Why is it that children from disadvantaged backgrounds find it so difficult â and often impossible â to achieve? Few questions are of such fundamental importance to the functioning of a fair and effective society than this one, yet the academic and political narratives that exist to explain the problem are fundamentally contradictory: some say the root of the problem lies in racial prejudice; others that the key factor is class; others again argue that we should look first at laziness, government's commitment to provide demotivating âsafety nets,â and to the appeal of easy money earned from a criminal lifestyle.
Jay Macleod's seminal work of anthropology is one of the most influential studies to address this issue, and â in suggesting that problems of class, above all, help to fuel continued social inequality, Macleod is engaging in an important piece of problem-solving. He asks the right questions, basing his study on two different working class subcultures, one white and largely devoid of aspiration and the other black and much more ambitious and conformist. By showing that the members of both groups find it equally hard to achieve their dreams â that there really âAin't no makin' it,â as his title proposes â Macleod issues a direct challenge to the ideology of the American Dream, and by extension to the social contract that underpinned American society and politics for the duration of the twentieth century. His work â robustly structured and well-reasoned â is now frequently studied in universities, and it offers a sharp corrective to those who insist that the poor could control their own destinies if they choose to do so.
Born in 1858, Franz Boas permanently changed the standards and practices of anthropology. A German-born secular Jew, he became known for his distinctive approach to the discipline - non-hierarchical, open to diverse inputs, and unbiased.
Throughout his career, Boas used his scholarship to effect social change. His work convinced his colleagues to abandon the theories that had decided one race (Caucasian) and one culture (Western European) were more fully developed and worthier than others. In Boas' wake, anthropologists everywhere have been challenged to conduct their research and present their findings ethically. Boas spoke out against eugenics - the science of improving a population by controlled breeding - long before leaders in Nazi Germany embraced it. He was also a keen supporter of the Civil Rights Movement in the United States.
Boas' 1940 work Race, Language and Culture brings together a half-century's worth of his groundbreaking scholarship in one volume. Some 75 years after its initial publication, it remains a key text in the field of anthropology.
American sociologist and priest Jay MacLeod's 1987 work Ain't No Makin' It is groundbreaking for the novel way it combines field research with theory. The book follows the lives of two groups of young men from a low-income housing project in the greater Boston area. In it, MacLeod shows how poor people who aspire to live the American dream face many more obstacles than their middle-class counterparts.
In a challenge to conventional ideas about race, MacLeod looks at the mostly white Hallway Hangers, who are delinquents and high-school dropouts, and the mostly black Brothers, who don't use drugs and stay in school. Yet in a damning indictment of the American class system, even the Brothers are mostly unable to secure good jobs by the time they reach middle age. We see this as MacLeod returns to write updates on the men twice over a 25-year period for a second and third edition of the book. Ain't No Makin' It remains a core sociology text today.
Tuesdays with Morrie by Mitch Albom | Summary and Analysis
Tuesdays with Morrie is a masterful work of nonfiction on multiple fronts. It grants the listener not only an inspiring story of a brave man facing death, but also emphasizes core truths about how to live life and invest in others. Mitch and Morrie's final meeting is a living, breathing example of the kind of love that Morrie emphasizes throughout the book. The book unfolds slowly, building aphorisms and wise truths until you feel the change that took place in Mitch's life. Through Albom's deft and personable writing style, he paints a picture that endears us to Morrie as we become one of his beloved students as well.
This is a summary and analysis of the book and not the original book.
Franz Boasâs 1940 Race, Language and Culture is a monumentally important text in the history of its discipline, collecting the articles and essays that helped make Boas known as the âfather of American anthropology.â
An encapsulation of a career dedicated to fighting against the false theories of so-called âscientific racismâ that abounded in the first half of the 20th-century, Race, Language and Culture is one of the most historically significant texts in its field â and central to its arguments and impact are Boasâs formidable interpretative skills. It could be said, indeed, that Race, Language and Culture is all about the centrality of interpretation in questioning our assumptions about the world.
In critical thinking, interpretation is the ability to clarify and posit definitions for the terms and ideas that make up an argument. Boasâs work demonstrates the importance of another vital element: context. For Boas, who argued passionately for âcultural relativism,â it was vital to interpret individual cultures by their own standards and context â not by ours. Only through comparing and contrasting the two can we reach, he suggested, a better understanding of humankind.
Though our own questions might be smaller, it is always worth considering the crucial element Boas brought to interpretation: how does context change definition?
This book introduces Brodie, and how he was adopted from the streets of Burma, to the reader. It will educate the reader geographicallyâwhere Burma is located in the world, what one can see and learn in Burma. It also deals with disability after an accident Brodie had that left him with one leg longer than the other but does not stop him from doing anything he wants. And of course, it gets the reader ready to be taken on his next travel adventure. Highlights are on travel, the world, adoption, disabilities, and education.
âThe authors entertaining foray into the genre of fantasy may garner some fans as he tells the story of a talking dragon, an unconventional princess, a mysterious stable boy, and an evil gnome. What follows is an engaging tale of magic, heroism, and war that leaves itself open to a sequel. Deckerâs novel blends typical fantasy adventure with just the right amount of humor to make his book appeal to a broad audience.â
This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 10th European Conference on Genetic Programming, EuroGP 2007, held in Valencia, Spain in April 2007 colocated with EvoCOP 2007. The 21 revised plenary papers and 14 revised poster papers were carefully reviewed and selected from 71 submissions. The papers address fundamental and theoretical issues, along with a wide variety of papers dealing with different application areas.
This volume constitutes the refereed proceedings of the following 8 International Workshops: OTM Academy; OTM Industry Case Studies Program; Enterprise Integration, Interoperability, and Networking, EI2N; International Workshop on Fact Based Modeling 2015, FBM; Industrial and Business Applications of Semantic Web Technologies, INBAST; Information Systems, om Distributed Environment, ISDE; Methods, Evaluation, Tools and Applications for the Creation and Consumption of Structured Data for the e-Society, META4eS; and Mobile and Social Computing for collaborative interactions, MSC 2015. These workshops were held as associated events at OTM 2015, the federated conferences "On The Move Towards Meaningful Internet Systems and Ubiquitous Computing", in Rhodes, Greece, in October 2015.
The 55 full papers presented together with 3 short papers and 2 popsters were carefully reviewed and selected from a total of 100 submissions. The workshops share the distributed aspects of modern computing systems, they experience the application pull created by the Internet and by the so-called Semantic Web, in particular developments of Big Data, increased importance of security issues, and the globalization of mobile-based technologies.
This collection of thirteen specially commissioned essays by international scholars takes a fresh look at the profound impact of the Peninsular War on Romantic British literature and culture. The expertly authored chapters explore the valorization of Spain by nineteenth-century poets such as Lord Byron, William Wordsworth, Robert Southey, S.T. Coleridge, the Shelleys, and Felicia Hemans in contrast to the Enlightenment-era view of Spain as a backwards nation in decline. Topics discussed include the vision of Spain in Gothic fiction, Spanish experiences of exile as exemplified by the conflict between Valentin de Llanos and Joseph Blanco White, and British women writers' approach to peninsular fiction.Â
Spain in British Romanticism: 1800-1840 is essential reading for scholars and enthusiasts of Romantic literature and Spanish history.Â