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Outline of Forestry
The following outline is provided as an overview of and guide to forestry:
Close to nature forestry – theory and practice that takes the forest as an ecosystem and manages it as such. It is based on reduced human intervention, that should be directed to accelerate the processes that nature would do by itself more slowly.
Dendrology - involves the study and identification of economically useful tree species
Energy forestry - includes specifically managing for the production of energy from biomass or biofuel derived from a fast-growing species of tree or woody shrub
Forest ecology - studies the patterns and processes of a forest ecosystem
Forest economics - studies the impact of economics on forest management decisions
Forest hydrology - embodies the effects of changes in forest land use on the movement, distribution, and quality of water in the ecosystem
Forest mensuration - incorporates quantitative measurements of the forest stand to determine stand timber volume and productivity/health, and provides a basis off which management decisions can be made
Forest pathology - research of both biotic and abiotic maladies affecting the health of the forest or tree, primarily fungal pathogens and their insect vectors
Silviculture - is the art and science of controlling the establishment, growth, composition, health, and quality of forests to meet specific objectives
Forest management – comprises the overall administrative, economic, legal, and social aspects of forest regulation
Analog forestry – a management focus that seeks to establish a tree-dominated ecosystem that is similar in architectural structure and ecological function to the naturally occurring climax and sub-climax vegetation community
Bamboo cultivation – farming and harvesting bamboo for commercial purposes such as construction.
Community forestry – combination of forest conservation with rural development and poverty reduction objectives, accomplished through instating a legal framework that favors profitable and sustainable forest management
Ecoforestry – emphasizes practices which strive to protect and restore ecosystems
Tree breeding – method of genetically modifying/selecting forest stock for improved growth or vigor characteristics
Mycoforestry - ecological forest management system implemented to enhance forest ecosystems and plant communities through the introduction of mycorrhizal and saprotrophic fungi
Permaforestry - approach to the wildcrafting and harvesting of the forest biomass that uses cultivation to improve the natural harmonious systems. It is a relationship of interdependence between humans and the natural systems in which the amount of biomass available from the forest increases with the health of its natural systems.
Plantation forestry – industrial plantations are established to produce a high volume of wood in a short period of time. Some plantations are managed by state forestry authorities (for example, the Forestry Commission in Britain) and others by paper and wood companies (such as Weyerhaeuser, Rayonier and Plum Creek Timber in the United States, Asia Pulp & Paper in Indonesia).
Short rotation forestry – managing a forest that utilizes fast-growing species as a bio-based energy crop for use in power stations, alone or in combination with other fuels such as coal
Sustainable forest management – emphasizes practices that maintain forest biodiversity, productivity, regeneration capacity, and vitality, while continuing to fulfill relevant ecological, economic and social functions
Tree farm – a forest or woodland owned privately where timber crop production is a major management goal
Silviculture – practice of controlling the establishment, growth, composition, health, and quality of forests to meet diverse needs and values. Silviculture also focuses on making sure that the treatment(s) of forest stands are used to preserve and to better their productivity.
Controlled burn – use of fire in order to eliminate weeds, brush, or slash, or to release on-site seeds of fire-dependent species
Stump harvesting – removal of tree stumps either for biomass or to free up space in the soil
Drum chopping – knocking down small trees and brush to clear the ground for planting
Broadcast seeding – scattering of seed either by hand or mechanically over a relatively large area
Aerial seeding – dispersing of seed from an aircraft, used especially in mountainous areas
Treeplanting – transplanting of juvenile seedlings into the ground at a predetermined spacing
Weeding – removal or reduction of herbaceous or woody species around seedlings
Cleaning – removal of competing saplings of similar age in order to favor saplings of desirable growth characteristics
Liberation cutting – removal of older and established overtopping trees from desirable saplings
Thinning – removal of trees to favor the growth of select trees in order to maximize timber production
Ecological thinning – removal of trees to favor the growth of select trees in order to favor the development of wildlife habitat
Pruning – removal of the lateral branches on the trees in order to improve wood quality
Pollarding – annual removal of lateral branches or main stem in order to encourage growth of branches to provide for firewood, or fruit production
Forest fragmentation – occurring when forests are cut down in a manner that leaves relatively small, isolated patches of forest, resulting in high amounts of edges and subsequent loss in wildlife habitat and biodiversity
Forest transition – shift from a period of net forest area loss (deforestation) to a period of net forest area gain (afforestation) for a given region or country
High grading – type of selective logging that removes the highest timber quality trees, resulting in poor genetic stock for subsequent generations
Illegal logging – the unlawful harvest, transportation, purchase or sale of timber, contributing to deforestation, corruption, and destabilization of international markets
Forest resource assessment
Forest inventory – systematic collection of data and forest information for assessment or analysis. An estimate of the value and possible uses of timber is an important part of the broader information required to sustain ecosystems.
