Yale Romanization of Cantonese
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Yale Romanization of Cantonese

The Yale romanization of Cantonese was developed by Gerard P. Kok for his and Parker Po-fei Huang's textbook Speak Cantonese initially circulated in looseleaf form in 1952[1] but later published in 1958.[2] Unlike the Yale romanization of Mandarin, it is still widely used in books and dictionaries, especially for foreign learners of Cantonese. It shares some similarities with Hanyu Pinyin in that unvoiced, unaspirated consonants are represented by letters traditionally used in English and most other European languages to represent unvoiced sounds. For example, [p] is represented as b in Yale, whereas its aspirated counterpart, [p?] is represented as p.[3] Students attending The Chinese University of Hong Kong's New-Asia Yale-in-China Chinese Language Center are taught using Yale romanization.[4]

Initials

b
[p]
?
p
[p?]
?
m
[m]
?
f
[f]
?
d
[t]
?
t
[t?]
?
n
[n]
?
l
[l]
?
g
[k]
?
k
[k?]
?
ng
[?]
?
h
[h]
?
gw
[k?]
?
kw
[k]
?
w
[w]
?
j
[ts]
?
ch
[ts?]
?
s
[s]
?
y
[j]
?

Finals

a
[a:]
?
aai
[a:i?]
?
aau
[a:u?]
?
aam
[a:m]
?
aan
[a:n]
?
aang
[a:?]
?
aap
[a:p]
?
aat
[a:t]
?
aak
[a:k]
?
  ai
[?i?]
?
au
[?u?]
?
am
[?m]
?
an
[?n]
?
ang
[]
?
ap
[?p]
?
at
[?t]
?
ak
[?k]
?
e
[?:]
?
ei
[ei?]
?
      eng
[?:?]
?
    ek
[?:k]
?
i
[i:]
?
  iu
[i:u?]
?
im
[i:m]
?
in
[i:n]
?
ing
[e?]
?
ip
[i:p]
?
it
[i:t]
?
ik
[ek]
?
o
[?:]
?
oi
[?:y?]
?
ou
[ou?]
?
  on
[?:n]
?
ong
[?:?]
?
  ot
[?:t]
?
ok
[?:k]
?
u
[u:]
?
ui
[u:y?]
?
    un
[u:n]
?
ung
[o?]
?
  ut
[u:t]
?
uk
[ok]
?
eu
[oe:]
?
eui
[?y?]
?
    eun
[?n]
?
eung
[oe:?]
?
  eut
[?t]
?
euk
[oe:k]
?
yu
[y:]
?
      yun
[y:n]
?
    yut
[y:t]
?
 
      m
[m?]
?
  ng
[]
?
     

Tones

Graphical representation of the 6 tones of Cantonese.

Modern Cantonese has six phonetic tones. Cantonese Yale represents these tones using a combination of diacritics and the letter h.[5][6] Traditional Chinese linguistics treats the tones in syllables ending with a stop consonant as separate "entering tones". Cantonese Yale follows modern linguistic conventions in treating these the same as tones 1, 3 and 6, respectively.

No. Description Chao tone
number
Yale representation
1 high-flat 55 s? s?n s?k
2 mid-rising 35 sín
3 mid-flat 33 si sin sik
4 low-falling 21 sìh sìhn
5 low-rising 23 síh síhn
6 low-flat 22 sih sihn sihk

Examples

Traditional Simplified Romanization using Tone Marks Romanization using Numbers
Gwóngj?uwá Gwong2jau1wa2
Yuhtyúh Yut6yu5
Néih hóu Nei5 hou2

Sample transcription of one of the 300 Tang Poems by Meng Haoran:


Ch?un Híu
Maahng Houh Yìhn
, Ch?un mìhn b?t gok híu,
chyu chyu màhn tàih níuh.
, yeh lòih f?ng yúh s?ng,
f? lohk j? d? síu?

See also

References

  1. ^ Huang, Parker Po-fei (1965). Cantonese Sounds and Tones. New Haven, CT: Far Eastern Publications, Yale University. p. Foreword. 
  2. ^ The Routledge Encyclopedia of the Chinese Language, p. 40.
  3. ^ "Cantonese". Omniglot. Retrieved . 
  4. ^ "CUHK Teaching Materials". Retrieved . 
  5. ^ Ng Lam & Chik 2000: 515. "Appendix 3: Tones. The student of Cantonese will be well aware of the importance of tones in conveying meaning. Basically, there are seven tones which, in the Yale system, are represented by the use of diacritics and by the insertion of h for ..."
  6. ^ Gwaan 2000: 7. "Basically, there are seven tones which, in the Yale system, are represented by the use of diacritics and by the insertion of h for the three low tones. The following chart will illustrate the seven tones: 3 Mid Level, 1 High Level, 5 Low Falling, 6 Low Level..."

Further reading

External links


  This article uses material from the Wikipedia page available here. It is released under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0.

Yale_romanization_of_Cantonese
 



 

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