Tsushima Island
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Tsushima Island
Tsushima
Native name:
Tsushima island en.png
Tsushima is located in Japan
Tsushima
Tsushima
Geography
LocationTsushima Strait, Korea Strait
Coordinates34°25?N 129°20?E / 34.417°N 129.333°E / 34.417; 129.333
Area708.7 km2 (273.6 sq mi)[1]
Coastline915 km (568.6 mi)
Highest elevation649 m (2,129 ft)
Highest pointMt. Yatate[2]
Administration
Largest settlementTsushima, Nagasaki
Demographics
Population39,716 (2006)
Pop. density58.18 /km2 (150.69 /sq mi)
Ethnic groupsJapanese people

Tsushima Island (, Tsushima) is an island of the Japanese archipelago situated in the Korea Strait, approximately halfway between the Japanese mainland and the Korean Peninsula.[3][4] The main island of Tsushima was once a single island but was divided into two in 1671 by the ?funakoshiseto canal and into three in 1900 by the Manzekiseto canal. These canals were driven through isthmuses in the center of the island, creating "North Tsushima Island" (Kamijima) and "South Tsushima Island" (Shimojima). Tsushima also incorporates over 100 smaller islands (many tiny). The name Tsushima generally refers to all the islands collectively.

The island group measures about 70 km (43 mi) by 15 km (9 mi) and had a population of about 34,000 as of 2013. The main islands (that is, the "North" and "South" islands, and the thin island that connects them) are the largest coherent satellite island group of Nagasaki Prefecture and the fourth largest in Japan (excluding the main islands of Honshu, Kyushu, Shikoku and Hokkaido). The city of Tsushima lies on the Tsushima islands, and is divided into six boroughs.[5]

Geography

As? Bay from Shiroyama summit peak

Tsushima Island is located west of the Kanmon Strait at a latitude between Honshu and Kyushu of the Japanese mainland. The Korea Strait splits at the Tsushima Island Archipelago into two channels; the wider channel, closer to the mainland of Japan, is the Tsushima Strait. ?funakoshi-Seto and Manzeki-Seto, the two canals built in 1671 and 1900 respectively, connect the deep indentation of As? Bay () to the east side of the island. The archipelago comprises over 100 smaller islets in addition to the main island.

Tsushima is the closest Japanese territory to the Korean Peninsula, lying approximately 50 km from Busan.[6] On a clear day, the hills and mountains of the Korean peninsula are visible from the higher elevations on the two northern mountains. The nearest Japanese port, Iki, situated on Iki Island within the Ulleung Basin, is also 50 km away.[7][clarification needed] Tsushima Island and Iki Island contain the Iki-Tsushima Quasi-National Park,[5] designated as a nature preserve and protected from further development. Much of Tsushima (89%) is covered by natural vegetation and mountains.[8] Tsushima Island has many mountains such as the Mt. Ohira, Mt. Yatate, Mt. Hokogatake, Mt. Koyasan, Mt. Ontake, Mt. Gogen.[9]

The Japanese government administers Tsushima Island as a single entity despite the artificial waterways that have separated it into two islands. The northern area is known as Kamino-shima (), and the southern island as Shimono-shima (). Both sub-islands have a pair of mountains. Shimo-no-shima has Mount Yatate (), standing 649 m (2,129 ft) high,[2] and Ariake-yama (), at 558 m (1,831 ft) high.[2] Kami-no-shima has Mi-take (), 487 m (1,598 ft).[2] The two main sections of the island are now joined by a combination bridge and causeway.[10][11] The island has a total area of 696.26 km2.

A harbor in the city of Tsushima, Nagasaki Prefecture, Japan in 1990

Climate

Tsushima has a marine subtropical climate strongly influenced by monsoon winds. The average temperature is 15.8 °C,[12] and the average yearly precipitation is 2,132.6 mm.[12] The highest temperature ever recorded on the island is 36.6 °C, on August 20, 2013, and the lowest -8.6 °C, in 1895.[13] Throughout most of the year, Tsushima is 1 - 2 °C cooler than the city of Nagasaki.[12][14] The island's rainfall is generally higher than that of the main islands of Japan; this is attributed to the difference in their size. Because Tsushima is small and isolated, it is exposed on all sides to moist marine air, which releases precipitation as it ascends the island's steep slopes. Continental monsoon winds carry loess (yellow sand) from China in the spring and cool the island in the winter.[5] The rainy season begins and ends later than in other areas in Nagasaki Prefecture, and Tsushima rarely suffers direct hits by typhoons.[15]

