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An immensely resource-rich state, Jharkhand suffers from resource curse
Location of Jharkhand
Map of Jharkhand
|Coordinates (Ranchi): Coordinates:|
|Formation||15 November 2000|
|o Governor||Draupadi Murmu|
|o Chief Minister||Raghubar Das (BJP)|
|o Legislature||Unicameral (81 seats)|
|o Parliamentary constituency||Rajya Sabha 6|
Lok Sabha 14
|o High Court||Jharkhand High Court|
|o Total||79,714 km2 (30,778 sq mi)|
|o Density||414/km2 (1,070/sq mi)|
|Time zone||UTC+05:30 (IST)|
|ISO 3166 code||IN-JH|
|HDI rank||34th (2017)|
|+Formed by the Bihar Reorganisation Act, 2000|
|Symbols of Jharkhand|
Jharkhand (lit. "Bushland" or The land of forest) is a state in eastern India, carved out of the southern part of Bihar on 15 November 2000. The state shares its border with the states of Bihar to the north, Uttar Pradesh to the northwest, Chhattisgarh to the west, Odisha to the south and West Bengal to the east. It has an area of 79,710 km2 (30,778 sq mi).
Jharkhand suffers from resource curse; It accounts for more than 40% of the mineral resources of India, but it suffers widespread poverty as 39.1% of the population is below the poverty line and 19.6% of the children under five years of age are malnourished. The state is primarily rural, with only 24% of the population living in cities.
Stone tools have discovered from Chota Nagpur plateau region which is from Mesolithic and Neolithic period. There are ancient Cave Paintings in Isko, Hazaribagh district which are from Meso-chalcolithic period (9,000-5,000 BC). Several Iron slags, microlith, Potsherds have discovered from Singhbhum district which are from 1400 BCE according to Carbon dating age.
According to writers including Gautam Kumar Bera, there was already a distinct geo-political, cultural entity called Jharkhand even before the Magadha Empire. During the age of Mahajanpadas around 500 BC, Jharkhand state was a part of Magadha and Anga. Jharkhand was part of greater Magadha region and was in some way culturally different from Historical Vedic religion.
Daud Khan, who launched his invasion starting from Patna on 3 April 1660, attacked south of Gaya district and finally arrived at the Palamu Forts on 9 December 1660. The terms of surrender and payment of tribute were not acceptable to the Cheros; Daud Khan wanted complete conversion of all Hindus under the Chero rule to Islam. Following this, Khan mounted a series of attacks on the forts. Cheros defended the forts but ultimately both forts were occupied.
The King Medini Ray (1662-1674), ruled for thirteen years from 1662 to 1674 from Medininagar in Palamau. His rule extended to areas in South Gaya and Hazaribagh. He attacked Navratangarh and defeated the Maharaja of Chhotanagpur.
Following the death of Medini Ray there was rivalry within the royal family of the Chero dynasty which ultimately lead to its downfall; this was engineered by the ministers and advisers in the court. In 1765, the region came under the control of the British East India Company. Chitrajeet Rai's nephew Gopal Rai betrayed him and facilitated the Patna Council of the British East India Company to attack the fort. When the new fort was attacked by Captain Camac on 28 January 1771, the Chero soldiers fought valiantly but had to retreat to the old fort on account of water shortage. This facilitated the British army to occupy the new fort located on a hill without any struggle. This location was strategic and enabled the British to mount canon supply and the old fort was besieged by the British on 19 March 1771. The fort was finally occupied by the British in 1772. Region under Kings of Chero dynasty, Nagvansh and Ramgarh became parts of territories of East India Company.
The Princly states in Chota Nagpur Plateau, came within the sphere of influence of the Maratha Empire, but they became tributary states of British East India Company as a result of the Anglo-Maratha Wars known as Chota Nagpur Tributary States. The subjugation and colonisation of Jharkhand region by the British East India Company resulted in spontaneous resistance from the local people.
The first ever revolt against the landlords and the British government was led by Tilka Manjhi, a Paharia leader in Rajmahal Hills in 1771.Soon after in 1779, the Bhumij tribes rose in arms against the British rule in Manbhum, West Bengal.
In 1807, the Oraons in Barway murdered their big landlord from Srinagar. Munda tribe rose in revolt in 1811 and 1813. The Hos in Singhbhum revolted in 1820, Kol revolt in 1832. The Santhal rebellion broke out in 1855 under the leadership of two brothers Sidhu and Kanhu.
Thakur Vishwanath Sahdeo, local chief rebeled against Brithish East India Company in 1857 rebellion. He was fighting with Britishers, but caught due to treachery and was hagnged in April 16, 1858.
