver. Retrieved . 
  22. ^ "Nissan To Create New Global and Domestic Headquarters in Yokohama City by 2010". Japancorp.net. Retrieved . 
  23. ^ "Ports & World Trade". www.aapa-ports.org. 
  24. ^ "Chinese Ports Lead the World in Berth Productivity, JOC Group Inc. Data Shows". Press Release. AXIO Data Group. JOC Inc. 24 June 2014. Retrieved 2015. 
  25. ^ "Official Yokohama city website". City.yokohama.jp. Archived from the original on June 19, 2010. Retrieved 2010. 

Sources

External links


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Yokohama
 



 

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