Ecology

Symbolic wildlife Tsushima Yamaneko

The island is inhabited by the Tsushima cat, wild boar, deer, martens, and mice. Otters were discovered to be living in Tsushima in February 2017.[16] Migrating birds that make stops on the island include hawks, harriers, eagles, and black-throated loons. Forests, covering 90% of the island, consist of broad-leafed evergreens, conifers, and deciduous trees including cypress. Honey bees are common, with many used to produce commercial honey.[17]Tsushima Island pitviper is a venomous snake endemic (found nowhere else) to the Tsushima Island.[18]

Tsushima Reef, in the bay between Tsushima and Iki Island, is the northernmost coral reef in the world, surpassing the Iki Island reef discovered in 2001.[19] It is dominated by cool-tolerant stony or Scleractinian Favia corals but the observed settling of tropical Acropora coral is expected to provide an ongoing indicator for continuing global warming.[20]

Economy

Industry

According to a 2000 census, 23.9% of the local population is employed in primary industries while 19.7% and 56.4% of the population are employed in secondary and tertiary industries, respectively. Of these economic activities, fishing amounts to 82.6% of the primary industry, with much of it dedicated to catching squid on the eastern coast of the island. The number of employees in the primary industries has been decreasing, while employee growth in the secondary and tertiary industries has been increasing.

Tourism

Tourism, targeting mainly South Koreans, has recently made a great contribution to the islands' economy. The number of Korean tourists to the island increased greatly after the launching of a high-speed ferry service from Busan to the island in 1999. In 2008, 72,349 Koreans visited the island. Due to a drop in the value of the won, the number fell to 45,266 in 2009. Korean tourists generate an estimated ¥2.1 billion in revenue for the local economy and generate about 260 jobs[clarification needed] on the island.[21]

The island will see around 200,000 visitors from Korea in 2013, surpassing the number of visitors from other parts of Japan for the first time.[22][clarification needed]Tsushima Airport serves the island. And the festival to interchange with Korea was aborted.[23]

Theft incident

In October 2012, five South Korean men broke into a temple and stole two statues, which had been on the island for more than three centuries, attempting to resell them for more than $1 million each. The men were apprehended in South Korea; however, the statues have yet to be returned by the Korean authorities. The theft and resulting tensions, however, has not slowed down Korean tourism on Tsushima.

History

Early history

Watazumi Shrine

Japanese mythology states that Tsushima was one of the eight original islands created by the Shinto deities Izanagi and Izanami. Archaeological evidence suggests that Tsushima was already inhabited by settlers from the Japanese archipelago and Korean Peninsula from the J?mon period to the Kofun period. The Sanguo Zhi, a Chinese historical text, describes a country called Duihai guo (simplified Chinese: ; traditional Chinese: ; Wade-Giles: Tui-hai kuo, Japanese: Tsuikai-koku) with a population of more than one thousand households, which is commonly identified with Tsushima. It was one of the about 30 that composed the Yamataikoku union countries.[24] These families exerted control over Iki Island, and established trading links with Yayoi Japan. Since Tsushima had almost no land to cultivate, islanders earned their living by fishing and trading.

Since the beginning of the early 6th century, Tsushima has been an official province of Japan, known as Tsushima Province. This became modern-day Tsushima, Nagasaki Prefecture in 1872.

Under the Ritsury? system, Tsushima became a province of Japan. This province was linked with Dazaifu, the political and economical center of Ky?sh?, as well as the central government of Japan. Due to its strategic location, Tsushima played a major role in defending Japan against invasions from the Asian continent and developing trade lines with Baekje and Silla of Three Kingdoms of Korea. After Baekje, which was helped by Japan, was defeated by Silla and Tang Dynasty forces at the Battle of Hakusukinoe in 663, Japanese border guards were sent to Tsushima, and Kaneda Castle was constructed on the island.

Tsushima Province was controlled by the Tsushima no Kuni no miyatsuko (?) until the Nara period, and then by the Abiru clan until the middle of the 13th century. The role and title of "Governor of Tsushima" was exclusively held by the Sh?ni clan for generations. However, since the Sh?ni actually resided in Ky?sh?, it was the S? clan, known subjects of the Sh?ni, who actually exerted control over these islands. The S? clan governed Tsushima until the late 15th century.