After the Indian Rebellion of 1857, the rule of the British East India Company was transferred to the Crown in the person of Queen Victoria, who, in 1876, was proclaimed Empress of India. The Cheros and Kharwars again rebelled against the British in 1882 but the attack was repulsed. Then Birsa Munda revolt, broke out in 1895 and lasted till 1900. The revolt though mainly concentrated in the Munda belt of Khunti, Tamar, Sarwada and Bandgaon.
In October 1905, the exercise of British influence over the predominantly Hindi-speaking states of Chang Bhakar, Jashpur, Koriya, Surguja, and Udaipur was transferred from the Bengal government to that of the Central Provinces, while the two Oriya-speaking states of Gangpur and Bonai were attached to the Orissa Tributary States, leaving only Kharsawan and Saraikela answerable to the Bengal governor.
In 1936, all nine states were transferred to the Eastern States Agency, the officials of which came under the direct authority of the Governor-General of India, rather than under that of any Provinces.
In March 1940, INC 53rd Session was accomplished under the presidency of Maulana Abul Qalam Azad at Jhanda Chowk, Ramgarh now Ramgarh Cant. Mahatma Gandhi,Jawaharlal Nehru, Sardar Patel, Dr. Rajendra Prasad, Sarojini Naidu, Khan Abdul Ghaffar Khan, Acharya J.B. Kripalani, Industrialist Jamnalal Bajaj and others greats leaders of Indian freedom movement attended the Ramgarh Session.  Mahatma Gandhi also opened khadi and village Industries Exhibition at Ramgarh.
At that time, under the leadership of Netajee Subhas Chandra Bose conference against Samjhauta was also completed. In Ramgarh, Subhsha Chandra Bose was seen as president of All India Forward Block and M.N. Roy was seen as leader of Radical democratic party.
After Indian independence in 1947, the rulers of the states all chose to accede to the Dominion of India. Changbhakar, Jashpur, Koriya, Surguja and Udaipur later became part of Madhya Pradesh state, but Gangpur and Bonai part of Orissa state, and Kharsawan and Saraikela part of Bihar state.
After the last Assembly election in the state resulted in a hung assembly, RJD's dependence on the Congress extended support on the precondition that RJD would not pose a hurdle to the passage of the Bihar reorganisation Bill (Jharkhand Bill). Finally, with the support from both RJD and Congress, the ruling coalition at the Centre led by the BJP which had made statehood its mail poll plank in the region in successive polls earlier, cleared the Jharkhand Bill in the monsoon session of the Parliament this year, thus paving the way for the creation of a separate Jharkhand state.
The dynamics of resources and the politics of development still influence the socio-economic structures in Jharkhand, which was carved out of the relatively under developed southern part of Bihar. According to the 1991 census, the state has a population of over 20 million out of which 28% is tribal while 12% of the people belong to scheduled castes. Jharkhand has 24 districts, 260 blocks and 32,620 villages out of which only 45% have access to electricity while only 8,484 are connected by roads. Jharkhand is the leading producer of mineral wealth in the country after Chhattisgarh state, endowed as it is with vast variety of minerals like iron ore, coal, copper ore, mica, bauxite, graphite, limestone, and uranium. Jharkhand is also known for its vast forest resources.
Jharkhand has been at the centre of the Naxalite-Maoist insurgency. Since the uprising of the Naxalites in 1967, 6,000 people have been killed in fighting between the Naxalites and counter-insurgency operations by the police, and its paramilitary groups such as the Salwa Judum.
Despite having a presence in almost 7.80% of India's geographical area (home to 5.50% of India's population), the state of Jharkhand is part of the "Naxal Belt" comprising 92,000 square kilometres, where the highest concentrations of the groups estimated 20,000 combatants fight. Part of this is due to the fact that the state harbours a rich abundance of natural resources, while its people live in abject poverty and destitution. The impoverished state provides ample recruits for the communist insurgents, who argue that they are fighting on behalf of the landless poor that see few benefits from the resource extractions. As the federal government holds a monopoly on sub-surface resources in the state, the tribal population is prevented from staking any claim on the resources extracted from their land. In response, the insurgents have recently begun a campaign of targeting infrastructure related to the extraction of resources vital for Indian energy needs, such as coal.
On 5 March 2007, Sunil Mahato, a member of the national parliament, was shot dead by Naxalite rebels near Kishanpur while watching a football match on the Hindu festival of Holi. His widow, Suman Mahato, the Jharkhand Mukti Morcha candidate, won the Jamshedpur Lok Sabha by-election in September 2007 and served in parliament until 2009.
