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The charts below show the way in which the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) represents Polish language pronunciations in Wikipedia articles.

All voiced obstruents are devoiced (so /d/ becomes [t], etc.) at the ends of words and in clusters ending in any unvoiced obstruents . Voiceless obstruents are voiced (/x/ becoming [?], etc.) in clusters ending in any voiced obstruent except /v, ?/, which are then themselves devoiced.

See Polish phonology for a more thorough look at the sounds of Polish.

IPA Polish Example English approximation
b b bardzo bike
? ?, s(i)[1] Ja? she
d d dawno door
dz[2] dz dzban beds
d?[2] d?, dz(i)[1] dziadek jeep[3]
d? [2] d? D?akarta jug[3]
f f foka feist
? g gra? girl
g(i)[1] Gienek argue
? ch, h niechby roughly like go but without completely blocking air flow on the g
j j, i[1] jak yes
j?[4] ? ko? voice
k k krowa scam
k? k(i)[1] kierowca skew
l l lampa lion
m m[5] morze mile
n n[5] nad Nile
? ?, n(i)[5][1] nie canyon
?[6] n[5] bank bank
p p policja spike
r r ró?owy rolled r like Italian Roma
s s smak sign
? sz szybko shore[3]
t t tak stow
t?[2] ?, c(i)[1] cierpki cheer[3]
ts[2] c ca?kiem cats
t?[2] cz czy child[3]
v w warto vile
w[7] ? ?adny way
x ch, h chleb (Scottish) loch
x? ch(i), h(i)[1] hiacynt huge
z z zebra zebra
? ?, z(i)[1] ziarno vision, azure[3]
? ?, rz rzadko
IPA Polish Example English approximation
a a tam father
? e krem bet
?[5] k?s French vin
i i[1] piwo eat
? y my roses
? o rok off
?[5] w?s French son
u u, ó du?y boot
Other symbols used for Polish
IPA Explanation
' Primary stress (placed before the stressed syllable), usually the penultimate syllable of a word.
? Secondary stress (placed before the stressed syllable).
. Syllable break.

See also


  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j The letter ⟨i⟩, when it is followed by a vowel, represents a pronunciation like a ⟨j⟩ or a "soft" pronunciation of the preceding consonant (so pies is pronounced as if it were spelt ⟨pjes⟩). It has the same effect as an acute accent on alveolar consonants (⟨s⟩, ⟨z⟩, ⟨c⟩, ⟨dz⟩, ⟨n⟩) so si?, cios and niania are pronounced as if they were spelt ⟨⟩, ⟨?os⟩, ⟨?a?a⟩. A following ⟨i⟩ also softens consonants when it is itself pronounced as a vowel: zima, ci and dzisiaj are pronounced as if they were spelled ⟨?ima⟩, ⟨?i⟩, ⟨d?i?aj⟩.
  2. ^ a b c d e f The affricates /ts, dz, t?, d?, t?, d?/) may be written more precisely with ligature ties: /t?s, d?z, t, d, t, d/, but they are omitted in transcriptions as they do not display correctly in all browsers. Nonetheless, Polish contrasts affricates with stop–fricative clusters: for example, czysta "clean" versus trzysta "three hundred".
  3. ^ a b c d e f Polish makes contrasts between retroflex and alveolo-palatal consonants, both of which sound like the English postalveolars /?, ?, t?, d?/. The retroflex sounds are pronounced "hard", with the tip of the tongue approaching the alveolar ridge and the blade of the tongue somewhat lowered, and the alveolo-palatal sounds are "soft", realized with the middle of the tongue raised, adding a bit of an ⟨ee⟩ sound to them.
  4. ^ Allophone of /?/ in coda position or before fricatives.
  5. ^ a b c d e f The letters ⟨?⟩ and ⟨?⟩ represent the nasal vowels /, / except when they are followed by a stop or affricate, when they represent oral vowels /?, ?/ followed by a nasal consonant homorganic with the following stop or affricate: k?t ['k?nt], g?ba ['mba], r?ka ['rka], pisz?cy [pi'nt?s?], pieni?dze [pj?'nd?z?], pi ['pjt], j?czy ['j?nt] (as if spelled *kont, *gemba, *renka, *piszoncy, *pie?ondze, *pie, *jenczy).
  6. ^ Allophone of /n/ before a velar /?, k, x/.
  7. ^ The traditional pronunciation [?] is still found in a minority of speakers.

Further reading

  • Sadowska, Iwona (2012). Polish: A Comprehensive Grammar. Oxford; New York: Routledge. ISBN 978-0-415-47541-9.

External links

  This article uses material from the Wikipedia page available here. It is released under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0.



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