Medieval history

Mongol invasion in 1274
Joseon missions to Japan started in Muromachi period for about 400 years were welcomed by Japanese people as seen in this painting of Edo

Tsushima was an important trade center during this period. After the Toi invasion, private trade started between Goryeo, Tsushima, Iki, and Ky?sh?, but halted during the Mongol invasions of Japan between 1274 and 1281. The Goryeosa, a history of the Goryeo dynasty, mentions that in 1274, Korean troops of the Mongol army led by Kim Bang-gyeong that included many Korean soldiers killed a great number of people on the islands.

Tsushima became one of the major bases of the Wokou, Japanese pirates, also called wak?, along with the Iki and Matsuura. Due to repeated pirate raids, the Goryeo dynasty and the subsequent Joseon Dynasty, at times placated the pirates by establishing trade agreements, as well as negotiating with the Muromachi shogunate and its deputy in Ky?sh?, and at times used force to neutralize the pirates. In 1389, General Pak Wi () of Goryeo attempted to clear the island of Wokou pirates, but uprisings in Korea forced him to return home.

On June 19, 1419, the recently abdicated king Sejong of Joseon sent general Yi Jong-mu to an expedition to Tsushima island to clear it of the Wokou pirates, using a fleet of 227 vessels and 17,000 soldiers, known in Japanese as the ?ei Invasion. After suffering casualties in an ambush, the Korean Army negotiated a ceasefire and withdrew on July 3, 1419.[25][26] In 1443, the Daimyo of Tsushima, S? Sadamori proposed a Gyehae treaty. The number of trade ships from Tsushima to Korea was decided by this treaty, and the S? clan monopolized the trade with Korea.[27]

In 1510, Japanese traders initiated an uprising against Joseon's stricter policies on Japanese traders from Tsushima and Iki coming to Busan, Ulsan and Jinhae to trade. The So Clan supported the uprising, but it was soon crushed. The uprising later came to be known as the "Three-Ports Incident" (? (Sanbo-No-Ran) in Japan and ? (?, Sampo Waeran) in Korea). Trade resumed under the direction of King Jungjong in 1512, but only under strictly limited terms, and only twenty-five ships were allowed to visit Joseon annually.[28]

In the late 16th century, Japanese leader Toyotomi Hideyoshi united the various feudal lords (daimyo) under his command. Planning to unite all factions with a common cause, Hideyoshi's coalition invaded Joseon Dynasty Korea in an attack leading to the Seven-Year War. Tsushima was the main naval base for this invasion, and in continuing support of the war, large numbers of Korean prisoners were transported to Tsushima until 1603.

Portrait of S? Yoshitoshi in 1615

In 1587, Toyotomi Hideyoshi confirmed the S? clan possession of Tsushima. S? Yoshitoshi (? , 1568 - 31 January 1615) was a S? clan daimy? (feudal lord) of the island domain of Tsushima. In 1603, Tokugawa Ieyasu established a new shogunate; and S? Yoshitoshi was officially granted Fuch? Domain (100,000 koku) in Tsushima Province.[29]

After Japan's attempts at conquest failed, peace was re-established between the two nations. Once again, the islands became a port for merchants. Both the Joseon Dynasty and the Tsushima-Fuch? Domain sent their trading representatives to Tsushima, governing trade until 1755.

The island was described by Hayashi Shihei in Sangoku Ts?ran Zusetsu, which was published in 1785. It was identified as part of Japan.[30]

In 1811, for cost reduction, representatives of the Tokugawa shogunate met at Tsushima with ambassadors from the Joseon king (Joseon tongsinsa).[31]