Jharkhand is located in the eastern part of India and is enclosed by Bihar to the northern side, Chhattisgarh and Uttar Pradesh to the western side, Odisha to the southern part and West Bengal to the eastern part.
Jharkhand envelops a geographical area of 79.70 lakh hectare. Much of Jharkhand lies on the Chota Nagpur Plateau. Many rivers pass through the Chota Nagpur plateau. They are: Damodar, North Koel, South Koel, Sankh, Brahmani and Subarnarekha rivers. The higher watersheds of these rivers stretch out within the Jharkhand state. Much of the Jharkhand state is still enclosed by forest. Forests sustain the population of Elephants and tigers.
Climate of Jharkhand varies from Humid subtropical in the north to tropical wet and dry in the south-east.  The main seasons are summer, rainy, autumn, winter and spring. The summer lasts from mid-April to mid-June. May, the hottest month, characterized by daily high temperatures around 38 °C(100° F) and low temperatures around 25° C (77° F). The southwest monsoon, from mid-June to October, brings nearly all the state's annual rainfall, which ranges from about 40 inches (1,000 mm) in the west-central part of the state to more than 60 inches (1,500 mm) in the southwest. Nearly half of the annual precipitation falls in July and August.The winter season lasts from November to February. The temperatures in Ranchi in December usually vary from about 10 °C (50 °F) to around 24° C (75° F). Spring season lasts from mid-february to mid-April.
Part of the reason for the variety and diversity of flora and fauna found in Jharkhand state may be accredited to the Palamau Tiger Reserves under the Project Tiger. This reserve is abode to hundreds of species of flora and fauna, as indicated within brackets: mammals (39), snakes (8), lizards (4), fish (6), insects (21), birds (170), seed bearing plants and trees (97), shrubs and herbs (46), climbers, parasites and semi-parasites (25), and grasses and bamboos (17).
According to the 2011 Indian Census, Jharkhand has a population of 32.96 million, consisting of 16.93 million males and 16.03 million females. The sex ratio is 947 females to 1000 males. The literacy rate of the state was 67.63% with Ranchi district being most educated at 77.13% compared to rural Pakur district being least at 50.17%.
|Source:Census of India|
Hindi is the official language in Jharkhand. Jharkhand has accorded second language status to Angika, Bengali, Bhojpuri, Ho, Kharia, Kurukh, Khortha, Kurmali, Magahi, Maithili, Mundari, Nagpuri, Odia, Santali and Urdu.
As per the 2011 census, Hinduism is the majority religion in the state at 67.8%, followed by Islam at 14.5% and Christianity at 4.3%. Other religions, primarily Sarnaism, constitute 12.8% of the population.
The constitutional head of the government of Jharkhand is the governor, who is appointed by the President of India. The real executive power rests with the chief minister and the cabinet. The political party or the coalition of political parties having a majority in the Legislative Assembly forms the government.
The head of the bureaucracy of the state is the chief secretary. Under this position, is a hierarchy of officials drawn from the Indian Administrative Service, Indian Police Service, Indian Forest Service, and different wings of the state civil services. The judiciary is headed by the Chief Justice. Jharkhand has a High Court which has been functioning since 2000. All the branches of the government are located in the state capital, Ranchi.
The state was formed with 18 districts that were formerly part of south Bihar. Some of these districts were reorganised to form 6 new districts, namely, Latehar, Saraikela Kharsawan, Jamtara, Sahebganj, Khunti and Ramgarh. At present, the state has 5 Divisions and 24 Districts. One interesting thing about Jharkhand is that all its districts, except Lohardaga and Khunti, share a border with a neighboring state.
Largest Cities in Jharkhand
(2011 Census of India estimate)
|04||Bokaro Steel City||Bokaro||564,319||09||Ramgarh||Ramgarh||132,425|
Jharkhand has several towns and innumerable villages with civic amenities. Urbanization ratio is 24.1% and the per capita annual income is US$726.8. Jharkhand also has immense mineral resources: minerals ranging from (ranking in the country within bracket) from iron ore (1st), coal(3rd), copper ore (1st), mica (1st), bauxite (3rd), Manganese, limestone, china clay, fire clay, graphite (8th), kainite (1st), chromite (2nd), asbestos (1st), thorium (3rd), sillimanite, uranium (Jaduguda mines, Narwa Pahar) (1st) and even gold (Rakha Mines) (6th) and silver and several other minerals. Large deposits of coal and iron ore support concentration of industry, in centres like Jamshedpur, Dhanbad, Bokaro and Ranchi. Tata Steel, a S&P CNX 500 conglomerate has its corporate office and main plant in Tatanagar, Jharkhand. It reported a gross income of INR. 204,910 million for 2005. NTPC will start coal production from its captive mine in state in 2011-12, for which the company will be investing about Rs 1,800 crore.
