Markup is the ratio between the cost of a good or service and its selling price. It is expressed as a percentage over the cost. A markup is added into the total cost incurred by the producer of a good or service in order to cover the costs of doing business and create a profit. The total cost reflects the total amount of both fixed and variable expenses to produce and distribute a product.[1] Markup can be expressed as a fixed amount or as a percentage of the total cost or selling price.[2]Retail markup is commonly calculated as the difference between wholesale price and retail price, as a percentage of wholesale. Other methods are also used.

## Price determination

### Profit

• Assume: Sale price is 2500, Product cost is 2000
Profit = Sale price - Cost[3]
500 = 2500 - 2000

### Markup

Below shows markup as a percentage of the cost added to the cost to create a new total (i.e. cost plus).

• Cost × (1 + Markup) = Sale price
or solved for Markup = (Sale price / Cost) - 1
or solved for Markup = (Sale price - Cost) / Cost
• Assume the sale price is \$1.99 and the cost is \$1.40
Markup = (\$1.99 / 1.40) - 1 = 42%
or Markup = (\$1.99 - \$1.40) / \$1.40 = 42%
Sale price - Cost = Sale price × Profit margin
therefore Profit Margin = (Sale price - Cost) / Sale price
Margin = 1 - (1 / (Markup + 1))
or Margin = Markup/(Markup + 1)
Margin = 1 - (1 / (1 + 0.42)) = 29.5%
or Margin = (\$1.99 - \$1.40) / \$1.99 = 29.6%

Another method of calculating markup is based on percentage of cost. This method eliminates the two-step process above and incorporates the ability of discount pricing.

• For instance cost of an item is 75.00 with 25% markup discount.
75.00/(1 - .25) = 75.00/.75 = 100.00

Comparing the two methods for discounting:

• 75.00 × (1 + .25) = 93.75 sale price with a 25% discount
93.75 × (1 - .25) = 93.75 × .75 = 70.31(25)
cost was 75.00 and if sold for 70.31 both the markup and the discount is 25%
• 75.00 /(1 - .25) = 100.00 sale price with a 25% discount
100.00 × (1 - .25) = 100.00 × .75 = 75.00
cost was 75.00 and if sold for 75.00 both the profit margin and the discount is 25%

These examples show the difference between adding a percentage of a number to a number and asking of what number is this number X% of. If the markup has to include more than just profit, such as overhead, it can be included as such:

• cost × 1.25 = sale price

or

• cost / .75 = sale price

### Aggregate supply framework

P = (1+?) W. Where ? is the markup over costs. This is the pricing equation.

W = F(u,z) Pe . This is the wage setting relation. u is unemployment which negatively affects wages and z the catch all variable positively affects wages.

Sub the wage setting into the price setting to get the aggregate supply curve.

P = Pe(1+?) F(u,z). This is the aggregate supply curve. Where the price is determined by expected price, unemployment and z the catch all variable.

## References

1. ^ Pradhan, Swapna (2007). Retailing Management. Tata McGraw-Hill. ISBN 978-0-07-062020-9.
2. ^ Ingels, Jack (2009). Ornamental Horticulture: Science, Operations, & Management. Cengage Learning. p. 601. ISBN 978-1-4354-9816-7.
3. ^ Farris P.W., Bendle N.T., Pfeifer P.E. and Reibstein D.J. (2010). Marketing metrics : The Definitive Guide to Measuring Marketing Performance, Pearson Education.