Diameter at breast height (DBH) – measurement of a tree's diameter standardized at 1.3 meters (about 4.5 feet) above the ground
Basal area – defines the area of a given section of land that is occupied by the cross-section of tree trunks and stems at their base
Tree taper – the degree to which a tree's stem or bole decreases in diameter as a function of height above ground
Girard form class – an expression of tree taper calculated as the ratio of diameter inside the bark at 16 feet above ground to that outside the bark at DBH, primary expression of tree form used in the United States
Chain – equivalent to 66 feet, widely used distance in surveying practices in the United States and other countries influenced by imperial Great Britain
Line plot survey – plots taken at a regular predetermined distance along the traverse path
Pacing – quick method used to survey in the field, requiring calibration of one's "paces" (pair of footsteps) to a known distance (often a chain)
Hand compass – a compact magnetic compass with a sighting device used to determine the location of plots for a given bearing
Wedge prism – optical instrument typically made of glass ground at slight angles to refract light passing through it from the smaller width side of the prism to the thicker width side of the prism, calibrated to a desired plot size (basal area factor)
Angle gauge – similar in principle to a wedge prism, although it must be held a fixed distance from the eye
GPS – global satellite navigation systems used to determine the position of oneself and plots
GIS – an information system capable of integrating, storing, analyzing, and displaying forest geographic information collected in the field
Timber volume determination
An increment borer with common drinking straws, a cost-effective manner often used to hold derived cores.
Site index – a species specific measure of site productivity and management options, reported as the height of dominant and co-dominant trees (site trees)in a stand at a base age such as 25, 50 and 100 years
Stocking – a quantitative measure of the area occupied by trees relative to an optimum or desired level of density which varies according to management purpose even on the same site
Stand Density Index – a measure of the stocking of a stand of trees based on the number of trees per unit area and DBH of the tree of average basal area
Volume table – a chart based on volume equations that uses correlations between certain aspects of a tree to estimate the standing volume
Logging – cutting, skidding, on-site processing, and loading of trees or logs onto trucks or skeleton cars. The term is sometimes used in a narrow sense to mean moving wood from the stump to somewhere outside the forest, usually a sawmill or a lumber yard. However, in common usage, the term may be used to indicate a range of forestry or silviculture activities...
Forest product – any material derived from a forest for direct consumption or commercial use, such as lumber, paper, or forage for livestock. Wood is by far the dominant forest product, used for fuel (as firewood or charcoal), structural materials in the construction of buildings, or as a raw material, such as wood pulp used in the production of paper. All non-wood products derived from forest resources are called non-timber forest products.
Carl A. Schenck (1868-1955) – responsible for incorporating German scientific management techniques into American forest management, and founder of Biltmore Forest School, the first forestry school in the United States
Károly Bund (1869-1931) – early academic and practical forester whose work in the Hungarian National Forestry Association increased treeplanting and intensified efforts to protect natural forests, indigenous tree species, and forestry workers in Austria-Hungary
Bob Marshall (1901-1939) – cofounder of The Wilderness Society, which helped pass the Wilderness Act, which created the first legal definition of wilderness and conserved some 9,100,000 acres (37,000 km2) of national forest land in the United States