Agriculture is another sector in economy of Jharkhand which helps economy to grow. In Jharkhand, farmers produce several crops such as rice, wheat, maize, pulses, potatoes, and vegetables such as tomato, carrots, cabbage, brinjal, pumpkin, and papaya. The other Industry are cottage industry and IT industry.
Staple food of Jharkhand are rice, dal, vegetable and tubers. Spices are sparingly used in cuisine. Famous dishes include Chirka roti, Malpua, Pittha, Dhuska, Arsa roti, Dudhauri, Litti Chokha and Panipuri (Gupchup).Rugra and Putoo is a type of edible mushroom that is grown extensively in Jharkhand and harvested during the rainy months. It has a hardened, white, edible shell and a softer dark colored centre. Bamboo shoots are also used as vegetable.The leaf of Munga (Moringa oleifera) and Koinar tree(Bauhinia variegata) used as leafy vegetable or Saag.
Local alcoholic drinks include rice beer, originally known as Handi or Handia , named after the vessel handi(earthen pot) used to make it. Handiya is culturally associated with native i.e. Sadans and Tribal, this drink consumed by both men and women, on social occasions like marriage and other festivals. Another common liquor is called Mahua daru, made from flowers of the "Mahua" tree (Madhuca longifolia).
There are several Folk dance in Jharkhand such as:Jhumair, Mardana Jhumair, Janani Jhumair, Domkach, Lahasua, Vinsariya, Jhumta, Fagua, Painki and Chhau. The musical instruments used in folk song and dance are Mandar, Dholki, Bansi, Nagara, Dhak, Shehnai, Khartal, Narsinga etc.
The tattoo making tradition of Godna is essential part of local tradition.
Ranchi Airport is the largest domestic airport in the state with air connectivity to major Indian cities of Delhi, Kolkata, Bangalore, Mumbai, Hyderabad among others. Other airports present in the state are Bokaro Airport, Jamshedpur Airport, Chakulia Airport, Atal Bihari International Airport,Deoghar,Dumka Airport and Dhanbad Airport who mostly run private and charter flights.
Jharkhand has extensive network of National Highways and State Highways. There is 2,661.83 kilometres (1,653.98 mi) of paved National Highways in the state as of 2016. The National highways present in the state are numbered 2, 6, 23, 31, 32, 33, 43, 75, 78, 80, 98, 99, 100, 114A, 133, 133B, 133A, 143A, 220, 333, 333A, 343 and 419. The Golden Quadrilateral network of Delhi - Kolkata route runs through Jharkhand notably at Dhanbad.
Jharkhand is landlocked state but has numerous rivers and waterways. A multi-model port has been planned at Sahebganj where river Ganges flows. The project is estimated to cost INR 6,500 crores and phase-1 is estimated to be completed by 2019.
Since the formation of the new state, the Jharkhand Education Project Council (JEPC) has been implementing four projects to spread elementary education: DPEP, SSA, NPEGEL, and KGBV. The state has been moving towards the goal of universal elementary education but the target of 100% enrolment and retention of children in schools has not yet been attained. Jharkhand has made primary education so accessible that 95% of children of ages 6-11 are enrolled in school, as opposed to 56% in 1993-94; this will likely improve literacy a great deal.
The medium of instruction in schools is Hindi/English with English/Hindi/Sanskrit/Bengali/Odia as second language. After 10 years of schooling, students can join 2 years of Intermediate course (or +2 courses) in Arts, Science and Commerce.
On May 2008, Jharkhand became the first in India to introduce free haircuts for poor students. 40,000 barbers will be employed with a monthly salary of 1000 rupees (25 US dollars) which will cost the state government 40 million rupees (1 million US dollars).
Under Rashtriya Madhyamik Shiksha Abhiyan 89 english medium senior secondary school named Model school have been established in about each block of district on 2011
Because of its mild climate, Jharkhand, particularly its capital Ranchi, has been like a health resort. As far back as 1918, facilities were set up for treatment of mentally challenged.[not in citation given] European Mental Hospital was established along with Indian Mental Hospital. Today they are called Central Institute of Psychiatry and Ranchi Institute of Neuro-psychiatry and Allied Sciences respectively. In certain areas of Jharkhand, poverty and consequent malnutrition have given rise to diseases like tuberculosis (TB). In fact, TB has assumed epidemic proportions in certain areas of the state. For management and treatment of such TB, Itki TB Sanatorium, Ranchi, established in 1928 has been doing exemplary work as a premier institute for clinical and programmatic management of TB. The Itki TB Sanatorium is well equipped and accredited by the Indian government for quality assurance and Culture and Drug Sensitivity Testing for M.TB. It provides free of cost treatment for TB as well as Drug resistant TB. Likewise, in the field of treatment of cancer, Tata Main Hospital, Jamshedpur, is rendering pioneering work. In the same way Bokaro General Hospital equipped with modern facilities for the treatment Cancer and heart related problems with capacity of 1100 beds one of the largest in eastern India.