Until the Meiji era, Tsushima was a frontier between Japan and Korea, heavily dependent on the trade with Korea, with unique institutions/systems of trade (which strongly resembled those of Korean, not Japanese, institutions - for instance, measurement system for the taxation of land in Japan, is determined by the production of rice (Koku)). Tsushima had a low production of rice, so it was permitted to use a unique survey system (Kendaka ()) by Tokugawa shogunate. Because it had originated in China Land Survey System (), it was similar to the system of Korea - gyeolbu (); Tsushima law resembled Korean law in its calculation of finances. "Unfree labor" or slavery for fixed periods of time, always rare in any form in the rest of Japan, existed as an established institution, often as a form of punishment,[] in Tsushima as it did in Korea. The Tsushima han owned a 330,000-square-metre (3,552,090-square-foot) place of residence in Busan, according to Murai Shosuke, the Japanese was given the title from the Joseon dynasty is called "marginal men", was responsible for security in this residential area.[32][33] Lewis also cites the official preparations of S? Yoshitoshi listing some 1,000 Koreans as guides in preparation for Hideyoshi's invasions of Korea to support a "zone of ambiguous boundary qualities" aspect of Tsushima. [6] The islanders spoke a dialect of Japanese and their daily customs, social structure, and economic interactions were of Japanese, with exception of loanwords from Korean in their language. [34]

Modern history

Canal constructed by the Imperial Japanese Navy in 1900

In an episode now known as the Tsushima Incident, the Imperial Russian Navy tried to establish a base on the island in 1861, but the effort failed due to British intervention.

As a result of the abolition of the han system, the Tsushima Fuchu domain became part of Izuhara Prefecture in 1871. In the same year, Izuhara Prefecture was merged with Imari Prefecture, which was renamed Saga Prefecture in 1872. Tsushima was transferred to Nagasaki Prefecture in 1872, and its districts of Kamiagata () and Shimoagata () were merged to form the modern city of Tsushima. This change was part of widespread reforms within Japan which started after 1854. Japan was at this time becoming a modern nation state and regional power, with widespread changes in government, industry, and education.

After the First Sino-Japanese War ended with the Treaty of Shimonoseki, Japan felt humiliated when the Triple Intervention of the three great powers of Germany, France, and Russia forced it to return the valuable Liaodong Peninsula to China under threat of force. Consequently, the Japanese leadership correctly anticipated that a war with Russia or another Western imperial power was likely. Between 1895 and 1904, the Imperial Japanese Navy blasted the Manzeki-Seto canal 25 metres (82 feet) wide and 3 metres (9.8 feet) deep; it was later expanded to 40 metres (130 feet) wide and 4.5 metres (14.8 feet) deep (Nagasaki prefectural website) through a mountainous rocky isthmus of the island between As? Bay to the west and Tsushima Strait to the east, technically dividing the island into three islands (topographical map). Strategic concerns explain the scope and funding of the canal project by Japan during an era when it was still struggling to establish an industrial economy. The canal enabled the Japanese to move transports and warships quickly between their main naval bases in the Inland Sea (directly to the east) via the Kanmon and Tsushima Strait into the Korea Strait or to destinations beyond in the Yellow Sea.

An Imperial decree in July 1899 established Izuhara, Sasuna and Shishimi as open ports for trading with the United States and the United Kingdom.[35]

During the Russo-Japanese War in 1905, the Russian Baltic Fleet under Admiral Rozhestvensky, after making an almost year-long trip to East Asia from the Baltic Sea, was crushed by the Japanese under Admiral Togo Heihachiro at the Battle of Tsushima. The Japanese third squadron (cruisers) began shadowing the Russian fleet off the tip of the south island and followed it through the Tsushima Strait where the main Japanese fleet awaited. The battle began at slightly east-northeast of the northern island around midday, and ended to its north a day later when the Japanese surrounded the Russian Fleet. Japan won a decisive victory.

From 1948 to 1949, the Jeju Uprising, and its resulting suppression and massacre by anti-communist Korean forces, many Jeju residents fled and took refuge in Tsushima.[36]

In 1950, the South Korean government asserted sovereignty over the island based on "historical claims".[37] Korea-US negotiations about the Treaty of San Francisco made no mention of Tsushima Island.[38] After this, the status of Tsushima as an island of Japan was re-confirmed.[39] While the South Korean government has since relinquished claims on the island, some Koreans (including some members of the Korean parliament) have periodically attempted to dispute the ownership of the island.

In 1973, one of the transmitters for the OMEGA-navigation system was built on Tsushima. It was dismantled in 1998.

