What is LONDON DISPERSION FORCE? What does LONDON DISPERSION FORCE mean?
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What is LONDON DISPERSION FORCE? What does LONDON DISPERSION FORCE mean? LONDON DISPERSION FORCE meaning - LONDON DISPERSION FORCE definition - LONDON DISPERSION FORCE explanation.
Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license.
London dispersion forces (LDF, also known as dispersion forces, London forces, instantaneous dipoleâinduced dipole forces, or loosely van der Waals forces) are a type of force acting between atoms and molecules. They are part of the van der Waals forces. The LDF is named after the German-American physicist Fritz London.
The LDF is a weak intermolecular force arising from quantum-induced instantaneous polarization multipoles in molecules. They can therefore act between molecules without permanent multipole moments.
London forces are exhibited by non-polar molecules because of the correlated movements of the electrons in interacting molecules. Because the electrons in adjacent molecules "flee" as they repel each other, electron density in a molecule becomes redistributed in proximity to another molecule (see quantum mechanical theory of dispersion forces). This is frequently described as the formation of instantaneous dipoles that attract each other. London forces are present between all chemical groups, and usually represent the main part of the total interaction force in condensed matter, even though they are generally weaker than ionic bonds and hydrogen bonds.
London forces become stronger as the atom in question becomes larger, and to a smaller degree for large molecules. This is due to the increased polarizability of molecules with larger, more dispersed electron clouds. This trend is exemplified by the halogens (from smallest to largest: F2, Cl2, Br2, I2). Fluorine and chlorine are gases at room temperature, bromine is a liquid, and iodine is a solid. The London forces also become stronger with larger amounts of surface contact. Greater surface area means closer interaction between different molecules.
The first explanation of the attraction between noble gas atoms was given by Fritz London in 1930. He used a quantum-mechanical theory based on second-order perturbation theory. The perturbation is the Coulomb interaction V between the electrons and nuclei of the two monomers (atoms or molecules) that constitute the dimer. The second-order perturbation expression of the interaction energy contains a sum over states. The states appearing in this sum are simple products of the stimulated electronic states of the monomers. Thus, no intermolecular antisymmetrization of the electronic states is included and the Pauli exclusion principle is only partially satisfied.