Although several public and private health facilities are available in the state, overall infrastructure for dispensing health related services require improvements. An exception is the famous Tata Motors Hospital which is an example of an ISO 14001 and 18001 certified hospital with DNB teaching facilities.
Ranchi, the capital, has witnessed a sharp growth in the number of hospitals. Hospitals like Orchid , Medanta hospital Ranchi, Medica Ranchi, Rims ranchi have introduced world class healthcare services to the people of the state. However, in rural areas facilities are still scarce and reliant on foreign aid projects (such as Traditional Healthcare in Datom) for the establishment of clinics
Fluoride in groundwater presents a public health problem in Jharkhand. A recent survey led by the Birla Institute of Technology, Mesra, Ranchi in collaboration with UNICEF in the northwest districts of Palamau and Garhwa found fluoride levels above the drinking WHO drinking water guidelines. Excessive amounts of fluoride in drinking water can lead to dental fluorosis, prevalent bone fractures, and skeletal fluorosis, an irreversible disabling condition. Some work has focused on combating fluorosis through increased calcium intake by consuming local plants. Researchers at Princeton University and the Birla Institute of Technology, Mesra, Ranchi are currently investigating defluoridation options, while performing an epidemiological survey to assess the extent of fluoride linked health problems and the impact of future interventions.
Almost 80% of Jharkhand's people are farmers, although it contains 40% of India's mineral reserves it has some of India's poorest people, in Summer 2009 the state was threatened by drought, with people criticising the government for not providing food aid or assistance.
Cricket, hockey, and football are popular games with the people of Jharkhand. Jharkhand has given some brilliant players like Jaipal Singh, a former Indian hockey captain and Olympian and Manohar Topno, currently playing for the Indian Hockey team. Jaipal Singh was the captain of the hockey team that won the first gold medal for India in the 1928 Summer Olympics in Amsterdam. Mahendra Singh Dhoni who was the captain of Indian cricket team and led the Indian cricket team to ICC Cricket World Cup Glory on 2 April 2011, ending a 28-year wait to repeat the feat achieved by former Indian captain Kapil Dev in 1983 at Lord's, England.
Another rising cricketer from Jharkhand is Varun Aaron, India's fastest bowler , Shahbaz Nadeem , left armed spinner, Saurabh Tiwary, left hand hard hitting batsman of India who represented Mumbai Indians from the 2008 Indian Premier League and currently playing for Delhi Daredevils in 2015. He was one of the key batsmen in the Indian team that won the 2008 U/19 Cricket World Cup in Malaysia. Ashunta Lakra, sister of Vimal Lakra is the Indian Hockey Captain currently.And one of the emerging sport personality is Deepika Kumari, a young Indian athlete who competes in the event of Archery. She won gold medal in the 2010 Commonwealth games in the women's individual recurve event.
An International Cricket stadium with an indoor stadium and a practice ground has been constructed. This international stadium has hosted an International Match between India and England on 19 January 2013. Apart from that, this stadium has hosted two IPL 6 matches for KKR and qualifier 2 of IPL 8 between CSK and RCB and Celebrity Cricket League Matches for Bhojpuri Dabanggs. A Tennis Academy, which was inaugurated by Sania Mirza and Shoaib Malik, also runs besides the Cricket stadium. Ranchi is among six cities in Hockey India League to be played in January 2013. Ranchi franchise was bought by Patel-Uniexcel Group and the team named Ranchi Rhinos which is now being co-hosted by Mahendra Singh Dhoni and named as Ranchi Rays. Ranchi is also famous for being the hometown of World Cup winning Captain of Indian Cricket team, Mahendra Singh Dhoni. India's ace archer Deepika Kumari, gold medal winner of Commonwealth Games 2010 hails from Ranchi.
Jharkhand is known for its waterfalls, hills and holy places. Some tourist spots in state are Jonha Falls, Hundru Falls, Dassam Falls, Netarhat, Parasnath, Betla National Park, Dalma Wildlife Sanctuary and Baidyanath Dham.