Today, Tsushima is part of Nagasaki Prefecture of Japan. On March 1, 2004, the six towns on the island, including Izuhara, Mitsushima, Toyotama, Mine, Kami-agata, and Kami-tsushima, were merged to create the city of Tsushima. About 700 Japan Self-Defense Forces personnel are stationed on the island to watch the local coastal and ocean areas.[21]

Dispute

Tsushima is administered by Nagasaki Prefecture. The South Korean city of Changwon also asserts ownership of the Island,[40] calling it Daemado (Korean pronunciation: [te:ma.do]; Hangul; Hanja; RRDaemado; MRTaemado), the Korean reading of the characters used in the Japanese name (Japanese: ).[41] Early, the central government in South Korea made official claims to the island since 1948.[42]

Those claims are dubious and have been debunked. Archaeological evidence suggests that Tsushima was already inhabited by settlers from the Japanese archipelago from the J?mon period (14,000 BCE) to the Kofun period (300 CE). Also, according to the Sanguo Zhi in the 3rd century Tsushima was Tsuikai-koku and one of the 30 that composed the Yamataikoku union countries (?).[24] This island, as Tsushima Province, has been ruled by Japanese governments since the Nara period (710 CE).[43] According to the Korean history book Samguk Sagi written in 1145, Tsushima is ruled by the Japanese from CE 400.[44]

In June 19, 1419 Japan repelled the ?ei Invasion of the abdicated king Sejong of Joseon. He sent general Yi Jong-mu to an expedition to Tsushima island to clear it of the Wokou pirates, using a fleet of 227 vessels and 17,000 soldiers. The Joseon invaders suffered casualties in an ambush and the Korean Army negotiated a ceasefire and withdrew on July 3, 1419.[25]

The Tsushima Fuchu domain became part of Izuhara Prefecture in 1871. In the same year, Izuhara Prefecture merged with Imari Prefecture, which was renamed Saga Prefecture on May 29, 1872. The island provinces of Tsushima and Iki were merged with the western half of the former province of Hizen and became modern-day Tsushima, Nagasaki Prefecture in 1872.[45]

The South Korean government made a claim in 1948, but it was rejected by SCAP in 1949. On July 19, 1951, the South Korean government agreed that the earlier demand for Tsushima had been dropped by the South Korean government with regards to the Japanese peace treaty negotiations.[46]

The status of Tsushima as an island of Japan was re-confirmed in 1965.[39]

In 2008, Yasunari Takarabe, incumbent Mayor of Tsushima rejected the South Korean territorial claim: "Tsushima has always been Japan. I want them to retract their wrong historical perception. It was mentioned in the Gishiwajinden (ja:) (a chapter of volume 30 of Book of Wei in the Chinese Records of the Three Kingdoms) as part of Wa (Japan). It has never been and cannot be a South Korean territory."[47]

Notable people from Tsushima

See also

References

  1. ^ (in Japanese) ?() Archived 2007-12-12 at the Wayback Machine. - Data about Tsushima
  2. ^ a b c d (in Japanese) ? ? Archived 2008-01-15 at the Wayback Machine. - Kyushu Regional Survay Department, Geographical Survay Institute, Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism in Japan
  3. ^ MapQuest on Tsushima Island's coordinates.
  4. ^ location of Tsushima.
  5. ^ a b c Info on Tsushima Shi
  6. ^ "Google Maps". Retrieved .
  7. ^ "Google Maps". Retrieved .
  8. ^ Asahi.com article on Tsushima
  9. ^ Interactive Map of Tsushima Island, Japan
  10. ^ Aerial view of the junction between the two islands of Tsushima Island
  11. ^ Water level view of the junction between the two islands of Tsushima Island
  12. ^ a b c Meteorologic data in Izuhara (), Tsushima by Japan Meteorological Agency
  13. ^ Meteorologic data in Izuhara (), Tsushima by Japan Meteorological Agency - most ~ 10th largest value on record
  14. ^ Meteorologic data in Nagasaki () by Japan Meteorological Agency
  15. ^ BBC article on typhoons
  16. ^ http://www.u-ryukyu.ac.jp/univ_info/announcement/press2017081701/ University of the Ryukyus announcement
  17. ^ Nicol, C.W., "Hark ye to the Donkey's Ears", Japan Times, March 7, 2010, p. 12.
  18. ^ Gloydius tsushimaensis at the Reptarium.cz Reptile Database. Accessed 14 February 2015.
  19. ^ http://news.discovery.com/earth/oceans/northernmost-coral-reef-found-120801.htm
  20. ^ Hiroya Yamano et al., in the on-line journal Geology, 12 July 2012, reported by Joost DeVries at Reefbuilders and at Advanced Aquarist
  21. ^ a b Kaneko, Maya, (Kyodo News) "Tsushima's S. Koreans: guests or guerrillas?", Japan Times, March 5, 2010, p. 3.
  22. ^ nytimes
  23. ^ "Official announcement of Tsushima tourism association". Archived from the original on 2013-08-20. Retrieved .
  24. ^ a b zhulang.com Archived 2007-03-12 at the Wayback Machine.
  25. ^ a b "4?1?7?3?" Annals of the Joseon DynastyKing SejongVol.4 July 3 [1]
  26. ^ "4?1?7?9?" Annals of the Joseon DynastyKing SejongVol.4 July 9 [2] " 4?, 1?(1419 / ? () 17?) 7? 9?() 5? ? "
  27. ^ Tsushima tourist Association WEB site [3]"1443 ?(?)- ?"
  28. ^ dictionary.goo.ne.jp
  29. ^ Papinot, Jacques. (2003). Nobiliare du Japon -- S?, p. 56; Papinot, Jacques Edmond Joseph. (1906). Dictionnaire d'histoire et de géographie du Japon.
  30. ^ Klaproth, Julius. (1832). San kokf tsou ran to sets, ou Aperçu général des trois royaumes, p. 96; excerpt, "... et vis-à-vis de l'île de Toui ma tao (Tsou sima) qui fait partie du Japon ...."
  31. ^ Walraven, Boudewijn et al. (2007). Korea in the middle: Korean studies and area studies, pp. 359-361
  32. ^ Murai Shosuke
  33. ^ Lewis, J.B. Frontier contact between Chos?n Korea and Tokugawa Japan, page 30.
  34. ^ Lewis, J.B. Frontier contact between Chos?n Korea and Tokugawa Japan, page 33. [4]
  35. ^ US Department of State. (1906). A digest of international law as embodied in diplomatic discussions, treaties and other international agreements (John Bassett Moore, ed.), Vol. 5, p. 759.
  36. ^ JoongAng Ilbo 14:33 October 1, 2002 [5]
  37. ^ "U.S. State Department, Report from the Office of Intelligence Research: Korea´s Recent Claim to the Island of Tsushima (prepared on March 30, 1950)"; retrieved 2013-4-2.
  38. ^ "Memorandum of Conversation, by the Officer in Charge of Korean Affairs in the Office of Northeast Asian Affairs (Emmons)," Foreign Relations 1951, Vol. VI, pp. 1202-1203; excerpt, "Mr. Dulles noted that paragraph 1 of the Korean Ambassador's communication made no reference to the island of Tsushima and the Korean Ambassador agreed that this had been omitted."
  39. ^ a b US Bureau of the Census (1965). Foreign Commerce and Navigation of the United States, p. lv.
  40. ^ "Ordinance of Day of Daemado in Changwon". Enhanced Local Laws and Regulations Information System (in Korean). 2012-12-28. Retrieved .
  41. ^ "Japan ponders law banning foreigners buying land near to military sites". South China Morning Post. 2013-10-29.
  42. ^ "in view of this fact the Republic of Korea request that Japan specifically renounce all right, title and claim to the Island of Tsushima and return it to the Republic of Korea."
  43. ^ "?||".
  44. ^ ?(Samguk Sagi) ? ? "? ?"
  45. ^ Nussbaum, "Provinces and prefectures" in p. 780, p. 780, at Google Books.
  46. ^ The Foreign Relations Series (FRUS) 1951 VolumeVI P1203. Subject:Japanese Peace Treaty, Participants:Dr. Yu Chan Yang, Korean Ambassador and John Foster Dulles U.S. Ambassador
  47. ^ " ". The Nagasaki Shimbun. July 24, 2008. Archived from the original on September 4, 2012. Retrieved 2011.

Further reading

  • Ian Nish, A Short History of JAPAN, 1968, LoCCC# 68-16796, Fredrick A. Praeger, Inc., New York, 238 pp.
British Title and Publisher: The Story of Japan, 1968, Farber and Farber, Ltd.
  • Edwin O Reischauer, Japan - The Story of a Nation, 1970, LoCCC# 77-10895 Alfred A. Knopf, Inc., New York. 345 pp. plus index.
Previously published as Japan Past and Present, 4 Editions, 1946–1964.

External links

Coordinates: 34°25?N 129°20?E / 34.417°N 129.333°E / 34.417; 129.333


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